TESOL/Constructing a narrative
Telling a story, or constructing a narrative, as it's known technically, is an essential language ability. Being able to tell a story is what beginning second language learners strive for and marks fluency in a language.
Sequential events[edit | edit source]
Events rapidly following each other[edit | edit source]
The words scarcely, hardly, and no sooner are used to indicate that events happen quickly after each other. The words connecting the following event are set and cannot be exchanged.
- I had hardly come in when/before the phone rang.
I had hardly come in than the phone rang.
- She had no sooner eaten the salad than she began to feel sick.
She had no sooner eaten when she began to feel sick
- He had scarcely finished talking when/before the reporters began shouting questions.
He had scarcely finished talking than the reporters began shouting questions.
Completion[edit | edit source]
The word once is sometimes a conjunction indicating that one event comes to completion before the next event starts.
- Once we got to our camp, we started to make our tent.
- I understood it clearly once she explained it to me.
- I can come to your house once my mom lets me.
Ending[edit | edit source]
Finally[edit | edit source]
Finally is used to indicate that something happens after a long wait, and using it suggests that the speaker was impatient.