Destroying Telemachus' home and inheritance -- bringing into question of Penelope's safety
How does the setting of the island kingdom of Ithaca help develop the plot of the story?
Poseidon is angry with Odysseus, so he can't go to his home, let alone live there. Also, people don't know about Ithaca and Odysseus's house problems, so nobody is helping.
How is the theme "a young man trying to fill his father's footsteps" beginning to develop in Books 1-4?
Telemachus is following his footsteps by being courageous and taking responsibility to find him. He tries to do what his father would do by protecting his mom and kingdom and standing up against the suitors.
What happens in Book 5 after Calypso releases Odysseus at Zeus's request (through Hermes)?
After Calypso releases Odysseus, Odysseus leaves the island on a raft. Poseidon, his enemy, sets a tremendous storm, causing Odysseus to barely make it out alive when he was washed ashore on a random island. After this episode, he finds an olive tree and falls asleep.
In Book 6, who is the first person Odysseus meets? What is she doing?
Odysseus meets Princess Nausicaa of the Phaeacians. She was washing her wedding dress.
Where does she take Odysseus?
To the main town.
In Book 7, why is Odysseus amazed when he arrives at the palace?
He is amazed because the palace is very beautiful.
Who does Odysseus ask for help when he arrives? Why does the king agree to help Odysseus? What does the king promise?
Odysseus asks the queen for help; The king agrees to help Odysseus because he knows better than to refuse hospitality for someone like Odysseus; The king promises him a safe passage home after a day of entertainment.
In Book 8, what activities are planned for Odysseus's holiday? Why does the king agree to help Odysseus?
Athletic events (foot races, wrestling, and discus); He reacts in anger when he is questioned about his abilities and he throws the disc with great force.
What event causes the king to ask Odysseus about his identity?
The king asks Odysseus's identity because he [Odysseus] sobs at the Trojan War songs.
Alcinous's call to have Odysseus reveal his identity is a cue for Odysseus to begin telling the adventures that will make his name.
Odysseus proves his love for Penelope by saying he never gave consent when having sex with Circe.
After many problems, Odysseus says he and his men land on the land of the Lotus Eaters.
The lotus plant is supposed to produce feelings of dreaminess and laziness.
After they landed, Odysseus sent two men out to find out who lives there.
The Lotus Eaters offered sweet lotus to the men and they reacted to it by not wanting to leave or go home to Ithaca.
After dragging the men back to the ship, Odysseus tells his men to return to the ship, then set sail for a new land.
Odysseus is the cleverest of the ancient Greek heroes because the mythological "god", Athena (of wisdom), is his guardian.
Polyphemus is said to represent the brute force and negative singleness of purpose (to do bad).
Curiosity caused Odysseus to go into the Cyclops cave.
Odysseus is in the Cyclops's cave when the Cyclops returns with his ewes.
Odysseus tells the Cyclops that it is Zeus will to have him wander the seas.
Odysseus tells the Cyclops that it is a custom to honor strangers or Zeus will avenge unoffending guests.
When the Cyclops asks Odysseus where his ship is, Odysseus lies by saying that his ship got destroyed by Poseidon by the rocks on the shore.
For dinner, the Cyclops grabs two men and eats them.
In the morning, the Cyclops tends to his ewes and then eating more men.
The Cyclops traps the men in the cave every day by resetting a great door slab in front of the cave.
Once the Cyclops leaves, Odysseus plots his revenge and escape route by making a spear.
That night, Odysseus offers the Cyclops some wine and once the Cyclops become drunk, he tells the Cyclops that his name is Nohbdy which is pronounced like Nobody.
The Cyclop promises Odysseus the gift of eating all the others first.
After Polyphemus passes out from drinking, Odysseus attacks him.
While Polyphemus is yelling in pain, he wakes the other Cyclops in caves nearby who begin to ask him: What ails you? Polyphemus responds: Nohbdy has tricked and ruined me. How has Odysseus's false identity helped him?
When the Cyclop says that "Nohbdy" is tricking and ruining him, the other cyclops think there is literally "NOBODY" tricking him.
Odysseus and his men are able to escape the cave by tying themselves to 3 different rams, the men hiding in the biggest stomach.
Odysseus yells back to the Cyclops as they sail away from the island that Zeus and the other mythological "gods" paid them for eating the guests.
