Theology as Seen in Prophets and Psalms/Study Guide for Final Exam
Key Psalms[edit | edit source]
Psalm 1 - way of the righteous and the way of the wicked - meditation on the word (Torah)
Psalm 2 - enter the political realm - the righteous align with Gods reign expressed through the Davidic king
Psalm 3 - extremely important for understanding the righteous in the psalter and the shape of the psalter.David is fleeing from his son Absalom. Destiny of the righteous and David are bound together. David represents the poor and needy, the destiny of the righteous will go through trials, destiny of the righteous connects with future of David as Lords annointed.
Psalm 41 - 2 parts - favor on those who consider the poor and Gods healing and protection from enemies
Psalms 42,43 - these are considered one psalm- cry out to God for help and express confidence in God - similar to psalm 3
'Psalm 72'- declares God is righteous through king on behalf of the righteous
Psalm 73 - some believe this psalm is central to the book theologically and canonically
Psalm 74 - community lament - people complain about being cast-off
Psalm 88- most despairing psalm in the psalter - the presence of God seems completely gone - psalmist prays "like those who have no help"
'Psalm 89'- pleads for Gods presence - but mentions Gods steadfast love (hesed) covenant - Gods faithfulness to David is wrapped up in Gods care for His people
'Psalm 90'- only psalm in the psalter attributed to Moses - Moses offers comfort to people - Moses' petition drawn from Ex.32
Psalms 93-100- "the Lord reigns"/"the Lord is king" law of Moses primary sign of that reign - God is still in control
Psalms 105,106- "gather your people" God will gather his scattered people - prayer for Israel in exile
Psalm 107 -"o give thanks to the Lord for He is good/His steadfast love endures forever"
Ephramite Prophecy[edit | edit source]
This line runs from the Elohist narrative strand in the Pentateuch, deemed to have originated in the kingdom of Samaria, through prophetic and Levitical groups that opposed the role and person of Moses as the first and paradigmatic prophet mediator.
Max Weber[edit | edit source]
(21 April 1864 – 14 June 1920) was a German political economist and sociologist who was considered one of the founders of the modern study of sociology and public administration. He began his career at the University of Berlin, and later worked at the universities of Freiburg, Heidelberg, and Munich.Weber's major works deal with rationalization in sociology of religion and government. His most famous work is his essay The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism, which began his work in the sociology of religion. In this work, Weber argued that religion was one of the non-exclusive reasons for the different ways the cultures of the Occident and the Orient have developed, and stressed importance of particular characteristics of ascetic Protestantism which led to the development of capitalism, bureaucracy and the rational-legal state in the West. In another major work, Politics as a Vocation, Weber defined the state as an entity which claims a monopoly on the legitimate use of physical force, a definition that became pivotal to the study of modern Western political science. His analysis of bureaucracy in his Economy and Society is still central to the modern study of organizations. His most known contributions are often referred to as the 'Weber Thesis'.Max Weber’s book Ancient Judaism deals with Sociology of Law and the Analysis of Israelite Law Codes and Types of Prophetic Legitimation: Traditional, Charismatic and Rational-legal Authority. The Sociology of Religion.After Weber's immense productivity in the early 1890s, he did not publish a single paper between early 1898 and late 1902, finally resigning his professorship in fall 1903. Freed from those obligations, in that year he accepted a position as associate editor of the Archives for Social Science and Social Welfare next to his colleagues Edgar Jaffé and Werner Sombart. In 1904, Weber began to publish some of his most seminal papers in this journal, notably his essay The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism. It became his most famous work, and laid the foundations for his later research on the impact of cultures and religions on the development of economic systems. This essay was the only one of his works that was published as a book during his lifetime.
Deutronomistic History[edit | edit source]
contained in the books Joshua through IIKingsDTR History
Cyrus[edit | edit source]
Blinkinsoff Pp. 181 - 191 Bottom p149 "It is unfortunate that the sixty years from the first deportation to the edict of Cyrus (598-538 BCE) are so poorly documented."Cyrus
Anathoth[edit | edit source]
Blinkinsoff Pp. 138,140,144-5  page 60-62 Anathoth Anathoth - the name of one of the cities given to "the children of Aaron" (Josh 21:13,18; 1 Chron 6:54,60), in the tribe of Benjamin (Josh. 21:18, 1 Chron. 6:60). Since the Israelites often did not change the names of the towns they found in Canaan, the name of this town may be derived from a Canaanite goddess, ‘Anat. However, it is also given as the name of an Israelite person in 1 Chron 7:8, and in Neh 10:19.
