The Varanasi Heritage Dossier/A Select Bibliography

From Wikiversity
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Built on the basis of the Contribution by Rana P. B. Singh, Professor of Cultural Geography, Banaras Hindu University; & Fd President, Society of Heritage Planning & Environmental Health; Fd. President, Society of Pilgrimage Studies)


BOOKS in English[edit]

  • Agrawala, Vasudeva S. 1984. Sarnath. Archaeological Survey of India, Calcutta. 4th ed. 1986. Varanasi Seals and Sealings. Ed. with notes by P.K. Agrawala. Prithvi Prakashan, Varanasi.
  • Aiyangar, K.V.Rangasami 1942, ed, Krityakalpataru (of Lakshmidhara). Gaekewad’s Oriental Series, Vol. XCVIII, Baroda. Ali, Subhan 1852. History of Benares. Benares.
  • All-India Kashiraj Trust 1981. Ed. Vārānasī, An Introduction to the Greatness of the City. Kashiraj Trust, Varanasi.
  • Altekar, Anant Sadasiv 1937, History of Banaras. Cultural Publications, Banaras. 80pp. First published in The Journal of Banaras Hindu University, vol. 1 (1): pp. 47-75, and vol. 1 (2): 353-286. 1947, Banaras and Sarnath: Past and Present. 2nd ed. Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi.
  • Alter, Joseph S. 1992. The Wrestler’s Body. Identity and Ideology in North India. University of California Press, Berkeley.
  • Ambasth, R. S. and Tripathi, B. D. 1984. Eds. River Ecology and Human Health. (Proceedings of the National Seminar). National Environmental Conservation Association, Dept. of Botany, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi.
  • (Anonymous) 1882. History of the Province of Benares. The Medical Hall Press, Benares, by E. J. Lazarus & Co., Part I and Part II.
  • Basu, Tarun Kanti, 1991.Varanasi, the Luminous City. T.K.Basu, Varanasi. 142pp., illustrated.
  • Bauer, Marchel and Christoph 1980. Der Tod Benares. Spee-Buchverlag GmbH, Trier; in German.
  • Bayly, Christopher A. 1983. Rulers,Townsmen and Bazaar: North Indian Society in Age of British Expansion, 1770-1870. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
  • Bedi, Rajesh and Keay, John 1987. Banaras. City of Shiva. Brajbasi Printers Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi.
  • Bernier, Francois 1914. Travels in Moghul Empire. Oxford University Press, Oxford..
  • Bhattacharya, B. 1999. Varanasi Rediscovered. Munshiram Manoharlal, New Delhi.
  • Bhattacharya, B. C. 1924. The History of Sarnath or the Cradle of Buddhism. Tara Printing Works, Banaras.
  • Callewaert, Winand and Robert Schilder 1997. Benares. Stad van Goden, Hart van India. Uitgeverij Peeters, Leuven (Belgium). In Flemish. viii + 135 pp., index and 91 B-W and coloured photographs.
  • Cape, C. Phillips 1909, Benares: The Stronghold of Hinduism. Charles H. Kelly Publs., London.
  • Chakravarti, P. M. 1957. Banaras and Sarnath. Orient Publishers, Banaras.
  • Chandramouli, K. 1995, Kashi, The City Luminous. Rupa & Co., New Delhi. 408pp.
  • Couté, Pierre-daniel et Léger, Jean-Michel 1989. BÉNARÈS. Un Voyage D’Architecture. An Architectural Voyage. 152pp., 74 photographs and 72 architectural designs. Editions Créaphis, Paris. ISBN 2-907150-09-X.
  • Dalmia, Vasudha 1997. The Nationalization of Hindu Traditions. Bhartendu Harischandra and Nineteenth-century Banaras. Oxford University Press, Delhi. xii + 490 pp., bibliography, index.
  • Dar, S. L. and Somaskandan, S. 1966. History of the Banaras Hindu University. B.H.U. Press, Banaras.
  • Davis, C. C. 1948. Ed. The Benaras Diary of Warren Hastings. Camden Miscellany, London, vol 18, 31.
  • Davis, W. F. 1948. Visitor Ali Khan, or the Massacre at Benares. London
  • Derné, Steve 1995. Culture in Action : Family life, Emotion, and Male Dominance in Banaras, India. State Univ. of New York Press, Albany.
  • Eck, Diana L. 1983, Banaras. The City of Light. Penguin India, New Delhi (Indian Reprint). 446pp., illustrated. Originally in 1982 by Alfred Knopf, New York. 1993. Encountering God. A Spiritual Journey from Bozeman to Banaras. Beacon Press, Boston.
  • Eden, Emily 1930. Up the Country. Letters Written to her Sister from the Upper Provinces of India. Rev. ed. 1984. Virgo Press Ltd., London: 24-30 (1887), Banaras.
  • Eween, Robert C. 1886. Benares, A Handbook for Visitors. Calcutta.
  • Foster, George 1798. A Journey from Bengal to England through the Northern Part of India, Kashmir, etc. vol. 1. John Murray, London.
  • Fostor, William 1921. Ed. Early Travels in India, 1583-1619. Clarendon Press, Oxford. Reprinted, New Delhi, 1968.
  • Freitag, Sandria B. 1989. Ed. Culture and Power in Banaras. Community, Performance, and Environment, 1800-1980. University of California Press, Berkeley, also Oxford University Press, Delhi.
  • Ganeri, A. 1993. Varanasi. Evans Brother, London.
  • “Gol”, Miguel A. G. 1999, A Pilgrimage to Kashi. Banaras, Varanasi, Kashi. Indica Books, Varanasi. 86pp., multi-colour illustrations; also available in French and Spanish.
  • Glucklich, Ariel 1997. The End of Magic. Oxford University Press, New York. Viii + 253pp.
  • Golding, Paul R. with Virendra Singh 1997. Tales of Banaras. The Flowing Ganges. Book Faith India, Delhi. xxii + 191pp., 10 figures, glossary after chapters, postscript.
  • Greaves, Edwin 1909, Kashi: The City Illustrious or Benares. The Indian Press, Allahabad.
  • Gunnell Wood, W. 1915. An Estimate and Design for the Construction of a Road Bridge to Carry the Grand Trunk Road over the River Ganges. The Pioneer Press, Allahabad.
  • Gutschow, Niels and Michaels, Axel 1993, Benares. Temple und religiöses Leben in der heiligen Stadt der Hindus. DuMont Buchverlog, Köln. (Taschenbücher 294). 298pp., illustrated. In German.
  • Havell, E. B. 1905, Benares, the Sacred City. Blackie & Sons Ltd, London. Thaper Spink & Co., Calcutta (reprinted, 1968) and Pilgrims Book House, Varanasi (reprinted, 1999). 234pp.
  • Heber, (Bishop) Reginald 1849. Narrative of a Journey through the Upper Provinces of India, from Calcutta to Bombay, 1824-1825. Carey, Lea, and Carey, Philadelphia, and John Murray, London; 2 vols.
  • Herbert, Jean 1957. Banaras, Guide to Panch Kroshi Yatra. Saturday Mail, Calcutta.
  • Hertel, Bradley R. and Humes, Cynthia A. 1993. Eds. Living Banaras, Hindu Religion in Cultural Context. SUNY Press, Albany/ New York.
  • Hodges, William 1793. Travels in India, 1780-1783. John Murray, London.
  • Howard, Wayne 1986. Veda Recitation in Varanasi. Motilal Banarsidass, Delhi.
  • Hughes, A. J. 1889. Water Supply and Sewerage of Benares. Northwest Provinces and Municipal Works – Project, Irrigation Branch. Northwest Provinces and Oudh. Allahabad. December.
  • Joshi, Esha Basanti 1965. Ed. Uttar Pradesh District Gazetteers: VARANASI. Government Press, Allahabad.
  • Justice, Chistopher 1997. Dying the Good Death. The Pilgrimage to die in India’s Holy City. SUNY Press, Albany, NY. Glossary, notes, references. 45 figures and 1 map. xxii + 268 pp.
  • Kapera, Constance 1966. The Worship of Kali in Varanasi, An Inquiry. Motilal Banarasidass Publs., Delhi.
  • Kapur, Anuradha 1992. The Ramlila at Ramanagar. Seagull Books, Calcutta.
  • KTSS, Kashi Tirtha Sudhar Samiti 1931. Benares and its Ghats. Indian Bookshop, Thesophical Society, Benares.
  • Katz, Marc J. 1993. The Children of Assi: A Study in Transference of a Tradition of Communal Inclusion. Göteborg University, Göteborg (Sweden); published PhD thesis.
  • Kaye, G. R. 1982. The Astronomical Observations of Jai Singh. Archaeological Survey of India, New Delhi.
  • Kedar, B. and Z. Werblowsky 1998. Eds.Sacred Space: Shrine, City, Land. The Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities, Jerusalem.
  • Kennedy, James 1884. Life and Work in Benares and Kumaon, 1839-1877. T. Fischer Unwin, London.
  • Kesavan, Mukut (text), and Seth, Sanjeev (photographs) 1989. A Journey Down the Ganga. Lustre Press Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi.
  • Keyserling, Count Hermann 1925. Indian Travel Diary of a Philosopher. Translated from German by J. Holroyd-Reece. Reprinted, Bombay, 1969.
  • Khanna, Ashok and Kumar, Ramesh 1988. Banaras: The Sacred City. Lustre Press, New Delhi.
  • Kinsley, David 1996. Health, Healing, and Religion: A Cross-Cultural Perspective. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River. xi + 212pp.
  • Köckmann, Uwe 1982. Hindutradition und Stadtentwicklung. Varanasi: Analyse einer gewachsenen ungeplanten Pilgerstadt am Ganges. Studienverlag Dr. Brockmeyer, Bochum.