The Cyclops, in response, threw a hilltop at Odysseus's ship causing a huge wave to nearly throw them back to the island.
Odysseus reveals his true identity to Polyphemus. He tries to trick Odysseus to return to shore by lying that he will take care of him and tell his dad to treat him well.
When Odysseus refuses, the Cyclop prays to his father Poseidon and asks that he makes sure Odysseus never goes home or if he does, let him be the only survivor who returns on another boat to trouble at home after many years.
Book 10 - The Bag of Winds and the Witch Circe
Once they sail away from Polyphemus and the islands of the Cyclops, Odysseus and his men land next on the island Aeolia.
Odysseus meets Aeolus who does a favor for Odysseus which is placing all the stormy winds in a bag.
+DEM AS MACHINA
During the voyage back to Ithaca, suspicion and curiosity causes the men to open the bag against Odysseus's orders.
After opening the bag, the evil winds roar into a hurricane to blow them back out to sea within seeing-distance of Ithaca.
After more men are killed and eaten by the Laestrygonians. Odysseus's ship lands on the island Aeaea, the home of the witch Crice.
When they first see Circe they are unsure of whether she is a goddess or a woman. All but Eurylochus go to meet her.
Odysseus finds it strange that the lions and wolves don't attack.
Circe gives the men a feast along with some wine while in her palace. It causes the men to loose desire to go home, Ithaca. It turns the men into pigs.
As Odysseus runs to help his men, Hermes, the messenger of the Gods, gives him a molu. It will act as an antidote to Circe's power.
+DEM AS MACHINA
After Circe is overcome with the magic, she tells Odysseus to stay and restore his heart.
After Odysseus tells of his adventures from Books 9-12, Alcinous has him returned to Ithaca. Why doesn't Odysseus know where he is when he awakes?
Athena casts a protective mist, which prevents him from recognizing his homeland.
In Book 14, who is Eumaeus? What does he do for Odysseus?
Eumaeus is a swineherd who gives Odysseus a comfy seat, throwing his own bedcover over a pile of boughs, food (prime boar, bread and wine), and a place to sleep (by a fire under Eumaeus's cloak).
In Book 15, what does Odysseus learn about Eumaeus? Why is Odysseus so close with him?
Odysseus learns that Eumaeus, after being kidnapped by his nursemaid, was bought by his own father and raised as a member of the family. Odysseus feels close to him because his father's wife treated him like a family member.
Why is Telemachus able to avoid the ambush set up by Antinous?
Athena notified him about it before the attack
In Book 16, what happens between Telemachus and Odysseus?
Telemachus meets up with Odysseus (who is still looking like an old beggar). Then Athena restores Odysseus's normal appearance, which makes Telemachus think he is a god. Odysseus reveals that he is no god and that he is Telemachus's dad who has returned. They both hug and after that, they planned their attack against the suitors.
In Book 17, Odysseus is poorly treated by two men. Who are they and what do they do?
Odysseus is first poorly treated by Melantheus, who curses and tries to trick him. Then Odysseus is poorly treated by Antinous, who refuses him food and even throws his footstool at Odysseus's back.
Describe the encounter Odysseus has with Irus in Book 18.
Odysseus meets Irus, the beggar who runs errands for the suitors. Irus tells him to leave, but Odysseus refuses to leave. Irus threatens fists and the suitors incite Irus to do so. Odysseus accepts the challenge and rolls up his tunic into a boxer's belt, revealing big muscles in which he suitors gaze upon. Odysseus, not wanting to kill Irus, breaks his jaw.
Who is Eurycleia? What makes her interaction with Odysseus so special?
Eurycleia is Penelope's maid; Eurycleia was Odysseus's nurse when he was a child. She notices a scar around his knee. She recognizes the scar to be from a wild boar attack when Odysseus was hunting on Mt. Parnassus as a young man. She realizes this and she lets Odysseus know that she remembers him, but Odysseus silences her so that she doesn't ruin Odysseus's plan.
Give two examples of foreshadowing (clues that give the reader hints of what is to come) that occur in the summary for Book 20.
Zeus's clap of thunder from the clear blue sky and as a result: A servant prays that the day that Zeus's calp of thunder is revealed is the last day of the suitors' abuse.
A Greek-mythological prophet, who was a murderer and befriended Telemachus, shares a vision with the suitors that the walls will be dripping with their blood.