Anathoth is mentioned as the native place of Abiezer, one of David's "thirty" (2 Sam. 23:27), and of Jehu, another of his mighty men (1 Chr. 12:3). It is perhaps best known as the home town of the prophet Jeremiah (Jer. 1:1; 29:27; 32:7-9). In 11:21-23, he delivers a prophecy of tribulation by the sword against the residents of Anathoth, who were plotting against him.
Anathoth suffered greatly from the army of Sennacherib, and only 128 men returned to it from the Babylonian exile (Neh. 7:27; Ezra 2:23). It lay about 3 miles north of Jerusalem. The Arab village of ˤAnātā was identified as the site of Anathoth by Edward Robinson. The modern Israeli settlement of Anatot (also known as Almon) was named after it.
Sitz im Leben[edit | edit source]
- literal translation means "setting in life" scholars refer to this as part of form criticism of the text. They are in the case of the prophets looking to find the setting in which the prophet lived before any oral or written tradition was recorded. As opposed to historical criticism which looks for the historical setting of when the text was actually written.
Hermann Gunkel[edit | edit source]
(1862-1932) was a German Protestant Old Testament scholar. He is noted for his contribution to form criticism and the study of oral tradition in biblical texts. He was an outstanding representative of the "History of Religion School.Hermann Gunkel felt that the prophets represented the apex of Israelite religion. Not only in terms of religious ideas and a drive for religious ideology but in their communion with God. For him prophetic ecstasy was part of how they received their messages. He perceived the prophets as preachers. He applied his form critical method to the study of the prophets by analyzing their speech forms. The prophets as primarily spoke and their words were recorded by subsequent generations.Gunkel became an outstanding representative of the "History of Religions School" (die religionsgeschichtliche Schule), which addressed the history of traditions behind the biblical text. In addition to Gunkel, the original group also included Albert Eichhorn, William Wrede, Wilhelm Bousset, Johannes Weiss, Ernst Troeltsch, Wilhelm Heitmüller, and P. Wernle. In the beginning they were primarily concerned with the origins of Christianity, but this interest eventually broadened to include the historical backgrounds of ancient Israelite and other Near Eastern religions.His "Creation and Chaos in the Beginning and at the End of Time"(1895) compared the biblical creation/destruction myths from Genesis 1 to Revelation 12. His most important work was probably his commentary on Genesis (1901), in which he applied to that book the new critical methodology of source criticism. Source criticism was based on identifying and examining the genres used in the text to reach the "literary history" behind them, on the assumption that each form belonged to a quite definite 'setting in life' (Sitz im Leben); in this way, Gunkel and his circle believed, the previous history of a written biblical text could be reconstructed in terms of its social and liturgical setting. Nineteenth-century source criticism had examined texts on the grounds of style, vocabulary, and other criteria to identify distinctive theological and religious outlooks and thus separate the text into its original sources; source criticism, because it offered a way of going beyond the text, became immensely influential in Germany and Europe for much of the 20th century, being used and developed by important scholars such as Martin Noth.
Form Criticism[edit | edit source]
Form criticism is a method of biblical criticism that classifies units of scripture by literary pattern (such as parables or legends) and that attempts to trace each type to its period of oral transmission. Form criticism seeks to determine a unit's original form and the historical context of the literary tradition. Hermann Gunkel originally developed form criticism to analyze the Hebrew Bible. It has since been used to supplement the documentary hypothesis explaining the origin of the Pentateuch (the first five books of the Hebrew Bible) and to study the Christian New Testament.
