Talk:Instructional design/Psychomotor behaviors

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Latest comment: 17 years ago by Mzucal in topic Learning Objectives
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Design Document

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The following describes the design driving this instructional module.

Target Audience

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• Corporate and vocational trainers developing instruction for physical tasks. Individuals should already been familiar with instructional strategy from the cognitive domain.

• Higher education specialist (academicians?) seeking a broad overview of psychomotor learning domain.

Course Goal

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Training developers will be able to create and/or select instructional strategies for teaching specific interpersonal topics. Additionally, they will be able to effectively and correctly evaluate different methods and strategies within the psychomotor domain, and will be able to decide which training or instructional options would be the best option to meet very specific training goals within the domain. The result shall be an instructional unit that is efficient, effective, and appealing.

Learning Objectives

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Given a learning objective that involves a psychomotor skill, the learner will be able to create and/or select micro-level instructional strategies for designing instruction that teaches the psychomotor skill.

  • Describe which topics and issues fall within the psychomotor domain.
  • Define and describe various methods and strategies used for creating instruction within the psychomotor domain.
  • Evaluate a learning environment for use in psychomotor instruction, including implementation considerations
  • Develop Strategies in Psychomotor Assessment

--Susanwright 00:30, 13 March 2007 (UTC)Reply

Melissa 03:29, 16 April 2007 (UTC)Reply

Learning Experience

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This unit provides an online, self-paced learning experience in which students wishing to learn about instructional design methods, theories, strategies, and issues within the Psychomotor Domain.

Text, photos, video, and audio clips will be used to help guide students as they produce their own instruction for psychomotor skills using Harrow's Taxonomy: Imitation - Manipulation - Precision - Articulation - Naturalization.

The unit will also include demonstrations, scenarios, opportunities for practice, and an assessment on development of performance-based and skill-based evaluations. After completing this unit, students will be equiped to determine if the learning domain for their course falls within the psychomotor, cognitive, or affective domain.


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Team review page 357 in Driscoll book

Perhaps we can review the different schools thought on the domain

Directions from Pete: You may continue to edit these elements, please please do so without signing or adding things out of the structure -- edit directly in the structure. Your next task is to develop a prototype lesson for one of the enabling objectives. Someone should take the lead, choose one, and begin development. Others should contribute, edit, and elaborate. For fairness, everyone will take the lead on at least one of the enabling objectives. Let's start with the prototype, then apply what we learn to the other objectives

Conference Call Notes for 2/27/2007

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Regarding the objectives:

The team will tweak the wording and looking at diferent ways for presenting these objectives.
  • Bryan is going to look at these two objectives:
    • Describe which topics and issues fall within the psychomotor domain.
    • Define and describe various methods and strategies used for creating instruction within the psychomotor domain.
  • Susan is going to look at the Target Audience area and these two objectives:
    • List the delivery considerations for instruction within the psychomotor domain.
    • Describe the Intelligence that deals with psychomotor skills
  • Rea is going work on Learning experience and the following two objectives
    • Give examples of exercises which facilitate instruction for psychomotor skills.
    • Define delivery methods for instruction
  • Melissa is going to work on the following objectives:
    • Describe the psychomotor domain.
    • List the strategies for instructional material development for psychomotor skills And
    • Start developing a prototype using the Describe the Domain looking at using appropraite micro-strategies and possible media to use in the lessons

Team will post their findings in the Discussion area Findings for March 3 and mark it with their signature by Friday, March 2, 2007 by 11:59pm.

Next conference call is scheduled for Saturday, March 3, 2007 at 7pm. Bryan will call all team members for the call. --Melissa 03:17, 28 February 2007 (UTC)Reply

Findings for March 3 Discussion

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From Bryan Hudson

Describe which topics and issues fall within the psychomotor domain.

The psychomotor domain receives less attention in the instructional design community than the cognitive and affective domains. While this lesser role is justified given the propensity of learning needs in the cognitive and affective domain, Ppsychomotor domain learning needs exist in many environments. According to Romiszowski, it is also important to “recognize the interralateness of psychomotor skills with best practices in the cognitive, affective and other domains of learning.” (Romiszowski, from Releigluth, p. 461)

“One can therefore place effective psychomotor training models within paradigms such as the one the performance technology movement has spawned.” (p. 461)

Instructional Design focused on cognitive/affective outcomes in an area such as training lab technicians will also require attention to the psychomotor domain issues such as speed, productivity, accuracy, and error rate. (p. 461) As a performance related topic, lab work in the context of the psychomotor domain provides opportunities to measure procedural validity. This is very important consideration beyond possessing knowledge of chemistry.

