# Tight closure/Solid closure/Introduction/Section

Let be a noetherian domain of positive characteristic, let

be the *Frobenius homomorphism* and

(mit ) its th iteration. Let be an ideal and set

Then define the *tight closure* of to be the ideal

The element defines the cohomology class . Suppose that is normal and that has height at least (think of a local normal domain of dimension at least and an -primary ideal ). Then the th Frobenius pull-back of the cohomology class is

() and this is the cohomology class corresponding to . By the height assumption, if and only if , and if this holds for all then by definition. This shows already that tight closure under the given conditions does only depend on the cohomology class.

This is also a consequence of the following theorem of Hochster which gives a characterization of tight closure in terms of forcing algebra and local cohomology.

Let be a normal excellent local domain with maximal ideal over a field of positive characteristic. Let generate an -primary ideal and let be another element in . Then if and only if , where denotes the forcing algebra of these elements.

If the dimension is at least two, then

This means that we have to look at the cohomological properties of the complement of the exceptional fiber over the closed point, i.e. the torsor given by these data. If
then this is true for all quasicoherent sheaves instead of the structure sheaf. This property can be expressed by saying that the *cohomological dimension* of is and thus smaller than the cohomological dimension of the punctured spectrum , which is exactly . So belonging to tight closure can be rephrased by saying that the formation of the corresponding torsor does not change the cohomological dimension.

If the dimension is two, then we have to look whether the first cohomology of the structure sheaf vanishes. This is true
(by Serre's
cohomological criterion
for affineness)
if and only if the open subset is an *affine scheme*
(the spectrum of a ring).

The right hand side of the equivalence in
fact
(the non-vanishing of the top-dimensional local cohomology)
is independent of any characteristic assumption, and can be taken as the basis for the definition of another closure operation, called *solid closure*. So the theorem above says that in positive characteristic tight closure and solid closure coincide. There is also a definition of tight closure for algebras over a field of characteristic by reduction to positive characteristic.