Zadokite Priests[edit | edit source]
Blenkinsopp Pp 170, 179, 180, 207, 213, 218, 272, 277
Ezekiel ordained that of all the Levite priests only the Zadokites, who had ministered to God in His legitimate sanctuary at Jerusalem, should be admitted to the service of the altar; the rest, who had defiled themselves by officiating at the local sanctuaries, should be degraded to the position of mere servants in the sanctuary, replacing the foreign Temple attendants who had heretofore performed all menial services (Ezek. xl. 46, xliii. 19, xliv. 6-16)
THE CONFRONTATION between Moses and Aaron over the golden calf at Sinai led to the divide between the Zadokite priesthood of Aaron and the Levitical priesthood of Moses. This division became more apparent when the Aaronic priests, with the wilderness Tabernacle, accompanied Caleb the Kenezite (Midian) as they entered the Promised Land from the south and settled at Hebron in Judah (Judges 1:16-20). Meanwhile, the Levitical priests, with Moses’ tent, accompanied Joshua as they crossed the Jordan River, entered the Promised Land from the east, and settled the Ark of the Covenant in Shiloh (Joshua 18:1).1, 2
The separation between the Zadokite and Levitical priesthoods continued throughout the time of the judges and the kingship of Saul. It was only after David became king in Hebron and captured Jerusalem from the Jebusites that the northern and southern tribes were reunited, with a common place of worship. David then called Zadok, a descendant of Aaron, to come from Hebron to Jerusalem to serve as priest (2 Samuel 8:15, 17). David also asked Abiathar, a descendant of Levi, to come from Shiloh to serve as priest (1 Samuel 22:20-23). For the first time in centuries, the Zadokite and Levitical priesthoods were united. However, this union was not to last. When Abiathar opposed the appointment of Solomon as king, Solomon exiled Abiathar to Anathoth (1 Kings 2:26, 27). Solomon then felt free to introduce the worship of other gods, including Chemosh and Molech, since he — like his Zadokite priests — believed that the covenant made with Abraham was unconditional (1 Kings 11:7, 8).
With the inauguration of Solomon’s son, Rehoboam, as king, the northern ten tribes separated from Judah and instituted their own worship under Jeroboam. Calf shrines to YHWH as the divine son of El were established at Bethel and Dan (1 Kings 12:26-29). The shrines were presided over by a third priesthood entirely separate from the Zadokites and Levites. These three separate Israelite priesthoods continued until the Assyrians destroyed the northern kingdom. It was only then that Hezekiah, king of Judah, attempted to reunite the Zadokite and Levitical priesthoods (2 Chronicles 29:1-5). Tragically, Hezekiah’s son, Manasseh, abandoned these efforts. He limited the priestly ministry to the Zadokites and returned to polytheism. Finally, Josiah tried to reunite the priesthoods (2 Kings 23). However, upon his death and the apostasy of his successors, the priesthoods were again separated and eventually sent into Babylonian exile.
The underlying problem that led to this catastrophic outcome was an antithetical understanding of who YHWH was and what he intended to do:
1. For Aaron and his Zadokite successors, YHWH was one of the divine sons of the supreme God, El. Thus, El had other divine manifestations (Ba’els), represented by the air/sky, water, fire and earth. Furthermore, the Zadokite priests believed that when they entered the Most Holy Place (of the covenant), they themselves became divine.3 For the Zadokites, the covenant with El/YHWH was unconditional — not requiring the obedient and authentic witness of the people.
Like Moses, the Levitical priests recognized YHWH as the “I AM” — and therefore as El himself.
2. Like Moses, the Levitical priests recognized YHWH as the “I AM” — and therefore as El himself. There was no other authentic deity. Thus, the Levites believed that the offspring of YHWH were not divine but human.4 Neither were the forces of nature divine, nor were they manifestations (Ba’els) of divinity.5 They were simply created instruments that God could use for his own purposes. Furthermore, the Levitical priests understood their own role to be the prophetic and tutorial representatives of God to the people. For the Levites, the fulfillment of YHWH’s covenant was conditional — requiring the obedient and authentic witness of the people.
