Sustainable Sanitation Training Materials

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Sustainable Sanitation for the 21st Century

A sourcebook for training is now available for free download

This sourcebook is the result of experiences gained over the last decade from more than 300 participants attending an international training course and ongoing research.

Sustainable Sanitation aims at protecting human and environmental health through safe use and reuse of available resources

Both Sourcebook and set of 600 animated PowerPoints provide the knowledge and skills required to address the five improvements below.

  1. There is no water scarcity in cities, only poor management of the available water.
  2. Morbidity can be reduced through washing hands and safe handling of child faeces.
  3. Future toxic shocks can be avoided through harnessing our chemical society by source control of products.
  4. Food security can be achieved through reduced wastage, recycling of nutrients and changes in diets.
  5. Households and residents hold the key to improvements mainly through improved sanitation routines, and also through exercising the power as consumers and voters.

The material is multi-disciplinary and covers management issues, town planning, civil and environmental engineering, public health, urban agriculture, etc.

- You can access information and useful references from the Sourcebook (700 pages in pdf format)

- You can combine your own training material with the PowerPoints you pick out of this set of 600 slides.


Introduction: ppt - 0.7 MB, pdf - 2.4 MB

Chapter 1 - Sustainable sanitation - a review[edit]

Questions Learning objectives Download
Module 1.1
Sanitary conditions in the world
What functions should a sustainable system fulfill? Is sanitation in the world improving or not? Sanitary conditions in various parts of the world. Critical understanding of data and functions. ppt 2.3 MB
pdf 2.5 MB
Module 1.2
Where are the resources? What might be the problem to access them? Limits of nutrients, water and staff. Understanding the role of sanitation. ppt 0.9 MB
pdf 1.1 MB
Module 1.3
Resource flows
From where do resources come and where do they end up? How resource flows are created and manipulated. Methods to analyse flows. ppt 2.1 MB
pdf 2.6 MB
Module 1.4
Demographic change
Does population growth impact service levels? Is urbanisation a solution or a problem for improvement? Urban-rural links. The role of demography in sanitation planning and implementation. ppt 0.6 MB
pdf 1.6 MB
Total Chapter 1 download: ppt - 3.6 MB, pdf - 7.7 MB

Chapter 2 - Sanitation management today and in the future[edit]

Questions Learning objectives Download
Module 2.1
Sanitation arrangements
Is there one system that suits most conditions or must we choose and combine? Matching management with technology and local conditions. ppt 9.6 MB
pdf 2.4 MB
Module 2.2
Major changes over time
How does consumption impact on reuse over time? What footprints are left? Long-term impacts shaping sanitation arrangements and tracing origins of change. ppt 1.5 MB
pdf 1 MB
Module 2.3
From policy to action
What is allowed to do? Do polluters really pay? Translating guidelines & laws to local action and change. ppt 3.7 MB
pdf 1.8 MB
Module 2.4
User perspectives
What are residents appreciating? Why? Be sensitized to challenges of bottom-up approaches. ppt 1.4 MB
pdf 1.6 MB
Module 2.5
A way forward
How to obtain all all the information we need? Advance selection criteria for sustainable sanitation. ppt 2.5 MB
pdf 2.2 MB
Module 2.6
Plans and design
What difference does good planning and design make? Opportunities to improve sustainability provided by nature. ppt 3.5 MB
pdf 1.2 MB
Module 2.7
Construction and monitoring
What bottlenecks are there for councils and residents? The paramount role of good construction for operation. ppt 2.4 MB
pdf 2 MB
Total Chapter 2 download: ppt 25.9 MB, pdf 11.9 MB

Chapter 3 - Sanitation and public health[edit]

