Student Success/Collection

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Student Success[edit | edit source]

Student Success introduces essential knowledge and skills for students new to the college learning experience, including time management, social interaction, learning strategies, study skills, critical thinking, information literacy, health and safety, finances, and career exploration.

This course comprises 11 lessons covering student success. Each lesson includes a combination of free Lumen Learning readings, YouTube videos, and hands-on learning activities to engage both on-campus and online students.

This course has different names at different institutions, including First-Year Experience, First-Year Seminar, Freshman Seminar, and College Success.[1] The ultimate goal for each of these is having successful students. That goal is the focus of this course.

This entire Wikiversity course can be downloaded in book form by selecting Download Learning Guide in the sidebar.

Preparation[edit | edit source]

This is an introductory college-level course. No previous experience is necessary.

Course Outcomes[edit | edit source]

Participants will:[2]

  1. Utilize support services available in the college environment to meet students' personal and academic needs.
  2. Demonstrate responsible academic behaviors appropriate to intellectual engagement, such as the application of active learning strategies.
  3. Create a personal development plan which includes academic and career goals and explores pathways for completion.
  4. Interconnect course concepts and experiences (personal, campus, or community) in ways that produce new knowledge or skills.
  5. Identify and evaluate issues, problems, positions, and supporting evidence through an objective critical thinking process.
  6. Research print and electronic sources, assess their credibility, and support a position using appropriate documentation.
  7. Articulate inter-cultural ideologies, perspectives, and contributions that people of diverse backgrounds bring to a multicultural world.

Lessons[edit | edit source]

  1. Introduction
  2. Time Management
  3. Social Interaction
  4. Learning Strategies
  5. Study Skills
  6. Critical Thinking
  7. Information Literacy
  8. Health and Safety
  9. Finances
  10. Career Exploration
  11. Conclusion

See Also[edit | edit source]

Bibliography[edit | edit source]

  • Canyons: Student Success
  • Gore, Paul A., Leuwerke, Wade, and Metz, A. J. (2016). Connections: Empowering College and Career Success. Macmillan. ISBN 1457628406
  • LibreTexts: Learning to Learn Online
  • OpenOregon: A Different Road To College: A Guide For Transitioning To College For Non-traditional Students
  • OpenOregon: How to Learn Like a Pro!
  • OpenStax: College Success
  • Rebus: Blueprint for Success in College and Career
  • UMN: College Success
  • UMN: Foundations of Academic Success: Words of Wisdom

References[edit | edit source]

Introduction[edit | edit source]

Students welcoming you to college
Personal identity
Types of students
Defining success

This lesson introduces the student success / college success course. In this lesson you will learn about the course, the course environment, your own values, and available student support services.

Objectives and Skills[edit | edit source]

Objectives and skills for this lesson include:

  • Identify personal values and align them with educational goals[1]
  • Identify similarities and differences among different types of students compared to yourself[2]
  • Describe characteristics of successful students[3]
  • Identify differences in types of classes within your degree plan, such as electives and core requirements[4]
  • Explain how to access individual course policies and college-wide policies[5]
  • Identify major college resources and how to use them when needed[6]

Readings[edit | edit source]

  1. Lumen: College Success - Introduction to College Success
  2. Lumen: College Success - Personal Identity
  3. Lumen: College Success - Types of Students
  4. Lumen: College Success - College Overview
  5. Lumen: College Success - Defining Success
  6. Wikipedia: Learning management system

Multimedia[edit | edit source]

  1. YouTube: One of the BEST Motivational Videos I've ever seen!
  2. YouTube: Seminar discussion: problems of the transition from school to university
  3. YouTube: Non-Traditional Students at W&M
  4. YouTube: Why YOU Should Study Abroad
  5. YouTube: Choosing Your Electives
  6. YouTube: How Do YOU Define Success?

Activities[edit | edit source]

  1. Practice using your college's Learning Management System.
    • Introduce yourself to your classmates and your instructor.
    • Locate help links and review available support options.
    • Navigate through lesson content.
    • Participate in discussions.
    • Submit assignments.
    • Edit blogs, journals, or wikis.
    • Take quizzes and exams.
    • View your grades.
  2. Review the college catalog.
    • Access your college's academic catalog and review the student handbook. Pay particular attention to available student resources.
    • Review college programs and requirements. If you already have a college major in mind, review the requirements for your major. Are the courses you are currently registered for listed as requirements or electives for this major?
  3. Review the course syllabus.
    • The syllabus is your contract for the course. Review the syllabus carefully.
    • Complete all introductory activities listed in the syllabus.
  4. Identify your personal values and share your story.
  5. Identify available student services.
    • If you haven't already, contact your college's Center for New Students and find out what resources are available for new students.
    • Locate technical support contact information (Help Desk, Student Service Desk, etc.). Contact technical support for any issues connecting with or using the LMS.
    • Review Lumen: College Success - Assignment: Campus Resources Scavenger Hunt.
    • Identify and document additional campus resources. These may be either in-person or online resources. Note the name, purpose, and location or link for each resource.
  6. Complete a campus scavenger hunt.
    • Review GooseChase: College and University Campus Orientation Scavenger Hunt Ideas.
    • If you are an on-campus student, take a walk around campus and see how many of the listed locations and items you can find. Take pictures to document your hunt.
    • If you are an online student, visit the college website and see how many of the listed resources you can find. Keep track of page links to document your hunt.
  7. Blog / Journal / Wiki
    • Create a blog, journal, or wiki page summarizing your experience this week. Include a list of resources and links or contact information for each resource.

Lesson Summary[edit | edit source]

Introduction[edit | edit source]

This course helps you prepare to succeed in college, including:[7]

  • Shaping your new college identity
  • Managing your time wisely
  • Interacting with others
  • Studying effectively
  • Thinking and learning deeply
  • Maintaining your health
  • Managing your finances
  • Moving into a fulfilling and viable career

Personal Identity[edit | edit source]

  • Your personal values are your core beliefs and guiding principles.[8]
  • Your personal values and interests can and do change as you get older.[9]
  • Research has shown that students who get involved in career-planning activities stay in college longer, graduate on time, improve their academic performance, tend to be more goal focused and motivated, and have a more satisfying and fulfilling college experience.[10]
  • College life differs from high school in many ways based around personal choice and personal responsibility.[11]

Types of Students[edit | edit source]

Colleges have a diverse student body with different backgrounds and needs. Categories include:[12]

  • Traditional Students
  • Nontraditional Students
  • International Students and/or Nonnative Speakers of English
  • First-Generation College Students
  • Students with Disabilities
  • Working Students
  • Commuter Students

Successful students share common characteristics, including:[13]

  • Priorities
  • Time management
  • Planning
  • Active learning
  • Self understanding
  • Self care

College Overview[edit | edit source]

Course formats include:[14]

  • Lecture
  • Laboratory
  • Seminar
  • Studio
  • Workshop
  • Independent Study
  • Study Abroad

Course delivery mode formats include:[15]

  • Face-to-face / traditional
  • Web enhanced
  • Hybrid / blended
  • Online

Degree requirements include:[16]

  • Core coures
  • Courses required for your major
  • Elective courses

You can expect your college to have policies and code specifications about academic standards, admissions, enrollment, tuition and fees, student classifications, degree types, degree requirements, transfer agreements, advising, course scheduling, majors, minors, credits, syllabi, exams, grade-point averages, academic warnings, scholarships, faculty affairs, research, rights and responsibilities, and honors and distinctions.[17] These are typically outlined in the college catalog.

Course-specific policies are outlined in the syllabus and can affect your grades on individual assignments as well as your final grade.[18]

Major college resources and student services may include:[19]

  • Advising
  • Tutoring and Writing Centers
  • Academic Support Facilities
  • Library Reference Desk
  • Campus Health Center
  • Campus Counseling
  • Career Services
  • Spiritual Life

Defining Success[edit | edit source]

College success depends on how fully a student embraces and masters the following seven strategies:[20]

  • Learn how to take effective notes in class.
  • Review the text and your reading notes prior to class.
  • Participate in class discussion and maybe even join a study group.
  • Go to office hours and ask your instructor questions.
  • Give yourself enough time to research, write, and edit your essays in manageable stages.
  • Take advantage of online or on-campus academic support resources.
  • Spend sufficient time studying.