It was not until the appearance of Jesus Christ that these millennial-old antitheses were resolved. Jesus Christ was both El and YHWH. He was both divine and human. He was the human Son of Man and the divine Son of God. In his humanity Jesus Christ was the Levitical priest together with the Mosaic covenant and its inaugural fulfillment. In his divinity Jesus Christ was the Zadokite priest together with the Abrahamic covenant and its inaugural fulfillment. As the prophet, Jesus represented God to the people; and as the priest, he represented the people to God. Jesus Christ is indeed the “One God and Father of all, who is above all, and through all, and en [with] you all” (Ephesians 4:6).
Zerubbabel[edit | edit source]
Zerubbabel was the governor of Judah that led the first band of Jews from Babylonian captivity during the first year reign of Cyrus. He is referred as Yahweh’s servant. Haggai told Zerubbabel and the people in general that it was the time for rebuilding. Haggai relates the economic and social conditions to people not really wanting to rebuild. He says that rebuilding is a precondition for the new age put forth by prophets. Zerubbabel was governor of Judah in the second year of Darius Hystaspis (520 B.C.; Hag. i. 1, 14; ii. 2). According to the story of the chronicler in Ezra iii.-iv. 5, Zerubbabel, together with the high priest Jeshua and others, erected an altar for burnt offerings in the seventh month, offered morning and evening sacrifices, and kept the Feast of Tabernacles. In the second month of the second year of the return they laid the foundation of the Temple, but the opposition of "the adversaries of Judah and Benjamin" (either descendants of Jews who had not gone into exile or interlopers who showed hostility to the returning exiles) caused a delay of seventeen years. Roused to fresh activity by the prophets Haggai and Zechariah, work was resumed in the second year of Darius (520 B.C.), but fresh obstacles were encountered in the suspicions of Tatnai, "governor beyond the river" (R. V.), and an appeal was made to Darius, who promulgated a decree authorizing the completion of the work. The Temple was finished and dedicated four years later (Ezra v.-vi.). Nothing further is certainly known of Zerubbabel, although a Jewish tradition says that he returned to Babylon and died there. His sons are named in I Chron. iii. 19, and in Ecclus. (Sirach) xlix. 11 his name appears in the list of the famous men of Israel. Blenkinsopp Pp 154, 155, 191, 195, 197, 201, 202
Zedekiah[edit | edit source]
King butt head named Zedekiah. II Kings (xxiv. 17-xxv. 7), in II Chronicles (xxxvi. 10-21), and in more than a dozen chapters of Jeremiah. The eleven years of Zedekiah's reign were notable for a steady decline in Judah's power and for the desperate efforts of Jeremiah to avert the coming disaster. As a ruler he was pliant in the hands of his princes and of Jeremiah, yielding readily to the influence of any adviser, whether prince or prophet. He made a journey to Babylon in the fourth year of his reign to assure Nebuchadrezzar that he would stand by his oath (Jer. li. 59); but the undying ambitions of the Egyptian kings kept turning toward Asia, and Zedekiah, with his usual wavering policy, could no longer resist the persuasions of Hophra (Apries), King of Egypt (589-569 B.C.), and in 588 B.C. broke off his allegiance to Nebuchadrezzar. This brought the Babylonian army against Jerusalem; but it had no sooner settled down to a siege than Judah's Egyptian ally appeared from the southwest. The Babylonians hastily raised the siege and gave Hophra's army such a blow that it retired to the land of the Nile. The siege of Jerusalem was then resumed, and after an investment of one and one-half years the walls yielded. Zedekiah and his retinue escaped through some hidden gate and fled toward the Jordan; but the Babylonians overtook him on the plains of Jericho, and carried him captive to the King of Babylon, whose headquarters were at Riblah. Here Zedekiah's sons, heirs to the throne, were slain in his presence, his own eyes were put out, and he was bound with fetters and taken to Babylon as an ignominious rebel prisoner. As a result of his conspiracies Jerusalem was taken, plundered, and burned; its best population was deported to Babylon as captives; the Jewish kingdom perished; and Israel ceased to exist as an independent nation. Zedekiah passed the remainder of his days in a Babylonian dungeon.
Other butt-head named Zedekiah was one of the four hundred prophets (I Kings xxii. 11, 24, 25) whom Ahab summoned to inquire of them before Jehoshaphat whether he should attack the Syrians in battle at Ramoth-gilead. Zedekiah appeared as a rival of Micaiah, whom Ahab always feared, and who on this occasion ironically foretold Israel's defeat. Zedekiah struck him on the cheek.
