This lesson covers how to design instruction that teaches procedures, or “procedure-using” instruction. After completing this lesson, you should be able to do the following:
- Recognize the definition of a procedure.
- Distinguish between linear and branched procedures.
- Design an effective, efficient and appealing instructional method for a procedure-using skill.
The diagram above is an advance organizer, or visual representation of the topics in this lesson. Navigate to each topic by following the "Next" link at the bottom of each page. Return to previously viewed pages by following the "Back" link on the bottom of each page or by following the labeled links at the top of each page which correspond to each of these topics:
- Define: What is a Procedural Task?
- Learn: Principles for Learning Procedural Skills
- Teach: Principles for Teaching Procedural Skills
- Routine: Routine Tactics for Teaching Procedures
- Power: Power Tactics for Teaching Procedures
- Steps: How to Design a Procedure-Using Lesson
- Try: Practice What You’ve Learned
- Example: Sample Procedure-Using Lesson
Click Next to continue.
|Instructional Design||Cognitive Behaviors||< Back||Next >|
- Procedure Using by Charles M. Reigeluth. Used by Permission.
Primary References for this Lesson
This section contains the primary references and resources used to produce this original lesson. Where available, a hyperlink to the WorldCat library database is provided for the references and resources used in this lesson. Per the WorldCat.org web site, WorldCat is the world's largest network of library content and services. By following the hyperlinks below to the WorldCat web site, it is possible to find library copies of the resources in your area by conducting a search by zip code. In addition, hyperlinks to other web sites are used within the lesson to provide additional sources of information for further exploration of topics that are beyond the primary focus or scope of this lesson.
- Ausubel, D.P. (1968). Educational Psychology: A Cognitive View. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.
- Ausubel, D.P., Hanesian, & Novak, (1978) Educational Psychology: A Cognitive View (2nd ed.). New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.
- Bloom, B.S. (1976). Human Characteristics and School Learning. New York: McGraw-Hill.
- Driscoll, M. P. (2005). Psychology of learning for instruction. Boston: Pearson Allyn & Bacon.
- Gagné, R.M. (1985). The Conditions of Learning and Theory of Instruction (4th ed.). New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.
- Jonassen, D. (1999). Designing Constructivist Learning Environment. In Reigeluth, C.M. (Ed.), Instructional-design theories and models (215 - 236). Mahwah, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
- Kaufman, R. (1979). Needs Assessment: Concept and Application. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Educational Technology Publications.
- Keller, J. (October 1987). Strategies for stimulating the motivation to learn. Performance and Instruction, 1-7.
- Kulhavy, R. (1977). Feedback in written instruction. Review of Educational Research, 47, 211-232.
- Miller, G. (1956). The magical number seven, plus or minus two: Some limits on our capacity to process information. Psychological Review, 63, 81-97.
- Mayer, R.E. (1999). Designing Instruction for Constructivist Learning. In Reigeluth, C.M. (Ed.), Instructional-design theories and models (141 - 159). Mahwah, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
- Thiagarajan, S. (2004). Framegames by Thiagi. Bloomington, IN: Workshops by Thiagi.
- Thorndike, E.M. (1913). Educational Psychology. Volume II. The Psychology of Learning. New York: Teachers College, Columbia University.