Key Terms[edit | edit source]

In delayed time; typically using online discussion boards that students visit at different times within a certain time frame.[21]
GPA (grade point average)
A calculation using the number of grade points a student earns in a given period of time.[22]
A document that communicates information about a specific course and defines expectations and responsibilities.[23]
In real time, through some kind of live-interaction or live-interaction tool.[24]

See Also[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]

Time Management[edit | edit source]

Study space
Professor and students

This lesson introduces time management. In this lesson you will learn about your own goals, selecting an effective study space, time management, and working with instructors.

Objectives and Skills[edit | edit source]

Objectives and skills for this lesson include:

  • Explain how time management plays a factor in goal setting, leading to short-term, medium-term, and long-term objectives[1]
  • Analyze the impact of your surroundings while you study[2]
  • Explore time management strategies to make time for college success activities (studying, going to class, extracurricular activities, etc.)[3]
  • Identify options for communicating effectively with instructors[4]

Readings[edit | edit source]

  1. Lumen: College Success - Defining Goals
  2. Lumen: College Success - Your Physical Environment
  3. Lumen: College Success - Your Use of Time
  4. Lumen: College Success - Working with Instructors

Multimedia[edit | edit source]

  1. YouTube: Five Rules of Goal Setting: How to set SMART Goals
  2. YouTube: Study Spaces in College: Why Are They Important?
  3. YouTube: UBC Students Talk: Multitasking - Does It Work?
  4. YouTube: Free Time in College
  5. YouTube: Overcome Procrastination For Good!
  6. YouTube: Student/Faculty Relationships at Dickinson College
  7. YouTube: Profs and TAs
  8. YouTube: How To: Communicate with Professors

Activities[edit | edit source]

  1. Contact your college's Student Success Services office to learn about available time management resources.
  2. Identify your goals.
  3. Plan your study space.
  4. Use time management strategies.
  5. Create a weekly schedule.
    • Review Algonquin College: Creating a Weekly Schedule.
    • Select either a paper planner or a calendar or scheduling app to create your weekly schedule.
    • Add your classes to your schedule.
    • Add study time to your schedule. Allow for two to three hours of study time for each hour of class time. If your classes don't meet regularly (online or blended, for example), set aside additional study time to make up for the flexible class time.
    • Add work hours to your schedule. Total school and work hours combined should not exceed 50-60 hours per week.
    • Add sleep time to your schedule. Most people need eight hours of sleep each night.
    • Add personal and social time to your schedule (exercise, family, friends, significant others, etc.).
    • If there aren't enough hours in the week to meet your current commitments, decide what you are going to give up this semester. Can you work fewer hours? Can you take fewer courses? Reducing study time, sleep time, or personal time is unlikely to be a successful approach.
  6. Work with your instructors.
  7. Blog / Journal / Wiki
    • Update your blog, journal, or wiki page summarizing your experience this week. Include a list of resources and links or contact information for each resource.

Lesson Summary[edit | edit source]

Defining Goals[edit | edit source]

A goal is a desired result that you envision and then plan and commit to achieve.[5]

The following questions help us focus on personal goals:[6]

  • What are my top-priority goals?
  • Which of my skills and interests make my goals realistic for me?
  • What makes my goals believable and possible?
  • Are my goals measurable? How long will it take me to reach them? How will I know if I have achieved them?
  • Are my goals flexible? What will I do if I experience a setback?
  • Are my goal controllable? Can I achieve them on my own?
  • Are my goals in sync with my values?

Success with goals is essentially a three-part process:[7]

  • Identify your long-term, medium-term and short-term goals.
  • Set priorities to accomplish these goals.
  • Manage your time according to the priorities you’ve set.

Your Physical Environment[edit | edit source]

The effectiveness of a study space depends on:[8]

  • Background music
  • Background noise
  • Smells
  • Lighting
  • Temperature
  • Personal technology distractions
  • Comfort
  • Association with study
  • Time
  • Other people

Evidence suggests that multitasking is not possible. Psychology research shows that we can attend to only one cognitive task at a time. Switching tasks decreases productivity.[9]

Your Use of Time[edit | edit source]

To be successful in college, it’s imperative to be able to effectively manage your time.[10]

There are three important steps in learning to effectively manage your time:[11]

  • Identify your time management style
  • Create a schedule
  • Get better at prioritizing

Generally speaking, for each hour of class, you should spend a minimum of two to three hours studying. Thus, a typical three-hour class would require a minimum of six to nine hours of studying per week. If you are registered for 15 credits a semester, then you would need to spend 30 to 45 hours each week studying for your classes.[12]

Working with Instructors[edit | edit source]

Most instructors are happy to work with you during their office hours, or talk a few minutes after class, respond to digital messages, talk on the phone, or engage in online discussion forums or perhaps course wikis or personal journals.[13]

When communicating with instructors in person:[14]

  • Use office hours
  • Come prepared
  • Be professional

When communicating with instructors by email:[15]

  • Use your school email account
  • Include the course and section in the subject line
  • Use college-level writing with correct spelling and grammar
  • Be professional

When addressing course concerns:

  • Be polite
  • Listen
  • Focus on opportunities for improvement

Contact your instructors, introduce yourself, and make a connection early in the semester before you need help or have a special request.[16]

Key Terms[edit | edit source]

A desired result that you envision and then plan and commit to achieve.[17]

See Also[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]

Social Interactions[edit | edit source]

Student activities
Diversity is Beauty
Student life

This lesson introduces social interaction. In this lesson you will learn about relationships, diversity, accessibility, and student life.

Objectives and Skills[edit | edit source]

Objectives and skills for this lesson include:

  • Describe benefits of social interaction in college[1]
  • Explore the positive effects of diversity in an educational setting[2]
  • Define accessibility, and identify implications of accessibility on campus and in communities[3]
  • Describe the variety of organized groups available on campus for both resident and nonresident students[4]
  • Describe the benefits of participating in student life[5]

Readings[edit | edit source]

  1. Lumen: College Success - Socializing
  2. Lumen: College Success - Diversity and Accessibility
  3. Lumen: College Success - Campus and Student Life

Multimedia[edit | edit source]

  1. YouTube: The True Reasons College Students Use Social Media
  2. YouTube: Empowering Conversations: Diversity and Inclusion at Juniata College
  3. YouTube: Surface Level vs. Deep Level Diversity
  4. YouTube: Experiences of Students with Disabilities
  5. YouTube: Student Life at The University of Maryland
  6. YouTube: Campus Activities

Activities[edit | edit source]

  1. Explore student services.
    • Contact the Student Activities office to learn about student organizations and opportunities to participate.
    • Contact the Student Government Association to learn how students are involved in campus leadership and how students are represented in the governance process.
  2. Identify your positive qualities and share your story.
  3. Reflect on diversity.
  4. Participate in campus activities.
  5. Blog / Journal / Wiki
    • Update your blog, journal, or wiki page summarizing your experience this week. Include a list of resources and links or contact information for each resource.