Third butt-head named Zedekiah was one of the evil men of Israel in the Captivity, whose false utterances and immoral acts aroused even Nebuchadrezzar, King of Babylon, to such a pitch of wrath that he ordered them to be roasted in the fire (Jer. xxix. 21-23),
Jeremiah, 39:4-8; 52:7-8 Kings I, 5:29; 6:35-38; 7:1. Kings II, 25:4-5
Gedaliah[edit | edit source]
Son of Ahikam, through whose influence Jeremiah was saved from the fury of the mob, and grandson of Shaphan the scribe (Jer. xxvi. 24; II Kings xxii.; II Chron. xxxiv.); probably cousin of Michaiah, son of Gemariah (Jer. xxxvi. 11). Gedaliah was thus a scion of a noble and pious family. Nebuchadnezzar appointed him governor of Palestine after the conquest of the land, and entrusted Jeremiah to his care (Jer. xxxiv. 14, xl. 5). Gedaliah made Mizpah his capital, where the scattered remnants of the nation soon gathered round him. Not only the poor peasants and laborers, but also the generals and military men came back from their hiding-places among the surrounding tribes, and settled in the deserted towns of Palestine. Gedaliah exhorted them to remain loyal to the Babylonian rulers, and to lay down their arms and be-take themselves to agriculture and to the rebuilding of their razed cities. He permitted them to gather the crops on lands which had no owner.
Baalis, king of the Ammonites, envious of the Jewish colony's prosperity, or jealous of the might of the Babylonian king, instigated Ishmael, son of Nathaniel, "of the royal seed," to make an end of the Judean rule in Palestine, Ishmael, being an unscrupulous character, permitted himself to become the tool of the Ammonite king in order to realize his own ambition to become the ruler of the deserted land. Information of this conspiracy reached Gedaliah through Johanan, son of Kareah, and Johanan undertook to slay Ishmael before he had had time to carry out his evil design; but the governor disbelieved the report, and forbade Johanan to lay hands upon the conspirator. Ishmael and his ten companions were royally entertained at Gedaliah's table. In the midst of the festivities Ishmael slew the unsuspecting Gedaliah, the Chaldean garrison stationed in Mizpah, and all the Jews that were with him, casting their bodies into the pit of Asa (Josephus, "Ant." x. 9, § 4). The Rabbis condemn the overconfidence of Gedaliah, holding him responsible for the death of his followers (Niddah 61a; comp. Jer. xli. 9). Ishmael captured many of the inhabitants of Mizpah, as well as "the daughters of the king" entrusted to Gedaliah's care by the Babylonian general, and fled to Ammon. Johanan and his followers, however, on receiving the sad tidings, immediately pursued the murderers, overtaking them at the lake of Gibeon. The captives were rescued, but Ishmael and eight of his men escaped to the land of Ammon. The plan of Baalis thus succeeded, for the Jewish refugees, fearing lest the Babylonian king should hold them responsible for the murder, never returned to their native land. In spite of the exhortations of Jeremiah they fled to Egypt, joined by the remnant of the Jews that had survived, together with Jeremiah and Baruch (Jer. xliii. 6). The rule of Gedaliah lasted, according to tradition, only two months, although Grätz argues that it continued more than four years.
Enthronement Psalms[edit | edit source]
Unifying Feature The phrase “Yahweh reigns” marks this type of Psalm.
Various interpretations have been suggested for this phrase including
- reference to an annual enthronement festival celebrating Yahweh’s rule over the earth
- as speaking of God’s universal reign
- as referring to Yahweh’s historical reign over Israel and
- as looking forward to the millennial reign of Christ (the most probable interpretation).
- Psalm 47: Celebrating the Rule of the Great King
- Psalm 93
- Psalms 96-99
Royal Psalms[edit | edit source]
These psalms are classified by content. They focus on the Davidic king in his rule and also cultivate expectation of the messianic son of David, especially after the exile. From the content of these psalms clues to the occasions when they may have been used may be found.