  • Kumar, Nita 1988. The Artisans of Banaras: Popular Culture and Identity, 1880-1986. Princeton University Press, and Indian reprint, Oxford University Press, Delhi. 300pp. 1992. Friends, Brothers and Informants: Fieldwork Memoirs of Banaras. University of California Press, Berkeley. 2000. Lessons from Schools. The History of Education in Banaras. Sage Publications, New Delhi. Glossary, bibliography, index. 232pp.
  • Kumar, Suphal 1999, Dateline Varanasi. Kashi Patrakar Sangh, Varanasi. 168pp.
  • Lambert, G. B. 1927. List of Darbaris, Benares Division. Corrected up to 31 January 1927. Govt. Secretariat, United Provinces, Allahabad. 117pp.
  • Lannoy, Richard 1999, Benares Seen From Within. Callisto Books, Bath (UK) & Indica Books, Varanasi, & University of Washington Press, Seattle. 640pp., profusely illustrated with B-W and coloured photographs and diagrams. 2002. Benares: A World Within a World. The Microcosm of Kashi Yesterday and Tomorrow. Indica Books, Varanasi. 420pp. ISBN 81-86569-25-1.
  • Lata, Prem and Singh, Rana P. B. 1991. Sarnath. Cultural Heritage, Museum, Tourism. Tara Books, Varanasi.
  • Lill, Bernhard 1991. Zwischen Bombay und Benares. Frederking & Thale, Berlin.
  • Lutgendorf, Philip 1992. The Life of a Text: Performing the Rāmacaritamānas of Tulsidas. University of California Press, Berkeley.
  • Macleod, Norman 1870. Days in North India. J. B. Lippincott & Co., Philadelphia: ref. pp. 9 – 43.
  • Madsen, Hans Helge 1993. Hvor Guderne Leger. Om byers tilblivelse. (Where Gods Play. About Pluralism and Process of Cities’ Growth). Rosinate/ Munksgaard, Kobenhavn; ref. : pp. 61-70. In Dutch.
  • Mahajan, Jagmohan 1994. Ganga Observed. Foreign Accounts of the River. (Selected and edited). Virgo Publs., New Delhi.
  • Marshall, P. J. 1965. The Impeachment of Warren Hastings. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
  • May, Canon Peter 1958. Banaras and Bethlehem: Some aspects of the Christian Faith in relation to Hinduism. Christian Faith in relation to Literature & Society, Madras.
  • Mehrotra, R. R.1977. Sociology of Secret Languages. Indian Institute of Advanced Study, Shimla. Chapter 2 (on Banaras) reprinted in Singh, Rana P. B. 1993, Banaras: pp. 197-214.
  • Mishra, Kamala Prasad 1975. Banaras in Transition (1738-1895): A Socio-Economic Study. Munshiram Manoharlal, New Delhi. (Revised doctoral thesis, SOAS, London).
  • Mishra, S. N. and Bedi, Rajesh 1981. Banaras. Roli Books International, Singapore and New Delhi.
  • Mitra, Swati 2002. (Editor), Varanasi City Guide. Eicher Goodearth, New Delhi. 216pp.
  • Mookerjee, Ajit 1966. Ed. Banaras Brocades: Essays by Rai Ananda Krishna and Vijay Krishna. Craft Museum, New Delhi.
  • Moon, P. 1947. Warren Hastings and British India. London.
  • Murdoch, J. 1894. Kashi or Benares. London.
  • Muthaik, K.S. & Co. 1911. Smiling Benares. (A Sketch from the Vedic Days to the Modern Times). Raithby & Co., Madras.
  • Nair, P. Thankappan 1999. James Prinsep. Life and Work. Vol. I Background and Banaras Period. Firma K. L. Mukhopadhyaya Pvt. Ltd., Calcutta.
  • Namasivaya, Swami 1932. Guide to Benares. Benares.
  • Narain, A. K. and Roy, T. N. 1976. Eds. Excavations at Rajghat. 1957-58, 1960-65. Part I-IX. Banaras Hindu University Press, Varanasi.
  • Narain, A. K. and Lallanji, Gopal 1969. Eds. Introducing Varanasi. Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi
  • Narain, V. A. 1959. Jonathan Duncan and Varanasi. Firma K. L. Mukhopadhyaya Pvt. Ltd., Calcutta.
  • Nevill, H. R. 1909. Benares: A Gazetteer. Vol. XXVI of the District Gazetteers of the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh. Government Press, Allahabad.
  • Nevil, Major H. A. 1925. Benares: The Hindus' Holy City. Caxton Printing Works, Bombay.
  • Nicholls, George 1907. History of Sanskrit College. United Province Government Press, Allahabad.
  • Niyogi, Roma 1959, History of Gahadavala Dynasty. Oriental Book Agency, Calcutta.
  • Oldham, William 1873. Tenant Right and Auction Sales in Ghazeepoor and the Province of Benares. Dublin.
  • Pandey, B. P. 1981. Banaras Brocades: Structure and Functioning. Institute of Gandhian Studies, Varanasi.
  • Pandey, R. 1979. Kashi through the Ages. Sundeep Prakashan, Delhi.
  • Pandey, Raj Bali 1969. Varanasi: the Heart of Hinduism. Orient Publs., Varanasi.
  • Parker, Arthur 1895. A Handbook of Benares. J. Lazarus & Co., Banaras
  • Parry, Jonathan P. 1994, The Death in Banaras. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. Indian Reprint available. 340pp.
  • Pearson, Anne Mackenzie 1996. “Because it Gives me Peace of Mind”. Ritual Fasts in the Religious Lives of Hindu Women. SUNY Press, Albany, NY. xviii + 315 pp.
  • Porter, F. W. 1887. Final Report on the Survey and Revision of Records recently Compiled for the Benares District. Govt. Press, Allahabad.
  • Prasad, Onkar 1985. Folk Music and Folk Dances of Banaras. Anthropological Survey of India, Calcutta, Memoir No. 71.
  • Prinsep, James 1833. Benares Illustrated in a Series of Drawings. I to III Series. Baptist Mission Press, Calcutta and Smith, Elder & Co., London 1834.
  • Rao, Raja 1960. The Serpent and the Rope. A novel with several scenes on Varanasi. Orient Paperbacks, Delhi; reprinted 1968. 1989. On the Ganga Ghat. (A novel based on Banaras). Vision Books, New Delhi.
  • Riviere, Jen M. 1982. Lettres de Bénarès. A Michel, Paris: Spiritualities Vivantes, Serie Hindouisme.
  • Roy, P. B. 1955. Banaras: The Soul of Hinduism. Saturday Mail Publs., Calcutta.
  • Sahni, Daya Ram 1914. Catalogue of the Museum of Archaeology at Sarnath. Government Printing Calcutta.
  • Saletore, G. N. 1955a. Banaras Affairs (1788-1810). U.P. State Records Series, Selections from English Records No. 1 and 2.. Govt. Central Records Office, U.P., Allahabad. 1955b. Press List of Pre-Mutiny Records, Banaras Correspondence (1776-1789). Vol. I. U.P. State Records Series. Govt. Central Records Office, U.P., Allahabad.
  • Sanyal, Suprakash 1979. Benares and the English East India Company, 1764-1795. The World Press Private Ltd., Calcutta.
  • Sarasvati, B.N. 1975. Kashi: Myth and Reality of a Classical Cultural Tradition. Institute of Advanced Studies, Simla.
  • Saxena, Kavita 1995. Life and Status of Professional Women: a Study of Varanasi. Radiant Publication, New Delhi.
  • Schilder, Robert and Callewaert, Winand 2000. Banaras. Visions of a Living Ancient Tradition. Hemkunt Publ. (P) Ltd., New Delhi. 128pp., B-W and colour photographs.
  • Searle-Chatterjee, Mary 1981. Reversible Sex Roles: The Special Case of Banaras Sweepers. Pergamon Press, Oxford.
  • Sen, Rajani Ranjan 1912, The Holy City: Benares. Minto Press (by M.R. Sen), Chittagong.
  • Seshadri, P. 1930. Benares. 3rd Ed. City Press, Cawnpore.
  • Shakespear, A. 1873. Selections from the Duncan Records. Medical Hall Press, Benares, 2 vols.
  • Sharma, N. K. 1975. Varanasi, The City of Burning and Learning. Ambika Puri, Varanasi.
  • Sherring, M. A. 1868, Benares. The Sacred City of the Hindus. London. Cheap Publ, Delhi (reptd, 1990), and Pilgrims Book House, Varanasi (reptd, 1999). 424pp., illustrated. 1872. Hindu Tribes and Castes as Represented in Benares. Spink & Co., London. Reprint Cosmo Publ., Delhi in 1974, 2 Vols.
  • Showeb, M. 1994. Silk Handloom Industry of Varanasi: A Study of Socio-economic Problems of Weavers. Ganga Kaveri Publ. House, Varanasi.
  • Singh, Bhagwati Sharan 1988. Varanasi. National Book Trust, India, New Delhi.
  • Singh, Birendra Pratap 1985. Life in Ancient Varanasi (An Account Based on Archaeological Evidence). Sundeep Prakashan, Delhi.
  • Singh, J. R. 1980. Sarnath, Past and Present. Atmatosh Prakashan, Varanasi.
  • Singh, Pramod 1985. Environmental Pollution and Management. (Case of Varanasi). Chugh Publications, Varanasi.
  • Singh, Raghubir 1987. Banaras, Sacred City of India. Introduction and 96 photographs. Thames & Hudson Ltd., London.