Lesson Summary[edit | edit source]

Socializing[edit | edit source]

Interdependent relationships are different from dependent and codependent relationships. In dependent relationships, some members are dependent while some are not (dependent people believe that they may not be able to achieve goals on their own). In codependent relationships, there is a sense that one must help others achieve their goals before pursuing one’s own. Contrast these relationships with interdependent relationships, in which the dependency, support, and gain is shared for the enrichment of all.[6]

The potential benefits of social interaction in college include:[7]

  • Form deep and lasting relationships
  • Develop good study habits
  • Minimize stress
  • Share interests
  • Develop social skills

Effective interactions depend on successful communication strategies:[8]

  • Examine your reservations
  • Engage with others
  • Expand your social circle

Common situations resulting in social conflict include:[9]

  • Campus parties and hookups
  • Academic problems
  • Homesickness
  • Too much social networking

Angle your social interests toward people and situations that are compatible with your values and preferences.[10]

Diversity and Accessibility[edit | edit source]

Diversity generally refers to people around you who differ by race, culture, ethnicity, religion, socioeconomic status, sexual orientation, abilities, opinions, political views, and in other ways.[11]

Diversity brings richness to relationships on campus and off campus, and it further prepares college students to thrive and work in a multicultural world.[12]

Accessibility is about making education accessible to all, and and it’s particularly focused on providing educational support to a diverse group of students, faculty, and staff with disabilities.[13]

Students with disabilities have special legal rights to certain accommodations on campus, including:[14]

  • Academic accommodations
  • Exam accommodations
  • Financial support and assistance
  • Priority access to housing
  • Transportation and access

Campus and Student Life[edit | edit source]

Organized campus groups may include:[15]

  • Student organizations
  • Fraternities and sororities
  • Diversity and multiculturalism
  • Civic engagement and leadership
  • Service and volunteerism
  • Student activities

Surveys show that student success is directly linked to student involvement in the institution. The higher the level of student involvement is, the higher student grades are and the more likely students are to reenroll the next semester.[16]

Key Terms[edit | edit source]

The mutual reliance, or mutual dependence, between two or more people or groups.[17]

See Also[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]

Learning Strategies[edit | edit source]

Attending class
Active learning

This lesson introduces learning strategies. In this lesson you will learn about the learning process, preparing for class, the importance of class attendance, and effective learning strategies.

Objectives and Skills[edit | edit source]

Objectives and skills for this lesson include:

  • Define learning styles, and identify your preferred learning style(s)[1]
  • Identify effective mental and physical strategies to prepare for an individual class session[2]
  • Explain why regular class attendance class is important[3]
  • Identify effective learning strategies[4]
  • Differentiate between short-term and long-term memory, and describe the role of each in effective studying[5]
  • Identify resources for applying active learning strategies to your studies, both in and out of the classroom[6]

Readings[edit | edit source]

  1. Lumen: College Success - The Learning Process
  2. Lumen: College Success - Class Preparation
  3. Lumen: College Success - Class Attendance
  4. Lumen: College Success - The Role of Memory
  5. Lumen: College Success - Active Learning

Multimedia[edit | edit source]

  1. YouTube: Front Flip progression - 1 Day
  2. YouTube: Discover Your Learning Style and Optimize Your Self Study
  3. YouTube: How to Balance School and Work: 5 Strategies for Academic Success
  4. YouTube: Effective Notetaking
  5. YouTube: "Studying Advice: Tips for College Students"'s Student Video Blog Series
  6. YouTube: How To Use A Mind Map
  7. YouTube: Annotate it!

Activities[edit | edit source]

  1. Explore student services.
    • Contact Student Success Services to learn about learning strategy resources.
    • Contact the Tutoring Center to learn which classes have tutors available and what the process is for meeting with a tutor.
  2. Identify your preferred learning style(s).
  3. Update your weekly schedule.
  4. Create a study guide.
  5. Plan learning strategies.
    • Review Lumen: College Success - Assignment: The Role of Memory.
    • Consider your course schedule and any anticipated learning challenges this semester.
    • Consider available resources, including study groups, success services, tutoring, and office hours.
    • What learning strategies can you apply this semester to improve your success?
  6. Blog / Journal / Wiki
    • Update your blog, journal, or wiki page summarizing your experience this week. Include a list of resources and links or contact information for each resource.

Lesson Summary[edit | edit source]

The Learning Process[edit | edit source]

Stages of the learning process include:[7]

  • Unconscious incompetence - you don't know what you don't know
  • Conscious incompetence - you know what you don't know
  • Conscious competence - you know what you know
  • Unconscious competence - you know it so well you don't have to think about it

Learning styles include:[8]

  • Visual - see (images and multimedia)
  • Auditory - hear
  • Read/Write - see (words)
  • Kinesthetic - do

Class Preparation[edit | edit source]

To prepare for class physically and mentally:[9]

  • Eat healthy meals and snacks
  • Exercise regularly
  • Get enough sleep
  • Manage stress
  • Talk to guidance counselors or instructors
  • Understand class- and study-time ratios
  • Start with fixed time commitments
  • Consider your studying and homework habits
  • Plan ahead
  • Consider leisure time

Class Attendance[edit | edit source]

Class attendance enhances performance:[10]

  • Class participation
  • Class interaction
  • Interaction with the instructor
  • Increased learning

Getting the most out of class time involves listening effectively, engaging with the speaker and the material you hear in an active way.[11]

Effective participation strategies include:[12]

  • Be a team player
  • Share meaningful questions and comments
  • Be prepared

Note-taking recommendations include:[13]

  • Stay organized
  • Use visual cues
  • Group together similar concepts
  • Make notes legible

Common teaching styles include:[14]

  • Authority style
  • Demonstrator style
  • Facilitator style
  • Delegator style
  • Hybrid style

If you need to miss class:[15]

  • Plan in advance
  • Talk to fellow students
  • Do the reading assignment(s) and any other homework
  • Contact your instructor

The Role of Memory[edit | edit source]

Strategies for effective learning include:[16]

  • Think about concepts rather than facts
  • Take cues from your instructor
  • Look for key terms
  • Use summaries

To enhance memory:[17]

  • Start reviewing new material immediately
  • Study frequently for shorter periods of time
  • Use repetition

Strategies to aid memory include:[18]

  • Incorporate visuals
  • Create mnemonics
  • Get quality sleep
  • Connect new information to old information

Active Learning[edit | edit source]

Activities that facilitate active engagement in the classroom include:[19]

  • Class discussions
  • Writing assignments
  • Student-led teaching

Strategies for active learning on your own include:[20]

  • Write in your books
  • Annotate a text
  • Create mind maps

When reading, focus on:[21]

  • Context - big picture
  • Audience - who
  • Purpose - what
  • Organization - how
  • Tone - emotions
  • Tools - support
  • Thesis - main idea

Foster an attitude of intellectual curiosity.[22]

Key Terms[edit | edit source]

multimodal learning
Applying more than one learning style.[23]

See Also[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]

Study Skills[edit | edit source]


This lesson introduces study skills. In this lesson you will learn about different strategies for effective reading, writing, testing, presenting, and deep learning.

Objectives and Skills[edit | edit source]

Objectives and skills for this lesson include:

  • Identify effective reading strategies for academic texts: previewing, reading, summarizing, reviewing[1]
  • Describe the purpose of writing assignments and what an instructor might expect to see from your writing[2]
  • Identify sources of test anxiety and techniques for preventing and controlling it[3]
  • Identify test-taking strategies to improve your performance[4]
  • Identify common types of presentation tasks in a college class, including individual and group projects[5]
  • List study techniques that help long-term retention of knowledge[6]

Readings[edit | edit source]

  1. Lumen: College Success - Reading Strategies
  2. Lumen: College Success - Writing Strategies
  3. Lumen: College Success - Testing Strategies
  4. Lumen: College Success - Presentation Strategies
  5. Lumen: College Success - Deep Learning
  6. Lumen: College Success - Evaluating Results

Multimedia[edit | edit source]

  1. YouTube: College Reading Strategies
  2. YouTube: Vocabulary Reading Strategies
  3. YouTube: Writing
  4. YouTube: Using Sources
  5. YouTube: Exam Strategies - Study Skills
  6. YouTube: Physical Ability Test
  7. YouTube: Exam Strategies - Test Skills
  8. YouTube: Textbook Reading Student Toolkit Tutorial
  9. YouTube: Life After Death by PowerPoint (Corporate Comedy Video)
  10. YouTube: How to Get the Most Out of Studying
  11. YouTube: Effective Thinking
  12. YouTube: Self-testing
  13. YouTube: Group Work

Activities[edit | edit source]

  1. Explore student services.
    • Contact Student Success Services to learn about study skills resources.
    • Contact the college Writing Center to learn about writing support services available to students.
  2. Understand reading assignments.
    • Review Lumen: College Success - Assignment: Reading Strategies.
    • Consider one or more readings you completed for a class within the past week. Was the reading helpful? Did it enhance your understanding of the course concepts? If not, can you identify a better resource and share it with classmates or your instructor?
  3. Plan for writing assignments.
    • Review Lumen: College Success - Assignment: Writing Strategies.
    • Consider the various writing assignments in the courses you are taking this semester. What types of writing are expected? How will this writing help you achieve the course objectives?
    • Create a plan for improving the overall quality of your writing. What steps are necessary for you to effectively write, edit, and proofread your work? What campus resources should you take advantage of to improve your writing?
  4. Evaluate testing strategies.
  5. Plan for presentations.
  6. Prepare for team projects.
    • Review Wikipedia: Tuckman's stages of group development. Reflect on the impact of the forming, storming, norming, and performing process on previous team projects you have completed.
    • Consider any required team or group projects in the courses you are taking this semester. How will you plan for these projects? What role(s) will you play on the team? What assistance will you need from others in order to be successful?
  7. Blog / Journal / Wiki
    • Update your blog, journal, or wiki page summarizing your experience this week. Include a list of resources and links or contact information for each resource.