These occasions could include:
- weddings (Psa 45),
- royal celebrations(such as coronations and anniversaries of royal accession—Psalms 2; 21; 72; 110), and
- prayers before or after battle (Ps 20).9
These psalms view the king as reigning by God’s authority and, therefore, celebrate His present control as well as the ultimate establishment of His rule on earth. In light of the exile this type of Psalm would be focused on the restoration of David’s royal dynasty, which thus took on more direct Messianic overtones.
Psalms that treat this subject include 2, 20, 21, 45, 72, 89, and 110.
Individual Lament[edit | edit source]
A Type of Psalm
The Parts These are the usual components of the personal lament, not always in this precise form (the associated letter will be used to identify that element in the accompanying Psalm example):
(A) An introductory cry for help or appeal in the form of an address to God, (B) the complaint (lament) itself, (C) a confession of trust, sometimes quite long, (D) a petition, sometimes two, frequently with reasons for expecting a divine response, and (E) a vow of praise (to be rendered upon God’s answer) or declarative praise actually given in confident anticipation of deliverance.
This is the largest single category of Psalms. Other examples include Psalms 5—7, 12, 13, 17, 25, 26, 28, 31, 35, 38, 39, 42, 43, 51, 54, 55, 57, 59, 61, 64, 69, 70, 71, 86, 88, 102, 109, 120, 130, 140, 142, and 143.
Temple Community[edit | edit source]
Judah was considered the Temple Community because the temple was the center of worship while Northern kingdom Israel worshiped idols.
Blenkinsopp reference ?
Book of Consolation[edit | edit source]
Blenkinsopp page 21 (see also pp. 134 & 139)
Sigmund Mowinkel applied Gunkel's theories about the original and characteristic forms of speech to Jeremiah. He distinguished between the original sayings of the prophet and:
- Source A - Poetic oracles (mostly found in Jeremiah 1-25)
- Source B - stories about the prophet
- Source C - speeches and sermons in the deuteronomic style
and the Book of Consolation, Jeremiah Ch 30-31 (also argued by Theodore Laetsch that it is Ch. 30-33)
The Book of Consolation, then, concentrates on prophecy of the Messiah and the new testament without the admixture of any reference to the return from the Babylonian Exile, as so many commentators imagine.
The "book" was originally written as a separate scroll, not for public proclamation, but for the personal consolation of Jeremiah himself and his fellow-believers. Such is the explicit witness of its second verse: "Write thee" -- which is to say, "for thyself" -- "all the words that I have spoken unto thee in a book" (Jeremiah 30:2).
The Book of Consolation, then, came into being between the second and third editions of the Book of Jeremiah, which is to say between 604 and 586 B.C. For Jeremiah composed his second edition following the destruction, in December of 604, of his first edition by King Jehoiakim as it was being read aloud to him by Baruch, the prophet's secretary (36: 9-32). The third edition, on the other hand, of the Book of Jeremiah emerged in 586 B.C. following the destruction of Jerusalem by the army of Nebuchadnezzar, the King of Babylon (1:3). During these same eighteen years or so intervening between his second and third editions, Jeremiah not only uttered and reiterated many prophecies orally, but also reduced to writing at least two instances of revelation in addition to the Book of Consolation. Thus, the Letter to the Jews in Babylonia now found in the twenty-ninth of his chapters (verses 4-23) was presumably dispatched already in 597 B.C., within the same year as the deportation of King Jehoiachin and many others of high standing in March of 597 (29:2). Several years subsequently, in 593 B.C., a copy of the so-called Book of Babylon, which comprises the chapters now enumerated as 50 and 51 of the Book of Jeremiah, was likewise transmitted to the capital of the empire (considering the reference to the fourth year of Zedekiah in 51: 59-61a).
The Book of Consolation falls into two main divisions following the three introductory verses. These two units may be distinguished as the "Sleeping Revelation" and the "Waking Revelation" respectively on the basis of the verse bisecting them: "Upon this I awaked and beheld, and my sleep was sweet unto me" (Jeremiah 31: 26).
