Welcome to the Department of Philosophy at Wikiversity. The question "what is philosophy" is itself a philosophical question that has yet to be settled. If you would like some direction, you can start with definitions, or see what prominent philosophers have called this process of inquiry.
The term "philosophy" comes from two Greek root words: φιλο; or "philo" meaning a (brotherly) love, and σοφία (or "sophia"); meaning wisdom. Philosophers are lovers of wisdom, and more than that, they are persons who never lose the capacity to be amazed, whose biases are always open to review, and who strive to live the Good Life and find its meaning. Philosophy can be understood as a process by which anyone can understand any other field of study or phenomenon, so there are philosophies of science and history.
Basic branches of philosophy include aesthetics, ethics (which are sometimes grouped together as axiology), and metaphysics. These fields respectively ask questions about what is beautiful, good, and true. At times, ontology is thought of as another branch of philosophy, asking what basic categories there are.
By taking a philosophy course, you invite yourself to challenge and refine any and all of your beliefs. You will be presented tools for critical thinking that can open up new worlds in the life of the mind.
Author: Jon Awbrey
Differential logic is the component of logic whose object is the description of variation — for example, the aspects of change, difference, distribution, and diversity — in universes of discourse that are subject to logical description. A definition that broad naturally incorporates any study of variation by way of mathematical models, but differential logic is especially charged with the qualitative aspects of variation that pervade or precede quantitative models. To the extent that a logical inquiry makes use of a formal system, its differential component treats the principles that govern the use of a differential logical calculus, that is, a formal system with the expressive capacity to describe change and diversity in a logical universe of discourse.
A simple example of a differential logical calculus is furnished by a differential propositional calculus. A differential propositional calculus is a propositional calculus extended by a set of terms for describing aspects of change and difference, for example, processes that take place in a universe of discourse or transformations that map a source universe into a target universe. This augments ordinary propositional calculus in the same way that the differential calculus of Leibniz and Newton augments the analytic geometry of Descartes.