Lesson Summary[edit | edit source]

Reading Strategies[edit | edit source]

College reading includes:[7]

  • Textbooks
  • Articles
  • Literature and Nonfiction Books

Academic reading is intended to:[8]

  • Use reputable sources
  • Develop arguments using evidence and facts
  • Understand different viewpoints

Reading strategies include:[9]

  • Preview
  • Read
  • Summarize
  • Review

Specialized content reading strategies include:[10]

  • Understand the conventions
  • Note and look up unfamiliar terms and phrases
  • Look for main ideas and themes
  • Use annotation tools for online reading
  • Look for reputable sources
  • Pay attention to images, graphs, and charts

Vocabulary-building techniques include:[11]

  • Read often
  • Make connections with words you already know
  • Make index cards or use flashcard apps

Writing Strategies[edit | edit source]

Professors look at you as independent junior scholars and expect you to write as someone who has a genuine, driving interest in tackling a complex question. They envision you approaching an assignment without a preexisting thesis. They expect you to look deep into the evidence, consider several alternative explanations, and work out an original, insightful argument that you actually care about.[12]

Understand the assignment[13]

  • Review the requirements and focus on the instruction verbs. What are you being asked to do?
  • Put the assignment in context. How does it relate to the course content and learning goals?
  • Estimate the time commitment.
  • Seek clarification from your instructor and classmates.

An effective summary:[14]

  • Reflects your accurate understanding of a source’s thesis or purpose
  • Differentiates between major and minor ideas in a source
  • Demonstrates your ability to identify key phrases to quote
  • Demonstrates your ability to effectively paraphrase most of the source’s ideas
  • Captures the tone, style, and distinguishing features of a source
  • Does not reflect your personal opinion about the source

The writing process includes:[15]

  • Select a topic
  • Do your research
  • Develop a thesis and outline
  • Write a draft
  • Edit and review (revise and proofread)

Include references for any and all sources used.[16]

Testing Strategies[edit | edit source]

Test anxiety is the most common academic impairment in grade school, high school, and college.[17]

Strategies for preventing and controlling test anxiety include:[18]

  • Ask about the exam (materials covered, format, points, level of detail, etc.)
  • Take inventory of your notes
  • Set a study schedule
  • Keep your diet consistent
  • Don’t stop exercising
  • Get regular sleep
  • Make a five-day study plan for each exam

Test anxiety tips include:[19]

  • Manage stress
  • Know when to stop
  • Don't try to be perfect
  • Reach out for help

Assessment types include:[20]

  • Pre-assessment - Determine baseline knowledge
  • Formative assessment - Determine learning progress
  • Summative assessment - Determine learning outcome

Test-taking strategies include:[21]

  • Look over the entire exam before you start.
  • Ask questions if you don't understand the instructions.
  • Budget your time based on point values for different parts of the exam.
  • Begin with easy questions.
  • Outline essay responses.
  • Watch for key verbs in the instructions.
  • Look over the exam to make sure you didn't miss anything important.

Exam prep secrets include:[22]

  • Set goals
  • Aim to understand
  • Do the hard stuff first
  • Don't cram
  • Get rest, stay healthy

Presentation Strategies[edit | edit source]

Presentation types include:[23]

  • Informative
  • Persuasive
  • Lesson Delivery
  • Demonstration
  • Poster
  • Online
  • Individual
  • Group

Presentation strategies include:[24]

  • Think about the audience
  • Choose media and format
  • Practice the presentation

Format recommendations include:[25]

  • Choose a font size that is easy to see.
  • Use bullet points rather than sentences.
  • Check spelling and grammar.
  • Choose consistent and easy-to-view colors.
  • Include visuals that align with the content.
  • Avoid visual effects that draw attention to the effect rather than the content.

Deep Learning[edit | edit source]

Learning deeply, "doesn’t just mean the ability to remember stuff for an examination. It means the ability to create. It means the ability to analyze and synthesize, to solve problems, and to understand what that problem-solving means."[26]

Techniques for learning and retaining knowledge include:[27]

  • Focus on growth and improvement
  • Try multiple study strategies
  • Embrace challenges
  • Plan your learning
  • Accept that failure provides opportunities to build or rebuild toward success

Additional study techniques include:[28]

  • Consider real-world applications.
  • Monitor your learning.
  • Seek specific and meaningful feedback.
  • Chunk the information you’re studying.
  • Set priorities.
  • Create association maps.
  • Make connections.
  • Ask questions to reduce bias.

Group learning strategies include:[29]

  • Focus on strengths
  • Assign roles
  • Set a schedule
  • Engage everyone
  • Anticipate conflict

Evaluating Results[edit | edit source]

After the test:[30]

  • Learn from your mistakes.
  • Examine your study habits.
  • Talk with your professor.
  • Develop a plan for improvement.

Key Terms[edit | edit source]

See Also[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]

Critical Thinking[edit | edit source]

Critical thinking
Creative thinking
Thinking with technology

This lesson introduces critical thinking. In this lesson you will learn about patterns of thought, critical thinking skills, creative thinking skills, and learning with technology.

Objectives and Skills[edit | edit source]

Objectives and skills for this lesson include:

  • Identify different patterns of thought, such as those found in Bloom’s taxonomy[1]
  • Describe how critical thinking skills can be used to evaluate information and solve problems[2]
  • Describe the role of creative thinking skills in problem-solving[3]
  • Identify technology tools that enhance student learning[4]

Readings[edit | edit source]

  1. Lumen: College Success - Patterns of Thought
  2. Lumen: College Success - Critical Thinking Skills
  3. Lumen: College Success - Creative Thinking Skills
  4. Lumen: College Success - Thinking with Technology

Multimedia[edit | edit source]

  1. YouTube: Bloom's Taxonomy
  2. YouTube: Bloom's Taxonomy Featuring Harry Potter Movies
  3. YouTube: Critical Thinking
  4. YouTube: Critical Thinking 101: Spectrum of Authority
  5. YouTube: How to Stimulate the Creative Process
  6. YouTube: Internet Skills 3: How to Use the Internet to Find Scholarly Material
  7. YouTube: Internet Skills 1: How to Evaluate a Website

Activities[edit | edit source]

  1. Explore student services.
    • Contact your advisor or counselor to learn about counseling and psychological services available to students.
  2. Practice critical thinking.
    • Review Lumen: College Success - Assignment: Critical Thinking Skills.
    • Complete the Quia: Critical Thinking Quiz.
    • Reflect on a recent discussion you participated in for a class or with family or friends. Did you accept the given arguments and reasoning, or did you evaluate the information presented based on the six questions a critical thinker asks?
    • Consider whether or not we have a tendency to apply critical thinking differently depending on context or environment. Do you evaluate ideas the same way in a class environment vs. a work or social setting?
  3. Practice creative thinking.
  4. Check your technology.
  5. Blog / Journal / Wiki
    • Update your blog, journal, or wiki page summarizing your experience this week. Include a list of resources and links or contact information for each resource.