One of the weaknesses of early psychomotor domain theory/practice was the emphasis on simple movements or repetitive sequences.(p. 462) Later work has focused on the larger, more complex skills of which simple movements are components.

“A distinction was made by Poulton (1957), in the context of sports training, between ‘closed’ and ‘open’ tasks, the former requiring a response to a stable environment (e.g. bowling), and the latter requiring continuous adjustment to an unpredictable, changing environment, as during a football game.” (p. 462)

The “closed” task is also referred to as “productive” tasks, while “open” is referred to as “reproductive” tasks. Using this model, it is not difficult to envision and instructional design project that blends considerations of the psychomotor domain alongside the cognitive and affective domain, especially where knowledge acquisition is followed by motor activity.

Romiszowski proposed a “skills cycle” that involves a cycle of stages starting from the reception of information and leading to specific action in a given environment. (p. 463). The following diagram (insert Fig. 19.1 from page 463) illustrates the value of including psychomotor skills (physical action) alongside the categories of cognitive skills (decision making), reactive skills (self control), and interactive skills (dealing with others).

Define and describe various methods and strategies used for creating instruction within the psychomotor domain.

Building on Romiszowski’s “skills schema,” instructional designers can consider which methods and strategies might serve learning needs for projects that have a psychomotor component.

“The skills cycle draws our attention to the importance of considering such factors as perception, memory, intellectual skills, and cognitive strategies when we engage in the teaching of psychomotor skills.” (p. 465)

Regarding the specific process for psychomotor learning, Romiszowski, building on the work of Seymour (1954, 1966) proposes the following five stages: [Re-print text from pages 467-468]

The larger strategy for psychomotor learning follows four categories:

1. Information (explanation, demonstration and guidance)

2. Practice (Frequency, spacing, etc. ) [Add video of Alan Iverson’s quote about “Practice?”]

3. Feedback (Frequency, form, quality, etc)

4. Transfer and generalization

Sources: Reigeluth, Charles (1999). Instructional-Design Theories and Models: A New Paradigm of Instructional Theory. Hillsdale, NJ:

Bryhudso 12:49, 3 March 2007 (UTC)Reply

From Rea White Breckenridge

Create examples and non-examples of exercises which facilitate instruction for psychomotor skills.

An example of an exercise which facilitate instruction for psyschomotor skills is the Naval Rescue Swimmer School. The swimmers receive extensive cognitive knowledge as well as associated psychomotor skills. A non-example is class about swimming outside the pool,in which the swimmers receive cognitive knowledge without the associated psychomotor skills.

Determine effective delivery methods for psychomotor skills.

In order to determine the most effective delivery method for psychomotor skills, you must first be aware of the stage of learning. According to R. H. Dave, a widely accepted psychomotor taxonomy adaptation of Bloom’s Psychomotor Domain Taxonomy there are 5 stages of learning.

1. Imitation – demonstrations, observation, role play – the learner may be asked to read about the subject or watch a video performance of the skill.

2. Manipulation – Skill is broken into sequences in which the learner performs and practice, practice, practice.

3. Precision – The learner will continue to practice until the skill become less of an effort and begins to master the skill.

4. Articulation –

5. Naturalization –


Lesson Prototype Development

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From Rea White Below are revised objectives based on our conference call 03-12. Please edit or give your approval...

Revised Objectives:

1. Define the psychomotor domain and describe the psychomotor domain.
2. Define and describe various methods and strategies used for creating instruction within the psychomotor domain. 
3. Evaluate a learning environment for use in psychomotor instruction, including implementation considerations.
4. Develop strategies for psychological condition in the performance of psychomotor skills 

Describe the psychomotor domain.

For further information about the Psychomotor Domain, click the following link:

Proposed timeine

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Proposed next steps -

  • March 6 - review feedback from Pete
  • March 12 - submit course outline for your two objectives (Bryan e-mailed link to a sample lesson) for group feedback
  • March 16 - feedback due
  • March 30 - submit course draft for group review
  • April 6 - feedback due
  • April 14 - lesson due for final group review
  • April 16 - wiki lesson due to pete
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