The age of enlightenment
During the 1500's, there was much knowledge to be spread. During this time, there were many new modernizations and advances, so they had to be passed on someway. They did this by numerous different approaches. As scientists conceived new theories, they started passing down these teachings through generations. This eventually led to those ideas to move to our lives which ultimately led to our advances. Although this was an effortless and simple method, many famous scientists that made a difference actually wrote books and/or journals documenting all of their findings. This helped greatly because if we today can find those ancient references, it would rocket the increase on our human advancement by a lot. This is why we have many scientifical practices used today that are ingenious. These ancient records also helped us to make our own genius scientists. The scripts helped us teach along with advance our humane modernizations.
Astronomical discoveries today always have pretty substantial impacts on the human race. Some of the greatest astronomical discoveries didn't even happen in our century. Many of them happened during the 1500's. Some of the greatest celestial encounters include the Ptolemaic Universe, the Copernican Universe, and Galileo's telescope. All of these innovations together lead to new discoveries and new ideas about earth. They also renewed and interest in astronomy. Because of this new interested in astronomy, it allowed astronomers, like Galileo, to make educated guesses about the earth's position in our solar system based off of reason. All of these devices were huge advances in the sense that without them, we wouldn't know about Pluto or even that the sun was the center of the universe. As much as today that we take this for granted and we do not really realize it, we experience their discoveries every day.
Many astronomical devices influenced gadgets used in the medicine department. William Harvey, and English doctor, proved that blood flows through the human body in the early 1600s. Later, Robert Boyle prove that all substances are made up of basic elements that cannot be broken down. Along with Robert Hooke who discovered cells, the smallest structures of living material. Scientist then started studying gases. They discovered hydrogen, carbon dioxide, and oxygen. By 1777, Antoine Lavoisier proved that materials need oxygen to burn. All of these phenomenal discoveries can be traced back to the influence that the astronomical devices had on the medicine and chemistry department. The telescope influenced the microscope.
To prove a concept or theory based on reason is basically just making an educated guess according to what you know. That is all what reason is. We still use reason today. When Galileo made his telescope, he was able to clearly see evidence that Copernicus was right and that the sun is the center of the solar system. Galileo statements were then challenged for heresy, and he was forced to withdraw them. Although, this did not stop others from thinking in this new way as it spread across Europe rapidly. This can also be known as rationalism. Rationalism is the belief that reason is the chief source of knowledge. As I said earlier, scientific thought was also influenced by rationalism. This led to Francis Bacon creating the scientific method. This was an orderly way of collecting and analyzing evidence. With all of these new ways of doing things from science to everyday life. There were also very small details that were important. All of the chaos that came with rationalism brought a very important element into the Scientist's work. This was the hypothesis. A hypothesis is an explanation of the facts. Almost all of these new modernizations can be traced back to one person, Rene Descartes. He wrote a book call, Discourse on Method, which was a key component in the idea and creation of rationalism.
In the 1700's, this age was named, "The Age of Enlightenment." This was because of reason. They thought that reason was a light through the darkness and could be used to reveal error. After this was proven, many scientists started using reason as well. Reason allowed the government to rule differently based on different reasoning. This allowed for more fair trials and this also brought logic into the situation. Even though the new era of reason was at its peak, philosophers and politicians tried applying reason and scientific ideas to the government. You can already see that the Church was very unhappy because the people believed that this 'reason' was better than their religion. Through the Age of Enlightenment, the Church was very undermining of many scientists and their ideas because slowly they were breaking down religions. The people started using reason so much it became know as the natural law. Natural Law was a law that applied to everyone and could be understood by reason or a body of unchanging moral principles regarded as a basis for all human conduct. This new law greatly influenced later government in the sense that peoples could be governed based on changing times and reason. Three men made a big impact that shaped the way the government used the Natural Law was John Locke, Thomas Hobbes, and Baron Montesquieu. Each of these three men wrote a book explaining their thoughts and opinions on this new Natural Law. The rulers took these into account and credited John Locke as the one with the most reasonable way of ruling. John Locke wrote the book, "Two Treatises of Government," in which he stated that the best way to govern a group of people is by natural law. He stated that everyone had certain rights that are given to you by default. He also thought that all governments were based on social contracts. The social contract was an agreement between rulers and people that said if the king took away people's rights, the people had an obligation to revolt the king and create a new government. This basically prevented dictators and allowed the people to have some say in government. We still used the Social Contract today because it is a form of democracy. Reason, Natural Law, and the Social Contract has had a huge impact on governments and societies all around the world but when you break it all down, this new way of governing was because of reason. During the Age of Enlightenment, Europeans though that reason could be used to make society and government better.
During the 1700's, France became major center of the Enlightenment. As the Enlightenment spread, thinkers became known as philosophe. Most philosophe were teachers, journalists, and just observes of their society. They attacked unreasoned beliefs like superstitions. They also disagreed with Church leaders who did not approve of new scientific discoveries. Many philosophe leaders included Voltaire, Diderot, and Mary Wollstonecraft. All three of these people had an impact on the Enlightenment but Wollstonecraft had an even more of an impact on women during the enlightenment. She sought to eliminate inequality in education between men and women. She is credited today as the founder of the modern movement of women's rights. A man named Rousseau later published a book called, "The Social Contract." This was huge because it allowed lower class peoples to know and understand the new movement of the social contract. During the Enlightenment in French, there was a huge movement made for women's rights by Mary Wollstonecraft. The largest spreader of the Enlightenment was Denis Diderot. He spread the Enlightenment by creating an encyclopedia for the world to see. Voltaire rebelled against the Roman Catholic Church gathering the attention of other philosophe. Along with John Locke, Rousseau decided to publish a book explaining the social contract.