Lesson Summary[edit | edit source]

Patterns of Thought[edit | edit source]

Learning skills can be divided into three main categories or “domains”:[5]

  • The cognitive domain (what you should know)
  • The affective domain (what you should care about)
  • The psychomotor domain (what you should be able to do)

Cognitive domain levels include:[6]

  • Remembering
  • Understanding
  • Applying
  • Analyzing
  • Evaluating
  • Creating

Affective domain levels include:[7]

  • Receiving
  • Responding
  • Valuing
  • Organizing
  • Characterizing

Psychomotor domain levels include:[8]

  • Perception
  • Set
  • Guided response
  • Mechanism
  • Complex overt response
  • Adaptation
  • Origination

Critical Thinking Skills[edit | edit source]

Critical thinking is clear, reasonable, reflective thinking focused on deciding what to believe or do.[9]

Critical thinking questions:[10]

  • What’s happening?
  • Why is it important?
  • What don’t I see?
  • How do I know?
  • Who is saying it?
  • What else? What if?

Problem-solving strategies:[11]

  • Define the problem
  • Identify available solutions
  • Select your solution

Strategies to evaluate information include:[12]

  • Read for understanding by using text coding
  • Examine arguments
  • Clarify thinking
  • Cultivate "habits of mind"

Critical thinking strategies include:[13]

  • Reflect and practice
  • Use wasted time
  • Redefine the way you see things
  • Analyze the influences on your thinking and in your life
  • Express yourself
  • Enhance your wellness

Creative Thinking Skills[edit | edit source]

Creativity can be understood as a skill—as opposed to an inborn talent or natural "gift"—that can be taught as well as learned.[14]

Creative thinking helps you look at problems and situations from a fresh perspective.[15]

To stimulate creative thinking:[16]

  • Sleep on it.
  • Exercise.
  • Daydream occasionally.
  • Keep learning.
  • Add stress occasionally.
  • Make note of new ideas.

Actions which support creative thinking include:[17]

  • Sense
  • Think
  • Imagine
  • Speak and write
  • Draw
  • Learn
  • Move
  • Rest

Thinking with Technology[edit | edit source]

Technology learning tools include:[18]

  • Computer software and Internet resources
  • Video recordings
  • Interactive screens and whiteboards
  • Student response systems
  • Blogs, wikis, and discussion boards

Technical requirements for online learning include:[19]

  • Hardware and software
  • A fast Internet connection
  • Browser plug-ins
  • Email
  • Technical support resources

Effective online learning requires:[20]

  • Organization
  • Communication
  • Adapting to online reading and mobile learning

Key Terms[edit | edit source]

See Also[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]

Information Literacy[edit | edit source]

Students in a library
Library database
Source credibility

This lesson introduces information literacy. In this lesson you will learn about information, library resources, information source databases, advanced search techniques, digital media, Internet credibility, academic honesty, and proper citation formats.

Objectives and Skills[edit | edit source]

Objectives and skills for this lesson include:[1]

  • Determine the extent of information needed
  • Access the needed information
  • Evaluate information and its sources critically
  • Use information effectively to accomplish a specific purpose
  • Access and use information ethically and legally

Readings[edit | edit source]

  1. American Library Association: Framework for Information Literacy for Higher Education
  2. Lumen: College Success - Academic Honesty

Multimedia[edit | edit source]

  1. YouTube: Information Literacy: Part 1 - Library Resources
  2. YouTube: Information Literacy: Part 2 - Databases
  3. YouTube: Information Literacy: Part 3 - Advanced Database Search Techniques
  4. YouTube: Information Literacy: Part 4 - Digital Media
  5. YouTube: Information Literacy: Part 5 - Internet Credibility
  6. YouTube: Information Literacy: Part 6 - Academic Honesty
  7. YouTube: Information Literacy: Part 7 - Citations

Activities[edit | edit source]

  1. Explore student services.
    • Contact the college Library to learn about information literacy and research support services.
  2. Play information literacy games.
  3. Review information literacy resources.
  4. Learn about academic honesty and plagiarism.
  5. Create a citation.
    • Use the Cite this page link on the left to view a proper Wikiversity page citation in a variety of standard formats.
  6. Blog / Journal / Wiki
    • Update your blog, journal, or wiki page summarizing your experience this week. Include a list of resources and links or contact information for each resource.

Lesson Summary[edit | edit source]

Information possesses several dimensions of value, including as a commodity, as a means of education, as a means to influence, and as a means of negotiating and understanding the world. Legal and socioeconomic interests influence information production and dissemination.[2]

Information resources reflect their creators’ expertise and credibility, and are evaluated based on the information need and the context in which the information will be used. Authority is constructed in that various communities may recognize different types of authority. It is contextual in that the information need may help to determine the level of authority required.[3]

Information in any format is produced to convey a message and is shared via a selected delivery method. The iterative processes of researching, creating, revising, and disseminating information vary, and the resulting product reflects these differences.[4]

Research is iterative and depends upon asking increasingly complex or new questions whose answers in turn develop additional questions or lines of inquiry in any field.[5]

Communities of scholars, researchers, or professionals engage in sustained discourse with new insights and discoveries occurring over time as a result of varied perspectives and interpretations.[6]

Searching for information is often nonlinear and iterative, requiring the evaluation of a range of information sources and the mental flexibility to pursue alternate avenues as new understanding develops.[7]

Library Resources[edit | edit source]

Library resources may be searched by title, author, and topic.[8]

Electronic resources may be viewed online through the library search page.[9]

Off-campus access is available by logging in with your student username and password.[10]

Newspapers and magazines are popular resources. Journals are scholarly resources.[11]

A variety of databases may be searched to locate academic resources for a given topic.[12]

Databases[edit | edit source]

Libraries have a variety of general and subject-specific subscription databases.[13]

Frequently-used databases include:

  • Academic Search Premiere
  • ProQuest National Newspapers Core
  • Opposing Viewpoints in Context
  • LexusNexus Academic
  • Films on Demand

Advanced Search Techniques[edit | edit source]

Advanced search techniques include:[14]

  • Double-quotes (") are used to search for an exact phrase.
  • An asterisk (*) is used to search for words beginning with a given character sequence.
  • "and", "or", and "not" are Boolean operators which may be used to limit or enhance a search.
  • Select citations in the format required by your instructor and save citations while doing your research.
  • Use permalinks rather than direct browser links when referencing resources.

Digital Media[edit | edit source]

Common digital media types include:[15]

  • Websites
  • Online magazines and journals
  • Blogs
  • Videos
  • Podcasts
  • Wikis
  • Online speeches and presentations

Internet Credibility[edit | edit source]

Website information can be:[16]

  • Biased
  • Unbalanced
  • Outdated
  • Unreliable
  • Just plain wrong

Questions to ask include:[17]

  • Who owns the website?
  • What is their agenda?
  • Is the information current?
  • Does the information seem biased?

When evaluating information sources, consider:[18]

  • Current
  • Relevant
  • Authority
  • Accuracy
  • Purpose

Academic Honesty[edit | edit source]

Copying something without crediting the source is always unacceptable.[19]

Cheating is the act of obtaining or attempting to obtain credit for academic work through the use of dishonest, deceptive or fraudulent means.[20]

Plagiarism is representing the work of someone else as your own (copying someone else's ideas or words without clearly acknowledging the source of that information).[21]

To avoid plagiarism, give credit for all resources used, including words, images, drawings, video, and audio.[22]

Citations[edit | edit source]

Common citation formats include:[23]

  • Modern Language Association (MLA)
  • American Psychological Association (APA)
  • Chicago (CMS)

Always check with your instructor to verify the required citation style for your assignments.[24]

Key Terms[edit | edit source]

A brief summary of a research article, thesis, review, conference proceeding, or any in-depth analysis of a particular subject and is often used to help the reader quickly ascertain the paper's purpose.[25]

See Also[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]