  • Singh, Ram Dular. 1986. Ed. Bengal and Varanasi, A Study of Cultural Synthesis & National Integration (Bengal’s Contribution to Varanasi). Bibliographical Society of India, Varanasi
  • Singh, R. L. 1955. Banaras, A Study in Urban Geography. Nand Kishore & Bros. Banaras
  • Singh, Rana P. B. 1989, Where Cultural Symbols Meet. The Literary Images of Varanasi. Tara Book Agency, Varanasi. 254pp. ISBN 81-85403-36-8. 2nd ed. in preparation (2003) 1993. Varanasi Region. An Insight Guide to Tourist Places. Tara Book Agency, Varanasi. 1993. Eds. Banaras (Varanasi). Cosmic Order, Sacred City, Hindu Traditions. 62 figs/maps, 344pp. Tara Book Agency, Varanasi. ISBN 81-85403-92-9. Anthology of 20 essays 2002a. Cosmic Circuit & Sacred Journey. Pancakroshi Yatra of Banaras. Pilgrimage & Cosmology Series: 3. 220pp, 60 figs/maps. Indica Books, Varanasi. ISBN 81-86569-30-8. 2002b. Where the Buddha Walked. A Companion to the Buddhist Places of India. Pilgrimage & Cosmology Series:4. 160pp., 35 maps & figures. Indica Books, Varanasi.
  • Singh, Rana P. B. and Rana, Pravin S. 2002. Banaras Region. A Spiritual and Cultural Guide. Indica Books, Varanasi. Pilgrimage & Cosmology Series: 1. 111 Maps/Figs., 402pp. ISBN 81-86569-24-3.
  • Singh, S. N. 1986. Geography of Tourism and Recreation. (With Special reference to Varanasi). Inter-India, Delhi.
  • Sinha, Surjit and Saraswati, B. N. 1978. Ascetics of Kashi. An Anthropological Exploration. N.K. Bose Memorial Foundation, Varanasi. 298pp., illustrated.
  • Srivastava, Harish Chandra 1974. The Genesis of Campus Violence in Banaras Hindu University Varanasi. Indian International Pub., Allahabad.
  • Sukul, Kubernath 1974, Varanasi Down the Ages. K. N. Sukul, Patna. Printed at Bhargava Bhushan Press, Varanasi. 334pp., illustrated.
  • Tavernier, Jean-Baptiste 1889. Travels in India. Translated from original French edition of 1676 with a biographical sketch of the author, notes, appendices, etc. by V. Ball, 2nd edition, edited by William Crooke (Macmillan, London), 2 Vols. Reprint of 1925 edition, New Delhi, 1977.
  • Times of India, 2000. The Times Guide to the City of VARANASI. Bennett, Coleman & Co. Ltd, Delhi. 112pp., 1 map, illustrated. 2nd short edition, 2001.
  • Twain, Mark 1898. Following the Equator. A Journey around the World. The American Publ. Co., Hartfort.
  • Valentia, George Viscount 1809. Voyages and Travels in India, Ceylone, the Red Sea, Abyssinia and Egypt, 1802-1806. Vol. I. John Murray, London.
  • VDA-MP 2001, Varanasi Master Plan, 1991-2011. City and Town Planning Organisation, UP, Varanasi. Varanasi Development Authority, Varanasi. xii+187pp, enclosures 61pp., released on 11 July 2001.
  • Verma, T.P. ; Singh, D. P. and Mishra, J.S. 1986. Eds. Varanasi through the Ages. Proceedings of an All-India Seminar. Bhartiya Itihas Samkalan Samiti, Varanasi.
  • Vidyarathi, L. P., Saraswati, B.N. and Jha, M. 1979. The Sacred Complex of Kashi (A Microcosm of Indian Civilisation). Concept Publ. Co, Delhi. 320pp., illustrated.
  • Wilson, Henry 1985. Benares. (80 Colour photographs). Thames & Hudson Ltd., London.
  • Yusuf Ali, A. 1900. A Monograph on Silk Fabrics produced in the North Western Provinces and Oudh. Allahabad.

Research Papers[edit]

  • Agrawal, P. K. 1978. Some Varanasi Images of Ganapati and the iconographic problem. Aribus Asiae, vol. 39 (no. 2).
  • Ahmad, Q. 1961. An historical account of the Banaras mint in the later Mughal period, 1732-61. The Journal of the Numismatic Society of India (Varanasi), vol. 23.
  • Alley, Kelly D. 1992. On the banks of the Ganga. Annals of Tourism Research, vol. 19 (Winter): pp. 125 – 127. 1994. Ganga and Gandagi: Interpretations of Pollution and Waste in Banaras. Ethnology, 33 (Spring): 127 – 145. 1998. Idioms of degeneracy: assessing Ganga’s purity and pollution. In, Purifying the Earthly Body of God: Religion and Ecology in Hindu India, ed. Lance E. Nelson. SUNY Press, Albany, NY : pp. 297 - 330.
  • Allman, T. D. 1981. The eternal city of Benares. Asia (New York), vol. 4 (2), July-August: 44-49 and 54.
  • Alter, Joseph S. 1993. Hanuman and the moral physique of the Banarasi wrestler. In, Hertel and Humes, eds. Living Banaras (SUNY Press, Albany): 127 – 144.
  • Archers, Mildred 1971. Banaras and the British. In, Krishna, Anand (ed.), Chavi, Golden Jubilee Volume. Bharat Kala Bhavan, Banaras: pp. 70-74, figures 179-185.
  • Arnold, David 1989. The ecology and cosmology of disease in theBanaras region. In, Freitag, S. B., ed. Culture and Power in Banaras (University of California Press, Berkeley): 246 – 267.
  • Askari, S. H. 1954. Chait Singh and Hastings from Persian sources. Indian Historical Records Commission, Proceedings, vol. 30, pt. 2.
  • Bakker, Hans T. 1993. Early mythology relating to Varanasi. In, Singh, Rana P. B., ed. Banaras/ Varanasi (Tara Book Agency, Varanasi): 21 – 28. 1996. Construction and Reconstruction of sacred Space in Varanasi. Numen, 43: 32-55.
  • Barker, R. 1777. An account of the Brahmin’ Observatory at Benares. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, vol. LXVII.
  • Bayly, Christopher A.1978. Indian Merchants in a 'Traditional' Setting, Banaras 1780-1820. In, Hopkins, A. & Dewey, C. (eds.), The Imperial Impact. Athlone Press, London: 151-173.
  • Bhattacharyya, Raghunath 1986. Lokamata Maharani Bhavani. In, Singh, Ram Dular, ed. Bengal and Varanasi. Bibliographical Society of India, Varanasi: 1–19.
  • Clémentin-Ojha, Catherine 2000. Être un brahmane smārta aujourd´hui. Quelques points de repère à partir une enquête ethnographique à Bénarès. Bulletin de l´École française d´Extrême-Orient 87: 317-339.
  • Cocari, Diane M. 1989a. Protection and identity: Banaras’s Bir Babas as neighbourhood guardian deities. In, Freitag, S. B., ed. Culture and Power in Banaras (University of California Press, Berkeley): 130 – 146 1989b. The Bir Babas of Banaras and the deified dead. In, Hiltebeitel, Alf, ed. Criminal Gods and Demon Devotees. SUNY Press, Albany: 251 – 269. (Reprinted by Manohar, New Delhi, India).
  • Cohen, Lawrence. 1995. Toward an Anthropology of Senility: Anger, Weakness and Alzheimer's in Banaras, India. Medical Anthropology Quarterly, 9 (3): 314–34.
  • Cohn, B. 1960. The initial British Impact on India, a case study of Banaras region. Journal of Asian Studies (Ann Arbor), 19 (4), August: 418-31. 1962. Political Systems in Eighteenth Century India: The Banaras Region. Journal of the American Oriental Society, 82 (no. 3), July-September: pp. 312-20. 1969. Structural change in Indian rural society, 1556-1885. In, R.E. Frakemberg, ed. Land Control and Social Structure in Indian History (University of Wisconsin Press, Madison).
  • Dalmia, Vasudha 1996. Sanskrit Scholars and Pandits of the Old School: The Banaras Sanskrit College and the Constitution of Authority in the Late Nineteenth Century. Journal of Indian Philosophy, 24 (4): 321-37. 2001. Vernacular histories in late 19th century Banaras: Folklore, Puranas and the New Antiquarianism. The Indian Economic & Social History Review (Sage, New Delhi), vol. 38 (1), January-March: pp. 59 – 79.
  • Dube, Kamla Kant 1968. Tourism and pilgrimage in Varanasi. National Geographical Journal of India (Varanasi), 14 (pts. 2-3): 176 – 185.
  • Dubey, Devi Prasad 1985/ 1993. Varanasi: A name study. Archiv Orientalni (Academia, Praha), 53 (4): 347 – 354. Revised and expanded form published in, Singh, Rana P.B., ed. 1993, Banaras/ Varanasi (Tara Book Agency, Varanasi): 29-36.
  • DuBois, Emily 1986. Banaras Brocade Weaving. Art Textrina, 3 (May). Charles Babbage Research Centre, Winnipeg, Canada.
  • Eck, Diana, 1998. The imagined landscape: patterns in the construction of Hindu sacred geography. Contributions to Indian Sociology (Sage Publs., New Delhi), 32 (2) : 165-188. 1978. Kasi. City and Symbol. Purana ( Varanasi), 20 (2): 169-192. 1980. A Survey of Sanskrit Sources for the Study of Varanasi. Purana (Varanasi) 22 (1): 81-110. Reprinted in: Singh, Rana P. B. eds. 1993, Banaras/ Varanasi (Tara Book Agency, Varanasi): 9 -19. 1985. Banaras: Cosmos and paradise in the Hindu imagination. Contributions to Indian Sociology, NS (New Delhi), 19 (1): 41-55.
  • Eidt, Robert C. 1977. Detection and examination of anthroposols by phosphate analysis. Science, 197 (30 September): pp. 1327-1333.