Questions Learning objectives Download
Module 3.1
Exposure and effects in humans
Public health as a driving force for sanitation? How are infectious diseases transmitted? What happens if and when we are exposed to pathogens? The present global situation. Health risks related to sanitation. Pathogens of concern in water and sanitation systems. Epidemiology. ppt 6 MB
pdf 3.6 MB
Module 3.2
Environmental transmission
Where do the pathogens we are exposed to come from? How do pathogens in excreta contaminate the environment? Pathogens in different waste fractions. Different routes of transmission related to water and sanitation. Zoonotic diseases. ppt 1.5 MB
pdf 2.7 MB
Module 3.3
Pathogen reduction
How persistent are pathogens in the environment? How can we prevent exposure and disease transmission in sanitation systems which involve the agricultural reuse of excreta? Persistence of microorganisms in different environments. Treatment options for urine and faeces in theory. Barriers in agricultural reuse systems. ppt 0.8 MB
pdf 2.6 MB
Module 3.4
Health targets and guidelines
Which targets can be achieved in relation to exposure and treatment? How are barriers used in guidelines to minimise health risks? Health targets and the microbial risk concept. Faecal indicators. Options for guidelines and regulations (WHO). ppt 5.3 MB
pdf 5.9 MB
Module 3.5
Risk management
Can we measure a risk of disease transmission? How can sanitation systems be evaluated? Control strategies (barriers) and risk management. Systematic evaluations of health risks. ppt 2.6 MB
pdf 10.8 MB
Total Chapter 3 download: ppt - 16 MB, pdf - 10.9 MB

Chapter 4 - Sanitation and the environment[edit]

Questions Learning objectives Download
Module 4.1
Nutrient and water cycles in biosphere and society
How do plant nutrients and water flow in the biosphere? How have flows been changed by society? Cycles of nutrients and water in the biosphere. Flows of nutrients and contaminants in excreta/greywater/waste. ppt 1.3 MB
pdf 1 MB
Module 4.2
Treatment of excreta for safe reuse
Can urine and faeces be made safe for use in crop cultivation? Can household organic material be incorporated? Effects of digestion, storage, desiccation, composting, heat & ammonia treatment, incineration on pathogens and fertiliser quality. ppt 0.7 MB
pdf 0.5 MB
Module 4.3
Compost treatment
What happens in a compost? How is the material degraded and what are the end products like? Composting as a biological treatment of organic waste. Processes and the function of the system ppt 0.5 MB
pdf 1.7 MB
Module 4.4
Biogas reactors for treatment
Why do substances degrade and form biogas? What amounts can be produced? How to manage anaerobic processes to obtain biogas. Biogas generation in the world today. ppt 5.5 MB
pdf 4.3 MB
Module 4.5
Greywater is man-made
Greywater as a resource? What happens with used household chemicals? What we add to water while using it. Source control in homes and industries. ppt 2 MB
pdf 2.5 MB
Module 4.6
Greywater – processes
How can Nature assist or react? What compounds can be removed? Be familiar with how treatment processes work and why they function. ppt 2.5 MB
pdf 4.1 MB
Module 4.7
Greywater treatment options
Can we remove all metals and pathogens? What is in the sludge? Various treatment options and how they combine physical/ biological/chemical processes. ppt 7.2 MB
pdf 5.9 MB
Module 4.8
Excreta fertilisers in agriculture
How can ecological fertilisers from excreta best be used? Factors limiting yield. Functions of plant nutrients. Examples and recommendations. ppt 0.9 MB
pdf 0.5 MB
Module 4.9
Environmental systems analysis
Can sanitation systems be compared fairly? How to measure impacts? System boundaries. Quantification of environmental effects and resource use. ppt 0.3 MB
pdf 1 MB
Module 4.10
Comparisons of sanitation systems
How can a dry UD toilet system be compared with a conventional system? Effects on water, climate and various resource use. Cost-benefit analysis. ppt 0.9 MB
pdf 0.6 MB
Total Chapter 4 download: ppt 19.4 MB, pdf 22.1 MB

Chapter 5 - Applications[edit]

Questions Learning objectives Download
Module 5.1
Sanitation, food security and plant nutrients
Does recirculation of human-derived nutrients make a difference? Are there substitutes? Flow analysis to assess potentials of reusing nutrients for future food security. Role of sanitation sector. ppt 4.1 MB
pdf 2.9 MB
Module 5.2.
Public toilets
Can public toilets be attractive? Can vandalism be avoided? How to plan and implement appreciated toilets in public places. Design criteria. ppt 6.5 MB
pdf 3.3 MB
Module 5.3.
School toilets
Can schools inspire good hygiene and promote eco-sanitation? Function-based design and management of school sanitation. ppt 8.9 MB
pdf 4 MB
Module 5.4.
For emergency
To be completed To be completed ppt (inaccessible)
pdf (inaccessible)
Total Chapter 5 download: ppt (inaccessible), pdf (inaccessible)

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Original source


This support material for training of professionals for the sanitation and water sector has been developed by the main authors Jan-Olof Drangert of Linköping University / Vatema, Caroline Schönning of the Swedish Institute for Communicable Disease Control, and Björn Vinnerås of the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.

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