  1. American Association of Colleges and Universities: Information Literacy VALUE Rubric
  2. ACRL Framework for Information Literacy for Higher Education
  3. ACRL Framework for Information Literacy for Higher Education
  4. ACRL Framework for Information Literacy for Higher Education
  5. ACRL Framework for Information Literacy for Higher Education
  6. ACRL Framework for Information Literacy for Higher Education
  7. ACRL Framework for Information Literacy for Higher Education
  8. YouTube: Information Literacy: Part 1 - Library Resources
  9. YouTube: Information Literacy: Part 1 - Library Resources
  10. YouTube: Information Literacy: Part 1 - Library Resources
  11. YouTube: Information Literacy: Part 1 - Library Resources
  12. YouTube: Information Literacy: Part 1 - Library Resources
  13. YouTube: Information Literacy: Part 2 - Databases
  14. YouTube: Information Literacy: Part 3 - Advanced Database Search Techniques
  15. YouTube: Information Literacy: Part 4 - Digital Media
  16. YouTube: Information Literacy: Part 5 - Internet Credibility
  17. YouTube: Information Literacy: Part 5 - Internet Credibility
  18. YouTube: Information Literacy: Part 5 - Internet Credibility
  19. YouTube: Information Literacy: Part 6 - Academic Honesty
  20. YouTube: Information Literacy: Part 6 - Academic Honesty
  21. YouTube: Information Literacy: Part 6 - Academic Honesty
  22. YouTube: Information Literacy: Part 6 - Academic Honesty
  23. YouTube: Information Literacy: Part 7 - Citations
  24. YouTube: Information Literacy: Part 7 - Citations
  25. Wikipedia: Abstract (summary)

Health and Safety[edit | edit source]

Student health center
Substance abuse
Mental health
Sexual health

This lesson introduces health and safety. In this lesson you will learn about the importance of nutrition, exercise, sleep, mental health, sexual health, and safety, and the risks of substance abuse and the impacts of stress.

Objectives and Skills[edit | edit source]

Objectives and skills for this lesson include:

  • Describe the major risks of an unhealthy diet and the benefits of healthy eating[1]
  • Identify the benefits of regular exercise, for both body and brain[2]
  • Identify benefits of sleep for both physical and mental health[3]
  • Explain what substance use and abuse is and identify the warning signs that help may be needed[4]
  • List healthy ways of managing stress that fit your current lifestyle[5]
  • Identify the difference between occasional negative emotions and more serious mental health issues, such as anxiety disorder or depression[6]
  • Identify sexually healthy behaviors, including protecting against unwanted pregnancy and sexually transmitted disease[7]
  • Describe strategies for staying safe on campus and elsewhere[8]

Readings[edit | edit source]

  1. Lumen: College Success - Nutrition
  2. Lumen: College Success - Exercise
  3. Lumen: College Success - Sleep
  4. Lumen: College Success - Substance Abuse
  5. Lumen: College Success - Stress
  6. Lumen: College Success - Mental Health
  7. Lumen: College Success - Sexual Health
  8. Lumen: College Success - Safety

Multimedia[edit | edit source]

  1. YouTube: How to Follow the USDA MyPlate Dietary Guidelines
  2. YouTube: Exercise and the Brain
  3. YouTube: Exercise and the Brain
  4. YouTube: Body Scan Meditation
  5. YouTube: Connected, but alone?
  6. YouTube: Shedding Light on Student Depression
  7. YouTube: My Rapist Is Still On Campus: Sexual Assault In The Ivy League
  8. YouTube: College Crime and Safety
  9. YouTube: Safety Tips for College Students

Activities[edit | edit source]

  1. Explore student services.
    • Contact college Health Services to learn about health and safety programs available to students.
  2. Keep a food log.
  3. Create an exercise plan.
  4. Track your sleep habits.
    • Review Lumen: College Success - Assignment: Sleep.
    • Keep a log of how much sleep you get each night for a week.
    • Add a short note each night before going to sleep describing how you felt that day and how productive you were.
    • At the end of the week, reflect on the correlation between your sleep habits and your overall health and productivity.
  5. Research substance abuse.
  6. Practice healthy stress relief.
  7. Help a friend.
    • Review Lumen: College Success - Assignment: Mental Health.
    • Contact college counseling services to learn about the process for seeking and obtaining assistance.
    • Consider your friends and their current emotional and mental states. If you have any concerns, reach out and encourage them to seek help.
  8. Understand the prevalence and impact of sexual assault.
  9. Review your personal safety.
    • Review Lumen: College Success - Assignment: Safety.
    • Think about your daily or weekly activities. In what situations do you consider yourself to be reasonably safe? Which situations are more risky? What changes should you make to improve your overall safety?
  10. Blog / Journal / Wiki
    • Update your blog, journal, or wiki page summarizing your experience this week. Include a list of resources and links or contact information for each resource.

Lesson Summary[edit | edit source]

Nutrition[edit | edit source]

USDA healthy eating guidelines include:[9]

  • Make half your plate fruits and vegetables: Focus on whole fruits, and vary your veggies
  • Make half your grains whole grains
  • Vary your protein routine
  • Move to low-fat or fat-free milk or yogurt
  • Drink and eat less sodium, saturated fat, and added sugars
  • Eat the right amount

Exercise[edit | edit source]

Types of exercise include:[10]

  • Aerobic Exercise
  • Strength Training
  • Flexibility Exercises
  • Being Active Throughout the Day

Benefits of exercise include:[11]

  • Longevity
  • Diabetes Risk Reduction
  • Brain: Mood, Memory, Creativity

Sleep[edit | edit source]

Sleep helps you think more clearly, have quicker reflexes, and focus better.[12]

Loss of sleep impairs your higher levels of reasoning, problem-solving, and attention to detail.[13]

Sleep recommendations include:[14]

  • Set a schedule
  • Exercise
  • Avoid caffeine, nicotine, and alcohol before bed
  • Relax before bed
  • Sleep until sunlight
  • Don’t lie in bed awake
  • Control your room temperature
  • Screen out noise and light
  • See a doctor if your sleeping problem continues

Substance Abuse[edit | edit source]

A drug is a chemical substance that can change how your body and mind work. Drugs of abuse are substances that people use to get high and change how they feel.[15]

Drugs include:[16]

  • Cigarettes and tobacco
  • Alcohol
  • Marijuana
  • Cocaine
  • Heroin
  • Meth
  • Prescription medications
  • Recreational drugs

If your use of drugs or alcohol is interfering with your life—negatively affecting your health, work, school, relationships, or finances—it’s time to quit or seek help.[17]

Stress[edit | edit source]

Stress is a natural response of the mind and body to a situation in which a person feels threatened or anxious.[18]

Ways to manage stress include:[19]

  • Avoid drugs and alcohol
  • Manage your time
  • Find support
  • Connect socially
  • Slow down
  • Take care of your health

Mental Health[edit | edit source]

Mental health can be defined as a state of well-being in which the individual realizes his or her own abilities, can cope with the normal stresses of life, can work productively and fruitfully, and is able to make a contribution to his or her community.[20]

Mental health indicators include:[21]

  • Emotional well-being
  • Psychological well-being
  • Social well-being

Mental health issues include:

  • Depression
  • Loneliness
  • Eating disorders
  • Anxiety disorders
  • Suicidal behavior

If you or someone you know needs help, call the National Suicide Prevention Lifeline at 1.800.273.TALK (8255). Trained crisis workers are available to talk 24 hours a day, 7 days a week.[22]

International suicide hotlines are listed at

If you think someone is in immediate danger, do not leave him or her alone—stay there and call 911.[23]

OK2TALK is a community for young adults struggling with mental health problems. It offers a safe place to talk.[24]

Sexual Health[edit | edit source]

Sexual health concerns include:[25]

  • Sexually Transmitted Infection (STI)
  • Unintended Pregnancy
  • Sexual Assault

The surest way to protect yourself against STIs is to not have sex (practice “abstinence”). That means not having any vaginal, anal, or oral sex. There are many things to consider before having sex, and it’s okay to say no if you don’t want to have sex.[26]

If you do decide to have sex, you and your partner should get tested beforehand and make sure that you and your partner use a condom—every time you have oral, anal, or vaginal sex, from start to finish. Know where to get condoms and how to use them correctly. It’s not safe to stop using condoms unless you’ve both been tested, know your status, and are in a mutually monogamous relationship.[27]

If a condom breaks or you have unprotected sexual intercourse, it’s possible to take an emergency contraceptive pill (ECP)—sometimes called a “morning-after pill”—which may prevent a pregnancy from occurring.[28]

Take the following steps if you or someone you know has been raped, or you think you might have been drugged and raped:[29]

  • Get medical care right away.
  • Call the police from the hospital.
  • Ask the hospital to take a urine (pee) sample that can be used to test for date rape drugs.
  • Don’t pick up or clean up where you think the assault might have occurred.
  • Get counseling and treatment.