  • Feys, J. 1984a. Exploring Kashi. Sevartham, 9 : 79-98. 1984b. Banaras, City of Light: Review article. Sevartham, 9: 127-141.
  • Freitag, Sandria B. 1989a. State and community: Symbolic popular protest in Banaras’s public arenas. In, Freitag, S.B., ed. Culture and Power in Banaras (University of California Press, Berkeley): 203 – 228. 1989b. Community and state in public arenas: the Banaras example. In, Freitag, S. B. Collective Action and Community (University of California Press, Berkeley), Chapter 2: pp. 19 – 52.
  • Fukunaga, Masaaki 1991. A note on the understanding sacralization as spirit of place in Varanasi. National Geographical Journal of India, vol. 37 (1-2): 173 -177.
  • Gesler, Wilbert M. and Pierce, Margaret 2000. Hindu Varanasi. Geographical Review (AGS, New York), vol. 90 (2), April: pp. 222 – 237.
  • Gopalkrishnan, K. 1985. The Ganga: India’s poisonous pilgrimage. Hindustan Times, Easrthscan Bulletin, 8 (no. 4): 3 – 4.
  • Gustafsson, Gerhard; Singh, Rana P.B. ; Lejonhud K. & Valvik, K.I. 2000. Change and continuity in village India: crisis and prospects in Chamaon, Varanasi. FENNIA, International Jl. of Geography (Geogr. Soc. of Finland, Helsinki). Vol. 178 (No.2): 203 – 214.
  • Gutschow, Niels 1977a. Urban space and ritual. Storia della Citta (Rivista Internazionale di storia urbana e territoriale), Electa Editrice (Roma), 5: 73 – 75. 1977b. Benares. Geoordneter Raum – Ordered Space. Darmastadt im Mai: 47 – 73 ) and 13pp. of figures and plates). Mimeographed. 1994. Varanasi/Benares: the centre of Hinduism. Erdkunde, Archiv für Wissenschaftliche Geographie (Berlin), Bd. 48 (3), September: 194- 209.
  • Hansen, Kathryn 1983. Sultana the Decoit and the Harishchandra: Two popular dramas of the Nautanki tradition of North India. Modern asian Studies, 17 (2): 313 – 331. 1989. The birth of Hindi dram in Banaras, 1868-1885. In, Freitag, S. B., ed. Culture and Power in Banaras (University of California Press, Berkeley): 62 – 92.
  • Hein, Norvin 1959. The Ram Lila. In, Singer, Milton, ed. Traditional India, Structure and Change. The American Folklore Society, Philadelphia.
  • Heitler, R. 1972. The Varanasi house tax hartal of 1810-1811. Indian Economic and Social History Review (New Delhi), 9: 239 – 257.
  • Hertz, Frederick 1991. Banaras: Pilgrimage places and the transformation of death. Site Saver (The Newsletter of Sacred Sites International Foundation, Berkeley, CA, USA), 1 (3), Summer: 1, 3.
  • Hess, Linda 1983. Rama Lila: the audience experience. In, Thiel-Horstmann, Monika, ed. Bhakti in Current Research. Dietrich Reimer, Berlin: 171 – 194. 1993. Staring at frames till they turn into loops: an excursion through some worlds of Tulasidas. In, Hertel, Bradley and Humes, Cynthia, eds. Living Banaras. SUNY Press, Albany: 73 – 102.
  • Humes, Cynthia Ann 1993. The goddess of the Vindhyas in Banaras. In, Hertel, Bradley and Humes, Cynthia, eds. Living Banaras. SUNY Press, Albany: 181 – 204.
  • Irwin, John 1983. The Lat Bhairo at Benares (Varanasi): Another Pre-Ashokan Monument?. Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft (Wiesbaden), 133 (3): 321-352.
  • Jayakar, Pupul 1967. Naksha Bandhas of Banaras. Journal of Asian Trade History, No. 7: 22.
  • Jha, Magna Nand 1974. Sacred performances at Kashi. Journal of Social Research (Ranchi), 17 (no. 1): 23 – 28.
  • Joshi, Nilakanth Purushottam 1989. Varanasi Shilapattas and similar slabs in medieval sculptures of Central India, a preliminary study. Samskrit Sandhan (Journal of the National Institute of Human Culture, Varanasi), vol. 2: 143 – 159. 1992. Deva-Pattas: a less known chapter of medieval Hindu canopy. In, Maxwell, T. S., ed. Eastern Approaches. Essays on Asian Art and Archaeology. Oxford University Press, Delhi: 133 – 140 + plates 46-50.
  • Kane, Pandurang Vaman 1974. Kashi. Chapter 13, in History of Dharmashastra, vol. 3, 2nd ed. Oriental Series B, no. 6. Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, Poona.
  • Kapur, Anuradha 1985. Actors, pilgrims, kings and gods: the Ramalila at Ramanagar. Contributions to Indian sociology, NS (New Delhi), 19 (1): 57 – 74.
  • Kaushik, Meena 1976/ 1993. The symbolic representation of death. Contributions to Indian sociology, NS (New Delhi), 10 (2): 265 – 292. Reprinted in, Singh, Rana P.B. 1993, (ed.), Banāras (Varanasi): Cosmic Order, Sacred City, and Hindu Traditions. Tara Book Agency, Varanasi: 123-139.
  • Kayastha, S. L. Singh, S. N. 1977. A study of preferences and behaviour pattern of tourists in Varanasi. National Geographical Journal of India (Varanasi), 23 (pts.3-4): 143 – 150. 1983. Tourism in Varanasi: a functional analysis. National Geographical Journal of India (Varanasi), 29 (pts. 1-2): 4 – 17.
  • King, Christopher R. 1989. Forming a new linguistic identity: the Hindi movement in Banaras, 1868-1914. In, Freitag, S. B., ed. Culture and Power in Banaras (University of California Press, Berkeley): 179 – 202.
  • Köckman, Uwe 1993. The Role of Educational Institution in the Awakening of Hindu Nationalism in 19th Century Vārānasī. In: Singh, Rana P.B. (ed.), Banāras (Varanasi): Cosmic Order, Sacred City, and Hindu Traditions. Tara Book Agency, Varanasi: 289-296.
  • Krishna Menon, A. G. 1989. Cultural identity and urban development: The Indian experience. Urban India (NIUA, New Delhi), 9 (1): 1 – 15.
  • Kumar, Nita 1987. The Mazars of Banaras: a new perspective on the city’s sacred geography. National Geographical Journal of India (Varanasi), 33 (3): 263 – 267. 1986. Open space and free time: Pleasure for the people of Banaras. Contributions to Indian Sociology, NS (New Delhi), 20 (1): 41 – 60. 1989. Work and leisure in the formation of identity: Muslim weavers in a Hindu city. In, Freitag, S. B., ed. Culture and Power in Banaras (University of California Press, Berkeley): 147 – 170. 1993. Patronage, identity and cultural change: Five Melas of Banaras. In, Singh, Rana P.B., ed. Banaras/ Varanasi. Tara Book Agency, Varanasi: 225 – 233.
  • Kumar, S. Vijaya 1983. Kashi: Its meaning and significance in the light of Advaita-Vedanta and the Purana. Purana (Ramanagar Durg, Varanasi), 25 (1): 114 – 128.
  • Lodrick, Deryck O. 1979/ 1993. On religion and milk bovines in an urban Indian setting. Current Anthropology (Chicago), (20) 1: 241-242. Reprinted in Singh, Rana P.B., ed., 1993, Banaras/ Varanasi (Tara Book Agency, Varanasi): 225-233.
  • Lutgendorf, Philip 1989a. Rāma's Story in Shiva's City: Public Arenas and Private Patronage. In, Culture and Power in Banaras, ed. S. B. Freitag (UCP, Berkeley): 34-61. 1989b. The View from the Ghats: Traditional Exegesis of a Hindu Epic. Journal of Asian Studies (Ann Arbor), 48 (2): 272-288.
  • Lütt, Jürgen 1976. The movement for the foundation of the Banaras Hindu University. In, German Scholars on India: Contributions to Indian Studies, Ed. The Embassy of the FRG, New Delhi. Vol. 2. Nachiketa Publs., Bombay: 160 – 195.
  • Malville, J.M. and Singh Rana P. B. 1995. Visual Astronomy in the mythology and ritual of India: the Sun temples of Varanasi. Vistas in Astronomy (Pergamon, Oxford, UK), Vol. 39 (4): pp. 431-449. 2000. The Sun and its temples at Varanasi: meaning and pattern in the three worlds of Kashi. In, Ancient Cities, Ancient Skies, eds. J. M. Malville and L. Gujaral. Aryan Publs., New Delhi for IGNCA : pp. 82-99.
  • Marcus, Scott L. 1989. The rise of a folk music genre: Birha. In, Freitag, S. B., ed. Culture and Power in Banaras (University of California Press, Berkeley): 93 – 113.
  • Mecking, Ludwig 1913. Benares, ein kulturgeographisches Charakterbild. Geographische Zeitschrift (Leipzing; A. Hettner, ed.) 19: 20-35 und 77-96.
  • Michaels, Axel 2000. Konstruktionen von Translokalität und Zentralität. Eine religiöse Karte von Benares. In: Pezzoli-Olgiati, Daria & Stolz, F. (eds.), Cartografia religiosa, Religiöse Kartographie, Cartographie religieuse. Peter Lang, Bern.
  • Nag, Prithvish and Kumra, V. K. 1986. Environmental problems in Varanasi. Indian Journal of Regional Science (IIT, Kharagpur, India), 18 (1): 25 – 32.
  • Narain, A. K. 1981. History and Archaeology of Varanasi. Souvenir: 68th Indian Science Congress. Banaras Hindu University (January 1 – 7): 1 – 5.