The portion containing the verses currently under study consists in an introductory verse and six subsequent sections which are clearly distinguished one from another by the recurring clause ko amar YHWH ("thus has the LORD said"). The following outline of the Book of Consolation thus emerges with special emphasis on chapters 30:4-31:25 of the Book of Jeremiah:
1. The Introduction (30: 1-3) 2. The Sleeping Revelation (30:4-31:25) 1. The Introduction (30:4) 2. The Six Oracles (30:5-31:25) 1. The First Oracle (30: 5-11) 2. The Second Oracle (30: 12-17) 3. The Third Oracle (30:18-31:1) 4. The Fourth Oracle (31: 2-6) 5. The Fifth Oracle (31: 7-14) 1. The Oneness of the Catholic Church (verses 7-9) 2. The Holiness of the Catholic Church (verses 10- 14) 6. The Sixth Oracle (31:15) 7. The Seventh Oracle (31: 16-22) 8. The Eighth Oracle (31: 23-25) 3. The Waking Revelation (31: 26-40)
The connection is, to be sure, so close between the sixth and seventh of the oracles distinguished above (on the formal grounds previously stated) that the seventh can be understood correctly only in conjunction with the verse preceding it.
Community Lament[edit | edit source]
The Parts These Psalms contain the same components as Individual Lament Psalms but are generally shorter. They include:
(A) an introductory address and petition,
(B) the lament,
(C) a confession of trust,
(D) the main petition (Dmp) with motivation to answer(Dma), and
(E) a vow of praise.
Example Psalm 74: Complaint over the Devastation of the Sanctuary
Message: Asaph calls on God to remember His people , lamenting the destruction of the sanctuary by the enemy, and prays that God would not permit this reproach since he had destroyed His enemies in the past.
I. Asaph utters his complaint to God that He not forget His people and Zion (1-3) A
A. He pleads with God not to continue in anger against His flock (1)
B. He calls on God to remember His redeemed people (2)
C. He calls on God to rescue Zion from the devastation of the enemy (2b-3)
II. Asaph laments the enemy’s destruction of the sanctuary and threat to the Nation(4-9) B
A. The sanctuary has been overrun and torn down (4-6)
B. The worship of God is threatened (7-8)
C. There is no prophet to give encouragement (9)
III. Asaph appeals to God to overturn the reproach of the enemy reminding Him of His past deliverances through nature (10-17) D
A. He appeals to God by asking “How long?” (10,11) Dmp
B. He seeks to motivate God by reminding Him of past help (12-17) Dma
IV. Asaph appeals to God to protect the afflicted because of His covenant (18-23) Dma
A. He reminds God of the reproach of the blasphemers (18)
B. He asks God to not forsake His people but remember His covenant (19-21)
C. He calls God to action because the enemies have risen against Him (22-23)
Other National Lament Psalms: Other prayers by the congregation in times of national crisis are 44, 60, 79, 80, 83, 85, 90, and 126.
The division of the Book of Isaiah[edit | edit source]
- discussion and essays
a. Traditional divisions, i. 1-39 ii. 40-55 iii. 56-66
b. Persisting problems i. Isa. 35//40 - ii. Isa. 2. 1-4, 60, 61, 62
2. Location of the Prophet
a. Babylon? (see 46.1-4) i. Israel’s God in relation to Babylonian deities
b. Jerusalem? (see 44.24-38, 24-28, 43) i. Less popular idea ii. Jerusalem is the focus of many of these ideas iii. Highway theme is not a highway for people, but rather a highway for God to bring people home from exile
a. God’s universal sovereignty 1. Even controls Babylon and anyone who overthrows Israel i. Control of History (45:1-4, 13) 2. One of the clearest dating passages ii. Creator (45.18-19) 3. God created everything… iii. Savior (46.8-11) 4. God has a plan to restore the people of Judah b. God as Sole Power (44.9-20, 46.1-9, 5-7) i. Really close to Monotheism c. The role of God’s Servant( 42.1-4, 49.1-6, 50. 4-12, 52.13-53.12) i. 4 poems in 2nd Isa. 1. 42.1-4 – one who is devoted to God who does His bidding 2. 49.1-6 – seems to identify who the servant is a. Israel – the people who have suffered defeat at the hands of the Babylonians b. V.6 – how can Israel as God’s servant restore itself? may point to an individual 3. 52.13-53.12 – seems to point towards Jesus a. Has had more attention than any other verse/pericope by Church Fathers b. Who is the servant in the mind of 2nd Isaiah? i. Talks about “his death” being the end… ii. Only reference in OT to vicarious suffering iii. Is this a prophet/another individual/Israel/Jesus? 1. It is not unusual for the language of a suffering individual to represent the suffering of a group 2. Singular images do not necessarily mean an individual iv. Left ambiguous 1. NT sees Jesus as suffering singularly and for a group 4. Isaiah 40 as microcosm of 2nd Isaiah a. Opening words of Isa. 40 characterize all the words of Isaiah 40-55 i. Israel restored and revived, suffering about to end ii. Comfort, O comfort my people 1. Who does it comfort? a. God’s messenger (divine council) b. The prophets iii. 10-11 1. Returning God’s people home iv. The promise at the end of the chapter is the power of God in the world – humanity is nothing – God will restore the people of Judah, by His might and His might alone. God controls all things.