The U.S. National Sexual Assault Hotline phone number is 800-656-HOPE.[30]

Safety[edit | edit source]

Safety consciousness is a term describing your awareness of hazards, and your alertness to potential danger. In order to have safety consciousness, you must value safety no matter where you are or what time of day it is.[31]

Tips for staying safe include:[32]

  • Travel with a friend or use the campus escort service
  • Keep doors locked
  • Keep a close eye on your belongings
  • Be cautious, not paranoid
  • Know the phone number for Campus Safety
  • Put emergency numbers in your cell phone
  • If you see something, say something
  • Download a free personal safety app on your mobile device

Key Terms[edit | edit source]

See Also[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]

Finances[edit | edit source]


This lesson introduces finances. In this lesson you will learn about personal finance, financial aid, working, saving, budgeting, credit cards, and credit reports.

Objectives and Skills[edit | edit source]

Objectives and skills for this lesson include:

  • Identify sources of income and expenses in your life[1]
  • Identify the potential sources of financial assistance available, including subsidized and unsubsidized loans, grants, scholarships, and work study[2]
  • Identify employment options for college students[3]
  • Track your personal spending habits and identify strategies for cost cutting[4]
  • Create a personal budget[5]
  • Describe the risks and rewards of credit[6]

Readings[edit | edit source]

  1. Lumen: College Success - Personal Finance
  2. Lumen: College Success - Financial Aid
  3. Lumen: College Success - Working
  4. Lumen: College Success - Saving
  5. Lumen: College Success - Budgeting
  6. Lumen: College Success - Credit

Multimedia[edit | edit source]

  1. YouTube: What is the Price of College?
  2. YouTube: Federal Student Aid -- Myths About Financial Aid
  3. YouTube: Students Working Through College
  4. YouTube: Cash Budgeting Using the Envelope System
  5. YouTube: How to Build a Good Credit Score

Activities[edit | edit source]

  1. Explore student services.
    • Contact the college Financial Aid Office to learn about financial planning resources available to students.
    • Contact the college Career Center to learn about career planning and placement options available to students and alumni.
  2. Complete a financial inventory.
  3. Research student loan impact.
  4. Apply for a grant.
  5. Research available jobs.
    • Review Lumen: College Success - Assignment: Working.
    • Contact the college Career Center to identify available positions for college students on campus or in your community.
    • Ask about assistance with resumes and interviewing skills.
  6. Record your expenses.
    • Review Lumen: College Success - Assignment: Saving.
    • Record your daily expenses for a week. Compare your results with your original estimate of anticipated expenses above. Are your expenses on target, do you need to revise your estimate, or should you adjust your spending?
  7. Create a budget.
  8. Research credit opportunities.
  9. Blog / Journal / Wiki
    • Update your blog, journal, or wiki page summarizing your experience this week. Include a list of resources and links or contact information for each resource.

Lesson Summary[edit | edit source]

Personal Finance[edit | edit source]

College expenses include:[7]

  • Tuition
  • Room and board
  • Books and supplies
  • Personal needs
  • Transportation

Income sources include:[8]

  • Jobs
  • Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA)
  • Loans
  • Grants and scholarships

Recommendations for financial goals include:[9]

  • Create SMART goals (specific, measurable, attainable, realistic, and timely)
  • Monitor your spending
  • Create a budget
  • Consider working
  • Choose loans wisely

Financial Aid[edit | edit source]

College costs include:[10]

  • Tuition
  • Fees
  • Room and board
  • Books and supplies
  • Living and transportation
  • Personal needs and entertainment

Financial resources include:[11]

  • Grants and scholarships
  • Student loans
  • Jobs

Applying for financial aid requires planning and organization:[12]

  • Complete the Free Application for Financial Student Aid (FAFSA)
  • Make sure the information is accurate
  • Ask your high school and college
  • Ask your community
  • Check due dates
  • Write strong essays

Working[edit | edit source]

Typical college-student jobs include:[13]

  • Work-study programs
  • On-campus jobs
  • Off-campus jobs
  • Internships
  • Summer jobs

Advantages of working during college include:[14]

  • Earning extra money
  • Enhanced budgeting skills
  • Enhanced time-management skills
  • Networking (career contacts)

Disadvantages of working during college include:[15]

  • Lack of time-management skills
  • Lack of free time

Employment resources include:[16]

  • Career centers
  • Career fairs
  • Online job search
  • Community businesses and places of worship

Saving[edit | edit source]

Track personal spending habits:[17]

  • New spending
  • Credit cards
  • Recreational activities
  • Scholarship options

Saving strategies include:[18]

  • Create a detailed budget
  • Cut down on meal costs
  • Save on transportation
  • Look for discounts and used items
  • Apply for scholarships and minimize loans

Budgeting[edit | edit source]

When budgeting:[19]

  • Be realistic
  • Choose a timeline (such as monthly)
  • Add financial padding (save for the unexpected)
  • Make adjustments as needed

Budgeting advantages include:[20]

  • Provides a realistic view of personal finances
  • Helps you avoid excess spending
  • Assists in goal setting

Budgeting disadvantages include:[21]

  • Budgets take energy
  • Results take time
  • Budgets may be too strict

To create a budget:[22]

  • Record your expected income
  • Calculate regular expenses
  • Adjust your expense percentages, and set goals
  • Identify a method for tracking your budget

Credit[edit | edit source]

Credit card advantages include:[23]

  • Saving money
  • Receiving benefits
  • Building credit

Credit card disadvantages include:[24]

  • Overspending
  • Interest expense
  • Debt

Consider credit cards with support options, including:[25]

  • Error forgiveness
  • No extra fees
  • Rewards for good grades
  • Effective customer service

There are three credit reporting agencies:[26]

  • Equifax
  • Experian
  • TransUnion

Free credit reports are available annually from[27]

Resources for credit problems include:[28]

  • Loan consolidation
  • Credit counselors
  • Debt settlement plans
  • Bankruptcy

Key Terms[edit | edit source]

See Also[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]

Career Exploration[edit | edit source]

Career path
Plan Do Check Act

This lesson introduces career exploration. In this lesson you will learn about career planning, career paths, college majors, professional skills, career development, professional networking, resumes, cover letters, and interviewing.

Objectives and Skills[edit | edit source]

Objectives and skills for this lesson include:

  • Correlate your short-term goals with longer-range ambitions[1]
  • Explain the five-step process for choosing a career, which includes aligning your personal interests and skills with appropriate fields[2]
  • Identify the relationship between college majors and career paths (both why they matter and why they don’t)[3]
  • Explain how to acquire necessary skills, both in and out of class, for your career goals[4]
  • Identify career development resources in your school, community, and beyond[5]
  • Define network and identify strategies for networking[6]
  • Identify characteristics of an effective cover letter and resume[7]
  • Describe effective strategies to prepare for an interview[8]

Readings[edit | edit source]

  1. Lumen: College Success - The Big Picture
  2. Lumen: College Success - Career Paths
  3. Lumen: College Success - College Majors
  4. Lumen: College Success - Professional Skill Building
  5. Lumen: College Success - Career Development
  6. Lumen: College Success - Networking
  7. Lumen: College Success - Resumes and Cover Letters
  8. Lumen: College Success - Interviewing

Multimedia[edit | edit source]