  • Pandey, Rajendra 1962. Geography of Kashi. Journal of Madhya Pradesh Itihas Parishad (Bhopal), 4: 79 – 84.
  • Parkhil, Thomas 1993. What’s taking place: Neighbourhood Ramlilas in Banaras. In, Hertel, Bradley and Humes, Cynthia, eds. Living Banaras. SUNY Press, Albany: 127 – 144.
  • Parry, Jonathan P. 1980. Ghost, Greed and Sin: The Occupational Identity of the Banaras Funeral Priests. Man, N.S., (RAIGI, London), 15 (1-2): 88-111. Reprinted in Singh, Rana P. B. , ed., 1993, Banaras/ Varanasi (Tara Book Agency, Varanasi): 179-196. 1981. Death and Cosmogony in Kashi. Contributions to Indian Sociology N.S. (New Delhi), 15 (1-2), 337-365. Reprinted in Singh, Rana P. B. , ed. 1993, Banaras/ Varanasi (Tara Book Agency, Varanasi): 103-121. 1982. Sacrificial Death and Necrophagous Ascetic. In, M. Bloch & J. Parry (eds.), Death and the Regeneration of Life. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge: 74-110. 1985a. The Aghori Ascetics of Banaras. In, Burghart, R. & Cantlie, A. (eds.), Indian Religion. Croom Helm, London/New York: 51-78. 1985b/ 1993. Death and digestion: the symbolism of food and eating in north Indian mortuary rites. Man, NS (RAIGI, London), 20 (4): 612 – 630. Reprinted in, Singh, Rana P. B., ed. 1993, Banaras/ Varanasi. Tara Book Agency, Varanasi: 141 – 154.
  • Pathak, R.K. & Humes, C.A.1993. Lolark Kund: Sun and Shiva Worship in the City of Light. In, Hertel, Bradley R. and Humes, Cynthia A. (eds.), Living Banaras (SUNY Press): 205-244.
  • Pathak, V. S. 1957-58. Religious sealings from Rajghat. Journal of the Numismatic Society of India (B.H.U., Varanasi), 19-20 (II): 168 – 179. 1959. Kashi in inscriptions (AD 700-1300). Journal of the Research of the Universities of Uttar Pradesh: Uttarbharati, 6 (2): 53 – 58.
  • Pieper, Jan 1979. A Pilgrim's Map of Benares: Notes on Codification in Hindu Cartography. GeoJournal (Dordrecht) 3 (2) : 215-218.
  • Prinsep, James 1832. Census of the population of the city of Benares. Asiatic Researches (Calcutta), vol. 1: 470-498.
  • Pugh, Judy F. 1983. Astrological Consoling in Contemporary India. Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry, 7 (1): 1-21. 1983a. Into the Almanac: Time, Meaning, and Action in North Indian Society. Contributions to Indian Sociology, N.S., 17 (1): 27-49. 1983b. Astrology and fate: The Hindu and Muslim Experiences. In, Keyes, C. F. and Daniel, E.V., eds. Karma: An anthropological Inquiry. University of California Press, Berkeley: 131 – 146. 1984. Concepts of Person and Situation in North Indian Consoling. Contribution to Asian Studies (Leiden), 18: 85-105.
  • Putman, John J. (photographs by Singh, Raghubir) 1971. The Ganges, River of Faith. National Geographic (Washington D.C.), 140 (4), October: 445-483.
  • Putterman, Danial M. 1992. Fighting for the Goddess by cleaning the soul of the sacred Ganges. Trilogy (Lexington, KY, USA), 4 (4): 14 – 23.
  • Rama Rau, Santha (photographs by Heiderer, Tony) 1986. Banaras: India's City of Light. National Geographic (Washington D.C.), 169 (2), February: 214-251.
  • Rana, Pravin S. and Singh, Rana P.B. 2000, Sustainable Heritage Tourism: Framework, Perspective and Prospect. National Geographical Journal of India (NGSI, Varanasi), vol. 46: pp. 141 – 158.
  • Roy, T. N. 1986. Antiquity and material culture of Varanasi as revealed through archaeological excavations. In, Verma, T. P., el al, eds. Varanasi Through the Ages. Itihas Samkalan Samiti, UP, Varanasi: 24 – 30.
  • Saraswati, B.N. 1974. Studying sacred complex in Kashi. Journal of Social Research (Ranchi), 17 (1): 6 – 13. 1984. Shastra and society (case of Vishvanath temple). Man in India (Ranchi), 64 (1): 3 – 20. 1985. The Kashivasis Widows. Man in India (Ranchi), 65 (2): 107-120.
  • Sawyer, Dana W. 1993. The Monastic Structure of Banarasi Dandi Sadhus. In: Bradley R. Hertel & Humes, Cynthia A. (eds.), Living Banaras, 159-180.
  • Sax, William S. 1993. The Rāmnagar Rāmlīlā: Text, Performance, Pilgrimage. In, Rana P.B. Singh, ed. Banaras/ Varanasi (Tara Book Agency, Varanasi): 257-73.
  • Schechner, Richard 1982a. Ramlila of Ramnagar and America's Oberammergau: Two Celebratory Ritual Dramas. In: Turner, Victor (ed.), Celebrations: Studies in Festivity and Ritual. Smithsonian Institute Press, Washington D.C.: 89-106. 1982b. Ramlila of Ramnagar: An Introduction. Quarterly Journal of the Nation Centre for the Performing Arts (Bombay), 11 (3-4): 66-98. 1983. Ramlila of Ramnagar: An Introduction. In, Schechner, Richard (ed.), Performative Circumstances. Seagull Books, Calcutta: 238-288. 1985. Ramlila of Ramnagar. In, Schechner, Richard (ed.), Between Theatre and Anthropology. University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia: 151-211. 1993a. Striding Through the Cosmos: Movement, Belief, Politics and Place in the Ramlila of Ramnagar. In, Schechner, Richard.(ed.) The Future of Ritual. Routledge, London/New York: 131-183. 1993b. Crossing the Water: Pilgrimage, Movement, and Environmental Scenography of the Ramlila of Ramnagar. In, Hertel, Bradley R. & Humes, Cynthia A. (eds.), Living Banaras (SUSP, Albany): 159-180.
  • Schechner, Richard and Hess, Linda 1977. The Ramlila of Ramnagar (India). The Drama Review (New York), 21 (3): 51-88.
  • Searle-Chatterjee, M. 1993. Religious division and the mythology of the past. In, Hertel, Bradley and Humes, Cynthia, eds. Living Banaras. SUNY Press, Albany: 145 – 158.
  • Shashtri, Bapu Deva 1864-65. Notes on Banaras Observatory. Transactions of the Benares Institute (for the Session 1864-65): 191 – 196.
  • Shastri. M. H. 1912. Dakshini Pandits at Benares. Indian Antiquary (Calcutta), 41 (1): 7-13.
  • Shulman, David 1998. Ambivalence and longing: Vyāsa´s curse on Kāshi. In, Kedar, Benjamin Z. & R.J. Zwi Werblowsky (eds.), Sacred Space: Shrine, City, Land. New York University Press, New York: 192-214.
  • Simon, Beth 1993. Language choice, religion, and identity in the Banaras community. In, Hertel, Bradley and Humes, Cynthia, eds. Living Banaras. SUNY Press, Albany: 245 – 268.
  • Singh, R. L. 1973. Social factors in the morphogenesis of Varanasi. In, Singh, R. L. ed. Urban Geography in Developing Countries. National Geographical Society of India, Varanasi: 3 – 27. 1976. Origin, growth and morphological structure of Varanasi. In, Alam, S. M. and Pokshishevsky, eds. Urbanisation in Developing Countries. Osmania University, Hyderabad: 475-500 + Six figures. 1986. Varanasi, A Geographical analysis of the national city. Souvenir, XII National Seminar of IASLIC (December 28-31), eds. H. N. Prasad and J. B. Subramaniam; Dept. of Library and Information Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi: 1 – 7.
  • Singh R. L. and Singh, Rana 1980. Urban landscape of Varanasi: a cultural synthesis. National Geographical Journal of India (Varanasi), vol. 26 (3-4) : pp. 113-123.
  • Singh, R. L. and Singh U. 1963. Road traffic survey of Varanasi. National Geographical Journal of India (B.H.U., Varanasi), 9 (3-4): 139 – 160.