Second Isaiah on Exile[edit | edit source]
- - discussion and essays
Main Lines of Division in late prophecy - This should be mostly found in the class notes. The two lines of division were the pragmatics and the visionaries.The pragmatics focused on priestly orientation and on the temple primarily as an institution. Also stressed the nature of worship and the practices within the temple. The pragmatics stressed the importance of the nature worship over righteousnes and compassion. The 3 pragmatics given in class were Haggai, 1st Zechariah, and Malachi. Malachi means "my messanger" and some scholars believe it could actually fit into the book of Zechariah. Also parts of Ezekiel inspires pragmatic prophets.Ez. 40-48 (grand vision of the temple) EZ. 44:4-14 (who is to be included and excluded from temple duties)EZ.44:8 (Israel condemned for allowing foreigners take leadership roles in the temple). The visionaries emphasized the renewal of creation, universal scope of salvation, and the ideals of the exodus. The visionaries stressed the importance of righteousnes and compassion over the nature of worship. 2nd Zechariah and 2nd Isaiah and parts of 3rd Isaiah are in line with the visionaries. Isa. 24:14,15 (universal salvation) Isa.26:1-6 (people restored because of trust in YHWH - this verse is key verse to tie in with 1st Isaiah which has the theme of community of trust and faith) Zec.12:10 (suffering servant imagery) Zec. 14:20,21 (temple will be the place for all to worship). Isa 66:1,2 (de-emphasis on the temple, it is just a building)Isa. 56:3-8 (vision of universal salvation which ties back to 2nd Isaiah)
Clear Signs of Shaping of Psalter[edit | edit source]
-First the DIVISIONS of the Psalter: A.The Intro (pss.1,2) B.BookI (pss.3-41) C.Book II (pss.42-72) D.Book III (pss.73-89) E.Book IV (90-106) F.Book V (pss.107-145) G. (pss.146-150) H.The Conclusion (pss. 146-150) 2 major features of the SHAPE of the psalter: 1st - Psalter has a framework that holds the whole together; Pss 1&2 are an intro Pss 146-150 is the conclusion; 2 main sections in-between are Pss 3-89(Books 1-3) and 90-145(Books 4&5) 2nd - Psalter has a movement from laments(complaints and petitions to God) which appear at the beginning in greater number to psalms of praise which appear greater in number toward the end. Pss. 1,2 form a dual intro - they show 2 ways that lie before a person - way of the righteous and the way of the wicked - the "way" is a direction of life for or against God - way of the righteous endures and the way of the wicked perishes - these 2 psalms lack superscription which separates them from other psalms - Ps 2 enters the political realm - the righteous align with Gods reign expressed through Davidic king - Pss 1,2 show way to security and blessing is through submission to the rule and word of God.Psalms 1-89 (intro + Books I-III) are like the first portion of a complaint psalm - illustrates important truth about the faith of the righteous: their faith does not ward of trouble but helps them live rightly and hope for a better future.Pss.90-145 (Books IV&V) assure that "the Lord still reigns" and He will keep His promises - Moses and David are the main speakers.The conclusion Pss.146-150 end with a crescendo of praise linked by the phrase "Praise the Lord" - God will right all wrong for the righteous.
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