Survey research and design in psychology/Lectures/Exploratory factor analysis

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Lecture 5: Exploratory factor analysis

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This is the fifth lecture for the Survey research and design in psychology unit of study.

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This lecture introduces and explains the use of exploratory factor analysis particularly for the purposes of psychometric instrument development. The lecture is accompanied by a computer-based tutorial about psychometrics.



  1. Beavers, A. S., Lounsbury, J. W., Richards, J. K., Huck, S. W., Skiloits, G. J., Esquivel, S. L. (2013). Practical considerations for using exploratory factor analysis in educational research. Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation, 18(6).
  2. Fabrigar, L. R., Wegener, D. T., MacCallum, R. C., & Strahan, E. J. (1999). Evaluating the use of exploratory factor analysis in psychological research. Psychological Methods, 4, 272-299.
  3. Floyd, F. J., & Widaman, K. F. (1995). Factor analysis in the development and refinement of clinical assessment instruments. Psychological Assessment, 7, 286-299.
  4. Howitt and Cramer (2014a). Chapter 31: Factor analysis: Simplifying complex data (pp. 423-443) UCLearn reading list (Exploratory factor analysis section)
  5. Streiner, D. L. (1994). Figuring out factors: The use and misuse of factor analysis. The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 39, 135-140.
  6. Tabachnick, B. G. & Fidell, L. S. (2007). Principal components and factor analysis. In Using multivariate statistics. (6th ed., pp. 607-675). Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon. UCLearn reading list (Exploratory factor analysis section)
  7. Wikiversity (2017). Exploratory factor analysis: Glossary.
  8. Williams, B., Brown, T., & Onsman, A. (2012). Exploratory factor analysis: A five-step guide for novices. Australian Journal of Paramedicine, 8(3).

See also[edit]


  1. Barkley, T. W. Jr., & Burns, J. L. (2000). Factor analysis of the Condom Use Self-Efficacy Scale among multicultural college students. Health Education Research, 15, 485-489.
  2. Comrey, A. L. & Lee, H. B. (1992). A first course in factor analysis (2nd ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
  3. Fehriinger H. M. (2004). Contributions and limitations of Cattell's sixteen personality factor model. Retrieved from
  4. Ivancevic, V., Kaine, A., McLindin, B., & Sunde, J. (2003). Factor analysis of essential facial features. Paper presented to the 25th International Conference on Information Technology Interfaces (ITI), pp. 187-191, 16-19 June and 10th Meeting of Researchers in Biometrics,(BIOSTAT), 2003, Cavtat, Croatia. [1]
  5. Zimbardo, P. G., & Boyd, J. N. (1999). Putting time in perspective: A valid, reliable individual-differences metric. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 77, 1271-1288.