  • Singh, Rana P. B. 1980. Socio-cultural space of Varanasi. Art & Archaeology Research Papers (AARP, London, UK), special publ. “Ritual Space in India”, Vol. 17 : pp. 41-46. 1982. Image of Varanasi city: reflection on Geography of Tourism. Frankfurter Wirtschafts- und Sozialgeographische Schriften (Frankfurt/Main, Germany), Heft 41 : pp. 161-174. 1985. The personality and lifeworld of Varanasi as revealed in Shivaprasad Singh’s novel: a study in literary geography. National Geographical Journal of India, Vol. 31 (4): pp.291-318. 1986. Shiva’s universe in Varanasi. Varanasi Through the Ages, eds. T. P. Verma, et al. Bhartiya Itihas Samkalan Samiti, Varanasi, Pub. 4 : pp. 303-311. 1987 a. Toward myth, Cosmos, Space and Mandala in India, a search in the Geography of Belief Systems. National Geographical Journal of India, Vol. 33 (3), Sept.: pp. 305-326. 1987 b. The pilgrimage mandala of Varanasi/Kashi: a study in sacred geography. National Geographical Journal of India, Vol. 33 (4), December : pp. 493-524. 1988 a. Interplay of sacred space and sacred time in Hindu belief system. In, Religion and Environment (Geistenshaltung und Umbelt), ed. W. Kreisel. AGGR+U-F Band 1. Alano Edition, Aachen (Germany): pp. 439-454. 1988 b. The Image of Varanasi: sacrality and perceptual world. National Geographical Journal of India, Vol. 34 (1), March : pp. 1-32. 1989. Banaras/ Varanasi – From Culture and Architecture to tourism and environment: Review of 5 Books. National Geographical Journal of India (Varanasi), 35 (pts.3-4): 281 – 290. 1990a. Literary images, cultural symbols and intimate sensing: the Ganga river in Varanasi. National Geographical Journal of India, Vol. 36 (1-2) : pp. 117-128. 1990b. Time and Hindu rituals in Varanasi, A study of Sacrality and Cycles. In, Gopal, L. and Dubey, D.P., eds. Pilgrimage Studies: Text and Context (Society of Pilgrimage Studies, Allahabad): 66-72 and 5pp. Hindu calendar. Reprinted also, Geographia Religionum (Berlin, Germany), Bd. 8: pp. 123-138. 1991. Panchakroshi Yatra, Varanasi: Sacred Journey, Ecology of Place and Faithscape. National Geogr. Jl. of India, vol. 37 (1-2): pp. 49-98. 1993 a. Varanasi: The Pilgrimage mandala, geomantic map and cosmic numbers. In, Banaras (Varanasi), ed. Rana P B. Singh, Tara Book Agency, Varanasi: pp. 37-64. 1993 b. The Ganga Ghats, Varanasi: The Riverfront landscape. In, Banaras (Varanasi) , ed. Rana P B. Singh, Tara Book Agency, Varanasi: pp. 65-102. 1993 c. Siva’s Universe in Varanasi. In, Banaras (Varanasi) , ed. Rana P B. Singh, Tara Book Agency, Varanasi: pp. 155-162. 1993 d. Sarnath: Cultural history, museum and tourist sites. In, Banaras (Varanasi) , ed. Rana P B. Singh, Tara Book Agency, Varanasi: pp. 235-256. 1993 e. Varanasi: Demographic Profile – From ancient to late 1820s and the present state. In, Banaras (Varanasi) , ed. Rana P B. Singh, Tara Book Agency, Varanasi: pp. 279-288. 1993 f. Varanasi: A World heritage city: The frame, historical accounts. In, Banaras (Varanasi) , ed. Rana P B. Singh, Tara Book Agency, Varanasi: pp. 297-316. 1993 g. Cosmic layout of Hindus’ sacred city, Varanasi. Architecture & Behaviour (Lausanne, Switzerland), Vol. 9 (2) : pp. 239-249. 1994 a. Water symbolism and sacred landscape in Hinduism: A study of Benares. Erdkunde, Archiv für Wissenschaftliche Geographie (Bonn, Germany), Band 48 (3), September: 210-227. 1994 b. Modern Varanasi: Place and Society in Shivprasad Singh’s novel Street Turns Yonder. In, Writing the City, eds. P. Preston and P. Simpson-Housley. Routledge, London (UK): pp. 220-240. 1994 c. Time and Hindu rituals in Varanasi. Geographia Religionum (Berlin, Germany), Bd. 8: pp. 123-138. 1994 d. The sacred geometry of India’s holy city, Varanasi: Kashi as Cosmogram. National Geogr. Jl. of India, vol. 40: pp. 189-216. Reprinted with revision in : Ancient Cities, Ancient Skies, eds. J. M. Malville and L. Gujral, 1999. Aryan Publ. For IGNCA, New Delhi : pp. 59-80. 1994 e. Varanasi: Cosmic order and cityscape. I. Sun images and shrines. Architecture + Design (New Delhi), Vol. 11 (6), November-December : pp. 75-79. 1995 a. Varanasi: Cosmic order and cityscape. II. Ganesh images and shrines. Architecture + Design (New Delhi), Vol. 12 (1), January-February : pp. 99-101. 1995 b. Varanasi: Cosmic order and cityscape. III. Shiva’s universe and pilgrimage journeys. Architecture + Design (New Delhi), Vol. 12 (2), March-April : pp. 83-85. 1995 d. Sun shrines, images and alignment at Varanasi. The Ley Hunter (Cornwall, UK), No. TLH 123, Summer : pp. 20-26. 1996 a. The Ganga River and the spirit of sustainability in Hinduism. Dialogues with the Living Earth. New Ideas on the Spirit of Place, eds. James Swan and Roberta Swan. Quest Books, Wheaton, IL, USA : pp. 86-107. 1996 b. Varanasi: Shiva’s universe and pilgrimage journey. The Ley Hunter (Cheltenham, UK), No. TLH 125, Autumn : pp. 24-29. 1997 a. Sacred space and pilgrimage in Hindu society: the case of Varanasi. In, Sacred Places, Sacred Spaces. The Geography of Pilgrimages, eds. R. H. Stoddard and Alan Morinis. Geoscience & Man, vol. 34. Louisiana State University Press, Baton Rouge, USA: 191-207. 1997 b. Sacredscape and urban heritage in India: Contestation and perspective. In, Contested Urban Heritage. Voices from the Periphery, eds. Brian Shaw and Roy Jones. Ashgate, London (UK): pp. 101-131. 1998. Sacred journey, Sacredscape and Faithscape: an experience of Panchakroshi pilgrimage, Varanasi (India). The Pennsylvania Geographer (Johnstown, PA, USA), Vol. 36 (1): pp. 55-91. 2000. Kashi as Cosmogram: Sacred Geometry of Varanasi. In, Ancient Cities, Ancient Skies, eds. J. M. Malville & L. Gujral, Aryan Publ., New Delhi for IGNCA : pp. 58-81. 2002. The Holy city and the Cultural Tradition of Pilgrimage Mandala in India: Cosmic Geometries of Kashi (Varanasi) and Gaya. In, Cultural Approach in Geography at the turn of New Millenium, eds. M. R. Hashemi and M. Papoli-Yazdi. University of Mashhad Press, Mashhad, Iran.
  • Singh, Rana P. B.; Dar, Vrinda and Rana, Pravin S. 2001. Rationales for including Varanasi as Heritage City in the UNESCO World Heritage List. National Geographical Journal of India, vol. 47 (pts. 1-4): 173- 196.
  • Singh, Rana P. B. and Fukunaga, Masaaki, 2000. Performing pilgrimage and pilgrimage-tourism: an experience of the Pañcakroshi Yatra, Varanasi. In, Pilgrimage Studies. The Power of Places, ed. D. P. Dubey. Society of Pilgrimage Studies, Allahabad: 183 - 205. 2002. Kashi as Cosmogram: The Panchakroshi Route and Complex Structures of Varanasi; in Pilgrimage and Complexity, eds. John M. Malville and B. N. Saraswati; DK Printworld, Delhi for IGNCA.
  • Singh, Rana P. B. and Malville, John .M. 1995. Cosmic order and Cityscape of Varanasi (Kashi): The Sun images and cultural astronomy. National Geogr. Jl. of India, Vol. 41 (1), March : pp. 69-88. Reprinted: Ancient Cities, Ancient Skies, eds. J. M. Malville and L. Gujral, 2000. Aryan Publ. For IGNCA, New Delhi : pp. 81-98. 2000. Sacredscape, Faithscape and Cosmic Geometry : A Study of Holy Places of north India. In, Esteban C. & Belmonte J.A. (eds). Astronomy and Cultural Diversity. (Proceedings, Oxford VI & SEAC 99 Int’nal Conf., June 21-29, 1999, La Laguna, Spain). OAMC. Santa Cruz de Tenerife: pp. 99-106.
  • Singh, Rana P.B. and Ram Bilas 1980. Rural water supply and problem of health in village India, case of Varanasi District. In, Changing Scene of Rural Habitat in Developing Countries, eds. Shogo Yuihama and Rana P. B. Singh. 24th International Geogr. Congress, Tokyo/Okayama (Japan): pp. 95-109.
  • Singh, Rana P.B. and Rana, Pravin S. 2001. The Future of Heritage Tourism in Varanasi: Scenario, Prospects and Perspectives. National Geographical Journal of India, 47 (pts. 1-4): 197 - 214.
  • Singh, Rana P.B. and Sen, Chandra 2001. The Structure of Peri-Urban Agricultural Environment in Varanasi Development Region. (with Chandra Sen). National Geographical Journal of India, vol. 47 (pts. 1-4): 63 - 74.
  • Singh, Rana P.B.; Singh, Ravi S. and Rana, P.S. 2001. Sacred Geography of Goddesses in Kashi (Varanasi). (with Ravi S. Singh, Pravin S. Rana). Journal of Geography, vol. 3 (Sp. on Social Geography, 2000-2001, eds. H.N. Sharma and A.K. Bhagabati; Guwahati).
  • Sinha, Amita 1991. The Conservation of Sacred Sites: Sarnath, a case study. Landscape Research, 16 (3); 23 – 30.
  • Smith, V. A. 1909. Benares. In, Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics. Vol. II. Edinburg/New York: 465 – 469.
  • Tagare, G.V. 1991. Pilgrimages at Kāshī: Past and Present. Journal of the Oriental Institute, vol. 41: 13–16.
  • Thomas, L. Eugene 1990. The ecological and cultural setting: a cross-cultural investigation of successful ageing. Pharmacopsychoecogica (Varanasi), 2: 57 – 62. 1991. Dialogues with three religious renunciates and reflections on wisdom and maturity. International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 33: 211 –227. 1992. Identity, ideology and medicine: Health attitudes and behaviour among Hindu religious renunciates. Social Science and Medicine, 34: 499 – 505.
  • Tripathi, L. K. 1963. The Kardameshvara temple at Kandawa, Varanasi. Bharati (B.H.U., Varanasi), 1962-63, No. 6: 137.
