Student Projects/Agriculture and types of Agriculture

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       The word 'agriculture' is derived from the Latin word 'ager' or 'Agri' means 'soil', and 'culture' means 'cultivation' or tilling of soil.  By this we can understand that the word Agriculture means cultivation of soil for growing of the crops and rearing the livestock for the human needs.

    Agriculture is the premium occupation for human beings since civilizations had been started and till now it is the main and largely followed occupation in most of the developing countries as well as few developed nations. We can say that half of the world’s population are taking part in agriculture activities.

     The civilizations of this world  has begun with digging of land with human hands ,then after with sticks, hoes and sticks, then after as the civilization developed human started using ox drawn plough, till now most if Indians uses this method of cultivation. In developed countries today all farm operations have been mechanized. Tractors with multiple attachments perform different functions.

Types of Agriculture, Can be broadly dived into two categories:  

1 subsistence agriculture and

2 commercial agriculture.

This bifurcation depends on the type of crops grown and it’s uses, area of the farm.  

1.Subsistence Agriculture

The type of Agriculture which practiced mainly to meet the requirements of the local community.

It includes mainly the types of traditional agricultural practices i.e., Nomadic herding, Shifting cultivation and Intensive agriculture.

a)Nomadic herding: It is practiced by those people who rear cattle, sheep, goats, camels and yaks. These animals are dependent on the natural vegetation in the area. Herders move with their animals from one place to another in search of fodder.

b)Shifting cultivation: The farming method practiced by a very small population living in dense forests is known as shifting cultivation. These people do not lead a settled life. The land is prepared for cultivation by felling trees and burning them. The produce is consumed by the community.

c)Intensive Agriculture: The method of farming in which the farmer gets a very high yielding by using good quality of seeds, more pesticides, fertilizers, livestock, workers etc...,

2.Commercial Agriculture

      The crops which are cultivated mainly to get more profit in the market are known as commercial crops. The cultivation of these crops is known as commercial agriculture.

   It has two main classifications: commercial grain farming and plantation agriculture.

a)Commercial grain farming: The farming which takes place only for the commercial use is known as commercial gain farming.Commercial farming is also known as extensive agriculture because, when compared to intensive agriculture, the amount of capital and labor applied per unit area is relatively less here.Mixed farming: when the cultivation of crops is combined with livestock, then that is known as mixed farming.

b) Plantation agriculture: This is the type of agriculture where the crops are grown in an organized and well managed and manner. It needs a large area of land. Mainly it is found in hilly areas.