  1. YouTube: What Does it Mean to be College and Career Ready?
  2. YouTube: Why College?
  3. YouTube: Difference between Job, Work, and Career
  4. YouTube: Job vs Career - Think about a long time career
  5. YouTube: Matching your skills to a career
  6. YouTube: Childhood Interests Can Help You Find the Right Career
  7. YouTube: How to Select Your College Major
  8. YouTube: Choosing a College Major & Finding the Right Career Fit
  9. YouTube: 10 top skills that will get you a job when you graduate
  10. YouTube: How to find a new job - Transferable Job Skills
  11. YouTube: Tips to improve your career from Monash Graduates
  12. YouTube: The Secret to Getting a Job After College
  13. YouTube: Networking Tips for College Students and Young People
  14. YouTube: International Student Series: Finding work using your networks
  15. YouTube: Networking For College Students & Recent Grads
  16. YouTube: Job Interview Guide - 10 Different Types of Interviews in Today's Modern World

Activities[edit | edit source]

  1. Explore student services.
    • Contact the college's Counseling Services to learn about career counseling options.
    • Contact the college Career Center to learn about career planning and job placement resources available to students and alumni.
  2. Explore career options.
  3. Create a career plan. Complete one or more of the following:
  4. Assess your soft skills.
  5. Network with professionals in your field.
    • Review Lumen: College Success - Assignment: Networking.
    • Identify professionals in your field and follow them on social media.
    • Reach out to local professionals in your field and ask to interview them and/or job shadow them for a day.
    • Research organizations in your area that might have internship opportunities in your field and ask what qualifications they look for in the interns they hire.
  6. Create a resume.
  7. Create a cover letter.
  8. Create or update your LinkedIn profile.
  9. Blog / Journal / Wiki
    • Update your blog, journal, or wiki page summarizing your experience this week. Include a list of resources and links or contact information for each resource.

Lesson Summary[edit | edit source]

The Big Picture[edit | edit source]

Career planning recommendations include:[9]

  • Understand your motivations.
  • Understand what is necessary to be college and career ready.
  • Find a mentor.
  • Enroll in a career exploration or planning course (such as this one).
  • Complete a job shadow or informational interview.
  • Do an internship.

Career Paths[edit | edit source]

Follow a five-step decision process to make your career path a little easier to find:[10]

  • Get to know yourself
  • Get to know your field
  • Prioritize your “deal makers” and rule out your “deal breakers”
  • Make a preliminary career decision and create a plan of action
  • Go out and achieve your career goal

College Majors[edit | edit source]

Tips for selecting your college major include:[11]

  • Narrow your choices by deciding what you don’t like.
  • Explore careers that might interest you. Ask questions.
  • Use your school’s resources.
  • Ask your teacher, counselor, and family about your strengths.
  • 60 percent of students change their majors.
  • Your major isn’t going to define your life. But choosing one that interests you will make your college experience much more rewarding.
  • Go on informational interviews with people in careers that interest you.
  • There’s no pressure to decide now.
  • Take new classes and discover your interests.

Take advantage of available resources, including:[12]

  • College course catalog
  • Faculty and academic advisers at your college
  • Fellow students and graduating seniors
  • Students who have graduated
  • Your family and social communities
  • A career center

Professional Skill Building[edit | edit source]

There are are two main types of skills that employers look for: hard skills and soft skills.

  • Hard skills are concrete or objective abilities that you learn and perhaps have mastered.[13]
  • Soft skills are a combination of people skills, social skills, communication skills, character or personality traits, attitudes, career attributes, social intelligence and emotional intelligence quotients, among others, that enable people to navigate their environment, work well with others, perform well, and achieve their goals with complementing hard skills.[14]

Career Development[edit | edit source]

There are five main stages of career development:[15]

  • Growing (ages 4-13)
  • Exploring (teen - mid-twenties)
  • Establishing (mid-twenties - mid-forties)
  • Maintaining (mid-forties - mid-sixties)
  • Reinventing (retirement or new career)

PDCA (plan–do–check–act or plan–do–check–adjust) is an iterative four-step process used for continuous improvement:[16][17]

  • Plan your approach
  • Do (follow) your plan
  • Check your results
  • Act or adjust based on what you have learned

Networking[edit | edit source]

Networking is the process by which people build relationships with one another for the purpose of helping one another achieve professional goals. Strategies for networking include:[18]

  • Get to know your professors
  • Check with your college's alumni office
  • Check with classmates
  • Join professional organizations
  • Volunteer
  • Get an internship
  • Get a part-time job
  • Join a club
  • Attend networking events
  • Conduct informational interviews
  • Participate in online social media
  • Ask family members and friends, coworkers, and acquaintances for referrals
  • Use business cards or networking cards

Resumes and Cover Letters[edit | edit source]

Your resume is an inventory of your education, work experience, job-related skills, accomplishments, volunteer history, internships, residencies, and/or more.[19]

Resume formats include:[20]

  • Reverse chronological resume
  • Functional resume
  • Hybrid resume
  • Video, infographic, and Web-site resume

Resumes include:[21]

  • Your contact information
  • A summary of your skills
  • Work experience
  • Volunteer experience
  • Education and training
  • References statement

Things to avoid:[22]

  • Do not mention your age, gender, height or weight.
  • Do not include your social security number.
  • Do not mention religious beliefs or political affiliations, unless they are relevant to the position.
  • Do not include a photograph of yourself or a physical description.
  • Do not mention health issues.
  • Do not use first-person references. (I, me).
  • Do not include wage/salary expectations.
  • Do not use abbreviations.

Tips for a successful resume include:[23]

  • Aim to make a resume that’s 1–2 pages long on letter-size paper.
  • Make it visually appealing.
  • Use action verbs and phrases. See Action Words and Phrases for Resume Development.
  • Proofread carefully to eliminate any spelling, grammar, punctuation, and typographical errors.
  • Include highlights of your qualifications or skills to attract an employer’s attention.
  • Craft your letter as a pitch to people in the profession you plan to work in.
  • Stand out as different, courageous.
  • Be positive and reflect only the truth.
  • Be excited and optimistic about your job prospects!
  • Keep refining and reworking your resume; it’s an ongoing project.

A cover letter is a letter of introduction, usually 3–4 paragraphs in length, that you attach to your resume. Cover letters should accomplish the following:[24]

  • Get the attention of the prospective employer
  • Set you apart from any possible competition
  • Identify the position you are interested in
  • Specify how you learned about the position or company
  • Present highlights of your skills and accomplishments
  • Reflect your genuine interest
  • Please the eye and ear

Interviewing[edit | edit source]

When preparing for a job interview:[25]

  • Review the Job Description
  • Research the Company or Organization
  • Practice Answering Common Questions
  • Plan to Dress Appropriately
  • Come Prepared
  • Be Confident

Interview types include:[26]

  • Screening Interviews
  • Phone or Web Conference Interviews
  • One-on-One Interviews
  • Panel Interviews
  • Serial Interviews
  • Lunch Interviews
  • Group Interviews

Key Terms[edit | edit source]

See Also[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]

Conclusion[edit | edit source]

This lesson concludes the student success course. In includes a variety of final projects and closing activities to help you apply the course concepts.

Objectives and Skills[edit | edit source]

Objectives and skills for this lesson include:[1]

  • Apply course concepts through a comprehensive final project.
  • Utilize support services available in the college environment to meet students' personal and academic needs.
  • Create a personal development plan which includes academic and career goals and explores pathways for completion.

Readings[edit | edit source]

  1. Lumen: College Success - Conclusion

Multimedia[edit | edit source]

  1. YouTube: 4 pillars of college success in science

Activities[edit | edit source]

  1. Create an academic plan.
    • Select, confirm, or revise your college major.
    • Identify the courses you will need to take each semester to achieve this degree.
    • If you plan to transfer to another school, contact the transfer institution and verify in writing that the courses you plan to take will be accepted for credit toward the degree you are seeking.
    • Consider the timing and logistics of any internships, externships, or work-study programs required or recommended for this degree.
    • Work with your academic advisor to confirm your decisions and register for classes for the next semester.
  2. Create a personal development plan.
    • Synthesize what you have learned about yourself and changes you have made or plan to make based on this course experience. Include paragraphs or sections for personal values, time management and scheduling, student life and diversity, learning strategies and study skills, critical thinking and information literacy, health and safety, finances, and career exploration.
    • Include detailed information regarding your early career plans, including timeline, job title(s), educational requirements, starting salary, job outlook, typical day, etc.

See Also[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]