  • Upadhyay, Basudev 1974. Some bibliographical notes on Sacred Kashi. Journal of Social Research (Ranchi), 17 (1); 42 – 48.
  • Varady, Robert G. 1989. Land use and environmental change in the Gangetic plain. Ninettenth-century human activity in the Banaras region. In, Freitag, S. B., ed. Culture and Power in Banaras (University of California Press, Berkeley): 229 – 245.
  • Verma, T. P. 1984. The temples of Banaras. Bharati (B.H.U., Varanasi), 1971-1984, No. 15: 194 – 205.
  • Visuvalingam, Elizabeth-Chalier 1986/ 1993. Bhairav: Kotwala of Varanasi. In, Verma, T. P. et el., eds. Varanasi Through the Ages. Bhartiya Itihas samkalan Samiti, UP, Varanasi: 241 – 260. Reprinted in, Singh, Rana P. B., eds. 1993, Banaras/ Varanasi. Tara Book Agency, Varanasi: 163 – 177. 1989. Bhairava’s royal Brahmanicide: The problem of the Mahabrahmana. In, Hiltebeitel, Alf, ed. Criminal Gods and Demon Devotees. State University of New York Press, Albany: 157 – 229.
  • Visuvalingam, Sunthar and Chalier-Visuvalingam, Elizabeth 1993. Between Mecca and Banaras: Towards an Acculturation-Model of Muslim-Hindu Relations. Islam and the Modern Age, vol. 24: pp. 20-69.
  • Ward, Geoffrey (Photographs by Raghubir Singh) 1985. Benares, India’s most holy city, faces an unholy problem. Smithsonian (Washington, DC), 16 (6), September: 82 – 93.
  • Wilke, Annette 1993. Durgā-Pūjā in Benares. Unipress (Bern), 78: 19-25.
  • Williams, J. L. 1793. Further particulars respecting the observatory at Benares. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, vol. LXXXIII.
  • Wright, H. R. C. 1959. The emancipation of the opium cultivators in Benares. International Review of Social History, IV (pt.3). C (i). Persian Works, Translated
  • Curwen, F. 1875. Trans. Bulwuntnamah of Khai-ud-din. Allahabad.
  • Hoey, W. 1888. Trans. Memoirs of Delhi and Faizabad (Tarikh-i-Farah-Bakhsh of Muhamma Faiz
  • Bakhsh), 2 vols. Allahabad.
  • Jarrett, H. S. 1949. Trans. Ain-i-Akbari of Abul Fazl Allami, vol. II, ed. by J. Sarkar. 2nd Ed. Calcutta.
  • Nota Manus 1926. Trans. Seir-ul-Mutakherin of Ghulam Hussain Khan, 4 vols. Calcutta and Madras.
  • IIT JAM Previous year question papers

Urdu Sources[edit]

  • Farid, Hazi Muhammad 1974. Tarikh Masarah Banaras. Varanasi Press, Dalmandi (Varanasi).
  • Nomani, Abdus Salam 1952. Tazkara Mashaikh Banaras. Akram Hussain Press, Banaras.
  • Nomani, Abdus Salam 1968. Tarikh Asar-e-Banaras. Maktabe Nadawatal Maurrif, Banaras.

The Sanskrit sources on Kashi/ Varanasi (selected)[edit]

  • AgP, Agni Purāna, 1957. Anandashram Sanskrit series no. 41, Poona. Dated ca CE 8th century. Ref. to Varanasi: 112.
  • AsD, Asthādhyāyi of Panini, 1897. Ed. S. C. Bose. Chowkhambha Oriental series, Benares. Dt. ca 500 BCE, Ref.: IV.2.113, 116; 3.84.
  • AtV, Atharva Veda, 1895. Venkateshvara Press, Bombay. Dt.: ca 1000 BCE, Ref.: V.22.4.
  • BgP, Bhagavata Mahapurana, 1971. Sanskrit & English transl. Ed. G.L. Gosvami, 2 vols,. Gita Press, Gorakhpur. Dt.: ca CE 14th century, Ref.: X.66
  • BhP, Brahmānda Purāna, 1976. Ed. J.L.Shastri. Motilal Banarasidass, Delhi. Dt. ca 4th century. Ref. Varanasi: 2.3.67, 207.
  • Bch, Buddhacaritam of Ashvaghosha, 1893. Ed. Cowel. Clarendon Press, Oxford. Dt.: CE 1st Century, Ref.: 15.44, 101.
  • DbP, Devi Bhagvata Purana, 1955. Chowkhambha Sanskrit Series, Banaras. Dt.: ca 8th century, Ref.: VII.24.13-24.
  • GL, Gangalahari of Jagannath, 1982. Thakur Prasad & Sons, Banaras. Dt.: ca CE 17th century, Ref.: 52 verses honouring the Ganga.
  • GnM, Givanamanjari by Varadaraja (CE 1600-1660), 1964. Gaekwad Sanskrit Series Publs., Baroda. Dt.: ca 1650.
  • GBr, Gopatha Brahmana, 1991. Ed. Deinke Gaastra. E.J. Brill, Leiden. Dt.: ca 4th century BCE, Ref. 12.9.
  • HvP, Harivamsha Purana, 1897. Trans. Manmatha Nath Dutta. Elysium Press, Calcutta. Dt. ca CE 3rd century (known as an appendix to the Mahabharata), Ref.: I.29.
  • KKh, Kāshi Khanda (of Skanda Purāna), 1991-1998. Editor: Karunapati Tripathi. Sampurnananda Sanskrit Vishvavidyalaya, Varanasi. 4 vols. Sanskrit and Hindi translation and commentary. Dt. ca 12th – 14th century. Contains 100 chapters and 11,624 verses.
  • KKM, Kāshi Kedāra Māhātmya (an appendix to the Brahmavaivarta Purāna) 1939. Translation: Vijayananda Tripathi, Ed. Krishnachandra Sahityacarya. Acyuta Granthamala, Kashi. Dt. ca 16th century.
  • KM, Kashi Mahatmya (from the Patala Khanda of the Padma Purana), 1939. Nawal Kishore Press, Bombay. Dt. ca 13-14th century.
  • KmN, Kashi Moksha Nirnaya by Sureshvara, 1931. Sanskrit text with Hindi, Ed. A. D. Upadhyayaya. Sri Gaurishankar Ganerrivala, Gorakhpur.
  • KmV, Kashi Mitra Vicara by Sureshvara, 1936. Ed. Gopinath Kaviraj. The Prince of Wales Sarasvati Bhavan Text No. 67. Government Printing, Allahabad.
  • (Sri) Kashi Pancakroshi Mahatmya, 1906. Victoria Press, Banaras.
  • KR, Kāshi Rahasya (an appendix to the Brahmavaivarta Purāna), 1957. Gurumandala Granthamalaya, No. XIV, vol. III, Calcutta. Dt. ca CE 16th century. Ref. 26 chapters.
  • KuP, Kurma Purāna, 1972. Sanskrit text and English translation. Ed. A.S. Gupta. All India Kashi Raj Trust, Varanasi. Dt. ca 7th-8th century. Ref. I.29-34; II.31-35.
  • KuM, Kuttanimatam, by Damodara Gupta, 1961. Ed. Jagannatha Pathaka. Indological Book House, Varanasi. Dt. ca 8th century. Ref. verses 3-18.
  • LP, Linga Purāna, 1973 Ed. J. L. Shastri. English Tran. 2 Vol. Motilal Banarasidass, Delhi. Dt.; earlier part – ca CE 8th century, later part – ca 12th century. Ref. canto 92: 190 verses.
  • MbH, Mahabharata, 1933-1959. Ed. V. S. Sukthankar (and others), 19 vols. Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, Baroda. Dt.: ca BCE 4th century. Ref. VI.10.30; VI.14.6; XIII.154.23 and 168.25.
  • MbS, Mahābhāsya (of Patanjali) 1880-1885. Ed. by Kielhorn. Venkateshvara Press, Bombay, 4 vols. Dt. ca BCE 2nd century. Ref. II.V.3.35, IV.1.54, IV.3.72.
  • MkP, Markandeya Purana, 1904. Transl. & Ed. F. E. Pargiter. Reprinted, Indological Book House, Delhi, 1969. Dt.: ca CE 7th century, Ref.: VII-VII.
  • MtP, Matsya Purāna, 1907. Anandashrama Sanskrit Series No. 54, Poona. Dt. ca 8th-10th century. Ref. 180-185-411.
  • NdP, Naradiya Purana, 1923. Venkateshvara Press, Bombay. Dt.: ca CE 9th century. Ref.: Uttarabhaga, II. 48-51, ca CE 12th century.
  • PP, Padma Purāna, 1894. Anandashrama Sanskrit Series No. 131, 4 vols. , Poona. Dt. ca 12th-13th century. Ref. I.33-37; IV.235-236; V.14; VI.278.
  • PbC, Prabodha Candrodaya by Krishna Mishra, 1955. Sanskrit Granthamala 14. Chowkhambha Vidya Bhavan, Varanasi. Dt. ca CE 1080.
  • RvS, Rig Veda Samhita, 1940. Ed. Shripada Sharma. Svadhyayamandala, Anudha. Dt.: ca BCE 1500, Ref.: I.130.7; X.179.
  • SaB, Satapatha Brahmana, 1882. Transl. J. Eggeling. Sacred Books of the East, vols. 12, 26, 41, 43, 44. The Claredon Press, Oxford. Reprinted, Motilal Banaridass, Delhi, 1989. Dt.: ca BCE 1500. Ref.: Vol. 5: 4.7.1; 13.5.4.21; 14.3.1.22; 14.14.
  • SuP, Saura Purana, 1892. Venkateshvara Press, Bombay. Dt. ca CE 10th century, Ref. II.1.6; IV.22-27; V.44.
