WikiJournal of Medicine/Hepatitis E/XML

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    <full_title>WikiJournal of Medicine/Hepatitis E</full_title>
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     <title>Hepatitis E</title>
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Hepatitis E is inflammation of the liver caused by infection with the hepatitis E virus.     It is one of five known human hepatitis viruses: A, B, C, D, and E. HEV is a positive-sense, single-stranded, nonenveloped, RNA icosahedral virus. HEV has mainly a fecal-oral transmission route.       Infection with this virus was first documented in 1955 during an outbreak in New Delhi, India.   A preventive vaccine (HEV 239) is approved for use in China.    Although hepatitis E often causes an acute and self-limiting infection (the viral infection is temporary and the individual recovers) with low death rates in the western world, it bears a high risk of developing chronic hepatitis in people with a weakened immune system with substantially higher death rates. Organ transplant recipients who receive medications to weaken the immune system and prevent organ rejection are thought to be the main population at risk for chronic hepatitis E.    Hepatitis E infection has a clinical course comparable to hepatitis A, but in pregnant women, the disease is more often severe and is associated with a clinical syndrome called fulminant liver failure. Pregnant women, especially those in the third trimester, have a higher rate of death from the disease of around 20%.       In total there are 8 genotypes; genotypes 3 and 4 cause chronic hepatitis in the immunosuppressed.     Hepatitis E incidence in 2017 was more than 19 million.
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  7. Li, Shao-Wei; Zhao, Qinjian; Wu, Ting; Chen, Shu; Zhang, Jun; Xia, Ning-Shao (2015-02-25). "The development of a recombinant hepatitis E vaccine HEV 239". Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics 11 (4): 908–914. doi:10.1080/21645515.2015.1008870. ISSN 2164-5515. PMID 25714510. PMC 4514148. // 
  8. Zhou X, de Man RA, de Knegt RJ, Metselaar HJ, Peppelenbosch MP, Pan Q.; De Man; De Knegt; Metselaar; Peppelenbosch; Pan (2013). "Epidemiology and management of chronic hepatitis E infection in solid organ transplantation: a comprehensive literature review". Rev Med Virol. 23 (5): 295–304. doi:10.1002/rmv.1751. PMID 23813631. 
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  11. Dalton, Harry R.; Kamar, Nassim; Baylis, Sally A.; Moradpour, Darius; Wedemeyer, Heiner; Negro, Francesco (June 2018). "EASL Clinical Practice Guidelines on hepatitis E virus infection". Journal of Hepatology 68 (6): 1256–1271. doi:10.1016/j.jhep.2018.03.005. PMID 29609832. 
  12. Sridhar, Siddharth; Teng, Jade L. L.; Chiu, Tsz-Ho; Lau, Susanna K. P.; Woo, Patrick C. Y. (20 April 2017). "Hepatitis E Virus Genotypes and Evolution: Emergence of Camel Hepatitis E Variants". International Journal of Molecular Sciences 18 (4): 869. doi:10.3390/ijms18040869. ISSN 1422-0067. PMID 28425927. PMC 5412450. // 
  13. GBD 2017 Disease Injury Incidence Prevalence Collaborators (10 November 2018). "Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 354 diseases and injuries for 195 countries and territories, 1990-2017: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017". Lancet (London, England) 392 (10159): 1789–1858. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(18)32279-7. ISSN 1474-547X. PMID 30496104. PMC 6227754. //