  • SvP, Siva Mahapurana, 1962. Pandita Pustakalaya, Banaras. Dt. ca CE 12-13th century, Ref.: Kotirudra Samhita: 22-23; also II.1.6, III.9, and V.44.
  • TC, Tirthacintāmani, by Vacaspati Mishra, 1912. Bibliotheca India, New Series No. 1256. Asiatic Society of Bengal, Calcutta. Dt. ca 1460.
  • TP, Tirthaprakasha (a section of Viramitrodaya of Mitra Mishra). Chowkhambha Sanskrit Series, no. 239, Varanasi. Dt.: ca 1620.
  • TS, Tristhalisetu, by Narayana Bhatta, 1915. Anandashrama Sanskrit Series, No. 78, Poona
  • TvK, Tirthavivechana Kānda (Part III of Krityakalpataru by Lakshmidhara) 1942. Ed. K.V. Rangaswamy Aiyangar. Gaekwad’s Oriental Series Vol. XCVIII. Oriental Institute, Baroda. Dt. ca 1100.
  • UvP, Uktivyakti Prakarana by Pandita Damodara Sharma, 1953. Ed. Jivavijaya Muni. Singhi Granthamala, no. 39. Singhi Jain Shashra Vidyapith. Bhartiya Vidya Bhavan, Bombay. Dt.: ca CE 1134-1150.
  • VmP, Vamana Purana, 1985. Ed. A. S. Gupta. All-India Kashi Raj Trust, Varanasi. Dt.: ca CE 8-9th century, Ref.:3.26.
  • VyP, Vayu Purana, 1959. Gurumandala Granthamalaya, No. XIX, Calcutta. Dt.: CE 2-3rd century, Ref.: Canto 92.
  • VsP, Vishnu Purana, 1990. Gita Press, Gorakhpur. Dt. CE 7th century.
  • -- 1840. Trans. In English: The Vishnu Purana by H. H. Wilson. Reprint, 3rd Ed. Punthi Pustak, Calcutta.
  • VtK, Vividha Tirthakalpa by Jinaprabhu Suri, 1934. Ed. Jinavijaya Muni. University Press, Shantiniketan. Dr.: ca 1350.
  • E. Marathi Source
  • GC, Guru Caritra (of Sarasvati Gangadhara), 1990. Trans., ed. & revised by Ramacandra Krishna Keshava Bhikaji Dhavale, Girgaon (Bombay), 14th edn., Shaka 1912. Dt.: CE 1538, Ref.: 41.136-400: Kashi Mahatyma and the sacred Yatras.

Books in Hindi[edit]

  • Bade Guru 1964. Vāha Banāras. (Splendid Banaras). Bhartiya Bhasha Parishad Prakashan, Kashi.
  • Bismillāh, Abdul 1986. Jhīnī Jhīnī Bīnī Cadariyā. (The Finest-Softest Woven Shawl). A novel. Raj Kamal Prakashan, New Delhi.
  • Harishankar 1996. Kāśī ke Ghāt. Kalātmaka avam Sānskritic Adhyayana. (The Ghats of Kashi. A Study of Art and Culture). Vishvavidyalaya Prakashan, Varanasi.
  • Kavirāja, Gopinātha 1964. Kāshi ki Sarasvata Sadhanā. (Intellectual Meditation of Kashi). Bihar Rastrabhasha Parishad, Patna.
  • Mishra, Kaushal Kishore 1986. Ed. Vārānasi Visheshānka. (Sanmārg’s Annual Special Number). Sanmarg Office, Varanasi. 69 essays on various aspects. 339pp. (size 22 x 28cm).
  • Motīchandra, 1962. Kāshī kā Itihās. (History of Kashi). Bombay. 2nd ed., Varanasi: Vishvavidyalaya Prakashan.
  • Mukherjee, Vishvanāth 1978. Ed. Yaha Banāras Hai. (This is Banaras). Thalua Club, Varanasi.
  • Pandey, Uma 1980. Vārānasi: Bhārat kā Sanskritika Kendra. (Varanasi: the Cultural Capital of India). Mcmillan Co. of India Ltd., Madras.
  • Pāndeya, Banārasī Lal 1975. Mahārāja Balavanta Simha aur Kāshī kā Atīta. (King Balawant Singh and the Past of Kashi). Narayana Prakashan, Varanasi.
  • Rai, Kaushal Kumar 1984. Ed. Uttar Pradesh: Sanyunktānka – Kāshi Anka. (Uttar Pradesh: Joint Varanasi Number). Information and Public Relation Dept., Govt. of U.P., Lucknow.
  • “Rudra”, Shivprasād Mishra (late) 1967. Bahati Gangā. (Flowing Ganga). Collection of 17 stories about British Period. Radhakrishna Prakashan, Varanasi.
  • Sarasvatī, Dandī Svāmī Shīvānand 1990. Kāshī Darshan (Visiting Kashi). Dharmasangha, Vārānasī. 1998. Kāshi Gaurava (Kāshī kī Pancakroshī yātrā 'māhātmya' Kāshī kā itihās Kāshī māhātmya vartmān mem pracalit Vārānasī kī sampūrn yātrā). (The Glory of Kashi). Dharmasangha, Varanasi.
  • Sharmā, Nārāyanapati 1904. Kāshi Yātrā. (Kashi’s Pilgrimages). Venkatreshvara Press, Bombay.
  • Singh, Rāma Bachan 1994. Vārānasi. Eka Paramparāgata Nagara. (Varanasi, A Traditionakl City). Bhartiya Vidya Bhavan, Varanasi.
  • Singh, Shivprasād (late) 1974. Gali Age Murāti Hai. (Street turns Yonder). A novel on the modern Varanasi. Vani Prakashan, New Delhi, 2nd ed. 1991. 1988. Nilā Chanda. (Blue Moon). A novel on the medieval Varanasi. Vani Prakashan, New Delhi. 1995. Vaishvānara. (Vedic Fire). A novel on the ancient Varanasi. Vani Prakashan, New Delhi.
  • Sukul, Kuber Nāth 1977. Vārānasī Vaibhava. (The Glory of Varanasi). Rastrabhasha Parishad, Patna.
  • Upādhyāya, Baladeva 1994. Kāshi kī Pānditya Paramparā (Kāshīstha samskrta vidvānom jīvancarit evam sāhityak avadānom kā pramānika vivarana) [1200-1980]. Vishvavidyālaya Prakāshan, Vārānasī.
  • Vishvakarmā, Ishvar Sharan 1987. Kāshi kā Aitihāsika Bhugola. (Historical Geography of Kashi: From the earliest times to CE 12th century). Ramananda Vidya Bhavan, New Delhi.
  • G. Unpublished Dissertations
  • Akhtar, Jamal 1992. Muslims in Varanasi City. A Study in Cultural Geography. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation in Geography. Banaras Hindu University. Supervisor: Rana P. B. Singh. In English.
  • Bermigin, Isabella 1998. The Fifty Six Vinayakas (of Kashi). Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Dept. of Study of Religion. School of Oriental and African Studies (University of London), London. Supervisor: Simon Weightman. In English.
  • Cocari, Diane M. 1986. The Bir Babas of Banaras: An Analysis of a Folk Deity of North Indian Hinduism. Unpubl. Ph.D. thesis in South Asian Studies. University of Wisconsin, Madison.
  • Denton, Lynn Teskey 1988. Purity and Power: Dimensions of Female Asceticism in the Hindu Tradition. Unpubl. D.Phil. thesis in Anthropology. Oxford University, Oxford.
  • Derné, Stephan David 1988. Culture in Action: Hindu Men’s Talk about Women, Marriage, and Family. Unpubl. Ph.D. thesis in Sociology. University of California, Berkeley.
  • King, Christopher R. 1974. The Nagiri Pracharini Sabha (Society for the promotion of the Nagari Script and language) of Benaras, 1893-1914: A Study in Social and Political History of the Hindi Language. Unpbl. Ph.D. thesis in South Asian Studies. University of Wisconsin, Madison.
  • Köckman, Uwe 1980. Revivalismus in Indien: Zur Politischen Geschichte Varanasis. Geographische Institut der Ruhr-Universität, Bochum. Unpubl. Ph.D. thesis. In German.
  • Kohili, Sujata 1986. Varanasi: A Study in Landscape Architecture. (With special reference to Ghats). Unpubl. M.Arch. thesis in Landscape Architecture, School of Planning and Architecture, New Delhi.
  • Pugh, Judy F. 1981. Person and Experience: The Astrological System of North India. Unpubl. Ph.D. thesis in South Asian Civilisations, University of Chicago, Chicago.
  • Rai, Seema 1992. Environment and Health: A Geographical Study of Varanasi Urban Agglomeration. Unpubl. Ph.D. thesis in Geography, Banaras Hindu University.
  • Singh, Amar Nath 1971. Varanasi: A Study in Urban Sociology. Unpubl. Ph.D. thesis in Sociology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi. Supervisor: (late) Prof. G. S. Nepali.
  • Singh, Bhagya Lakshmi 1990. Socio-economic Conditions of Slum dwellers in Varanasi City. Unpubl. Ph.D. thesis in Geography, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi.
  • Singh, Madhuri 1990. Varanasi in History: A Geographical Study. Unpubl. Ph.D. thesis in Geography, Banaras Hindu university, Varanasi.
  • Singh, R. B. 1965. Gangaputra Pandas of Varanasi. Unpubl. Ph.D. thesis in Sociology, Kashi Vidyapith, Varanasi.
  • Singh, (Mrs) Sandhya 2000. Urban Housing Problems and Planning of Varanasi City: A Geographical Study. Unpubl. Ph.D. thesis in Geography, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi.