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Life[edit | edit source]
While many histories of Servetus have been published claiming that his true name was Michael Servetus (Miguel Serveto) and that he was born at Villanueva de Sijena, Aragon, recent discoveries suggest that Servetus true name could have been Michael De Villeneuve (Miguel De Villanueva) and may have been born at Tudela of Navarre. We will cover this in the De Villeneuve-Servetus Name&Birth controversy seminar."
Works[edit | edit source]
Well known works[edit | edit source]
(Only the dates of the first editions)
1531 “On the Errors of the Trinity. De Trinitatis Erroribus” (Hageunau ,Setzer). Signed as Michael Servetus.
1532 “ Dialogs on the Trinity.Diaologorum de Trinitaty” (Hageunau ,Setzer). Signed as Michael Servetus
1535 “Geography of Claudius Ptolemy. Claudii Ptolemaeii Alexandrinii Geographicae.” Lyon, Trechsel. Signed as Michel De Villeneuve
1536 “The Apology against Leonard Fuchs. In Leonardum Fucsium Apologia.“Lyon, printed by Gilles Hugetan, with parisian prologue. Signed as Michel De Villeneuve
1537 “Universal explanation of the syrups. Syruporum universia ratio.” Paris, edited by Simon des Colines. Signed as Michael De Villeneuve
1538 “Apologetic discourse of Michel De Villeneuve in favour of astrology and against a certain physician. Michaelis Villanovani in quedam medicum apologetica disceptatio pro Astrologia.” Which brought about his first death sentence by the University of Paris. The sentence was commuted to the withdrawal of this edition. From this year the name of Michel De Villeneuve will never appear on the cover of a first edition.
1542 “Sacred Bible according to the translation of Santes Pagnini. Biblia sacra ex Santes Pagnini tralation, hebraist.” Lyon, edited by Delaporte and printed by Trechsel. The name Michel De Villeneuve appears in the prologue, the last time this name would appear in any of his works.
1542 "Biblia sacra ex postremis doctorum". Vienne in Dauphiné, edited by Delaporte and printed by Trechsel. Anonymous. Generally acepted atributed work to Michael Servetus.
1553 "The Restoration of Christianity .Cristianismi Restitutio". Vienne in Dauphiné, printed by Baltasar Arnoullet. Signed as Michael Servetus.
New Works communicated and accepted by the International Society of History of Medicine ISHM[edit | edit source]
The Biblia Sacra Ex Postremis Doctorum has been attributed to Servetus based on the protocols of Michel De Villeneuve with his printers and editors (Treschel,Frellon) and matching these with anonymous works of the same period of time in data, mention of characters, the locations and use of words, and contract requirements. Applying the same methods the researcher and scholar on Michael Servetus, Francisco Javier González Echeverría has attributed him five previously unknown medical works (1538, 1543, 1543, 1548–1551,1554 posthumous), a commented bible(1545), a biblical work(1540), and four grammatical translation works(1540, 1543, 1543, 1549). According to González Echeverría, Michael Servetus/De Villeneuve, who published almost annually for more than a decade from 1531 to 1542 did not stop publishing. He did publish, but anonymously.
González Echeverría found these works through contracts Michael De Villeneuve made with the Company of Booksellers in Lyon in 1540. Company of Booksellers gathered many editors and printers, particularly the Trechsel. These works include the never found Ghost Bible of 1545 and the Opera Omnia of Galen, both thought not to exist, though the contracts existed. González Echeverría also found De Villeneuve's Spanish work of translation through the connection with the brothers Trechsel and the brothers Frellon. It was Jean Frellon who affirmed in the Judgement of Vienne in Dauphiné against Michel de Villeneuve that “ Michel De Villeneuve had translated at his printing work from Latin various grammatical treatises from Latin to Spanish and had made a Spanish summary of St Thomas Aquinas."
Many of these books were reprinted by other editors and printers such as Payen, Gabiano, Rovilio, Giunta.. The books were reprinted not only in Lyon, but also in Venice by such printers as Valgrisio, Lilio or the Nucio at Antwerp.
Biblical Works[edit | edit source]
1545 "Biblia Sacra cum Glossis. Sacred Bible with comment." Lyon, printed by Trechsel and Vicent. According to González Echeverría this book is the so-called “Lost Bible” or “Ghost Bible” by some Servetus scholars.There is an anonymous work from this year that was edited in accordance with the contract Miguel De Villeneuve made with the Company of Booksellers in 1540. That contract specified the addition of comments by Erasmus and Etienne, and those comments have been added to the work. The work consists of 7 volumes (6 volumes and an index) illustrated by Hans Holbein. Copy at the city council of Tudela de Navarre.
Medical Works[edit | edit source]
1538 "Manuscript of the Complutense University of Madrid." Paris(c.1538). On a Dioscorides of Ruel of 1537 printed by Simon des Colines. González Echeverría ordered a comparative grapho-cryptic expert report on the manuscript with the Manuscript of Paris. It was carred out by paleographists of Sevilla who concluded that the Hundreds of hand-written notes were written in Servetus's hand.
1543 "Dioscorides "1st edition Lyon, Frellon. Medical comments and notes on Vienne in Dauphiné, Montpelier and the Doctor Rondelet. Various subsequent editions.
1543 "Dispensarium or Enquiridium". Lyon, Frellon. Complementary of the previous Dioscorides of the same year, with 224 original recipes and others by Lespleigney and Chappuis. Varios subsequent editions.
1548-1551 "Opera Omnia of Galenus". Lyon, Frellon. Five tomes altogether. (Four tomes and an index). With original comments. It is not just that Michael De Villeneuve admired Galenus, but that he was the best Galenist known according to his teachers. (Ref: Andernach El amor a la verdad 194-204) Copy checked at the University of Salamanca, section of old books.
1554 "Dioscorides of Mattioli and Servetus". Designated by González Echeverría tribute edition of the printers. Lyon, edited by Frellon, Rovilio and Vicent and Arnoullet, and printed by Arnoullet . Only edition after the death of Michael De Villeneuve. Contains commenst by both Mattioli and Servetus. Mattioli's comments are signed, Servetus's are not. His comments match perfectly with those found in the Dioscorides of 1543.
Professor John M. Riddle, the foremost expert on Dioscorides, from North Carolina State University, described both works as anonymous. After examining the work of González Echeverría, Riddle has accepted the authorship of Michael Servetus of the two Dioscorides.
Works of spanish translation[edit | edit source]
Ilustrated Biblical works[edit | edit source]
1540 "Las ymagines de las historias del Viejo Testamento.The images of the stories of the Old Gospel." Antwerp, printed by Steelso. Spanish translation from Latin with 92 illustrations by Hans Holbein.Also from the Treschel editors and printers. There is a previous Frellon edition which contains a prologue signed by him. It was also printed by Trechsell.The translation features the same choice of Spanish terms and Galicisms found in later De Villeneuve/Servetus' grammatical treatises.
1543 "Retratos o tablas de la historia del Viejo Testamento.Portraits or printing boards of the story of the Old Gospel." Lyon, 2nd edition of 1549. Novenas and 94 quintillas () with 94 illustrations by Hans Holbein. ( The “spanish sumary” of the contract with Jean Frellon who mentions it in the Judgement of Vienne in Dauphiné) with native words of Navarra and Aragón ( aragonesisms and navarrisms) of the river Ebro valley.
Four Gramatical non-illustrated works[edit | edit source]
(Contracts with Frellon for the translation of Spanish-Latin works with many resemblances to the chosen Spanish terminology on the translation. Except in the case of La Andriana they are aimed at young readers.)
1543 "Disticha de moribus nomine Catonis." ( Moral disticus of Caton) Lyon, Frellon.
1549 "Commentarius puerorum de Latinae Linguae Elegantia. Children's book of notes on the elegance and variety of the latin language". Lovaina, Sasseno/ widow of De Byrckmann). In 1551 edition at Lyon by Frellon.
- (Very possible but not certain authorship of Michael De Villeneuve/Servetus according to González Echeverría research)
1549 " Andria. La Andriana."( Lovaina, Sasseno/ widow of De Byrckmann). It is a work that appears at the same time as the previous one. Last known edition to date. It uses terminology similar to the previous mentioned work. There is an editorial relationship for spreading Spanish works between Byrckmann and Frellon. González Echeverría affirms: “ Unfortunately, since there is not a previous nor subsequent edition by Frellon to date, very possibly it is a work by De Villeneuve/Servetus but we can not be sure of it.”
1549 "De octo orationis partium constructione libellus. Litle work on the construction of the eight parts of the prayer."Lyon, Frellon.
Social justice defender[edit | edit source]
Michael Servetus was aware of the social reality around him, and denounced its unfair aspects. For example according to González Echeverría:
“Servet sided with the German peasants against Luther. He defended them, comparing their miserable life conditions to those of slave when he described Germany in Geography of Ptolomeus. Likewise, when he talks of Spain, Servet comments that the inquisitors cruelly bash the heretics, Muslims and crypto-Jews. The Spanish words for referring to crypto-Jews was marrano, which comes from the Arab word for pig, understood as filthy and forbidden by the jews and muslims. These statements echo the message of Jesus about being on the side of the poor, the weak and forgotten and those persecuted by the society” 
References[edit | edit source]
- ↑ D'Artigny, A.G., Nouveaux mémoires d'histoire, de critique et de littérature (Paris: 1749), t. II, p. 68. Francisco Javier González Echeverría suggested that D’Artigny [who transcribed the records from Vienne (lost during the French Revolution) mistook “somme” for the Summa of Thomas Aquinas. Thomas Aquinas was never before the XIXth century translated into any native language. It seems rather that it was a summary of the Old Testament in Spanish
- ↑ 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 The love for truth. Life and work of Michael Servetus(El amor a la verdad. Vida y obra de Miguel Servet), printed by Navarro y Navarro, Zaragoza, in collaboration with the Government of Navarra, Department of Institutional Relations and Education of the Government of Navarra, 2011, 607 pp, 64 of them illustrations.
- ↑ 1996 “An unknown scientific work of Michael Servetus. The Dioscorides from Sesma”González Echeverría, Francisco Javier and Ancín Chandía, Teresa . TK, nº1, Navarra Association of librarians, Pamplona pp.37-41.
- ↑ 1996 “Sesma's Dioscorides or Medical Matter : an unknown work of Michael Servetus (I)” and “ Sesma's Dioscorides or Medical Matter: an unknown work of Michael Servetus (II)” González Echeverría, Francisco Javier. In : Book of Abstracts. 35th International Congress on the History of Medicine, 2nd-8th, September, 1996, Kos Island, Greece, communications nº: 6 y 7, p. 4.
- ↑ 1997 “Michael Servetus, editor of the Dioscorides”, González Echeverría, Francisco Javier. Institute of Sijeniense Studies “Michael Servetus” ed, Villanueva de Sijena , Larrosa ed and “Ibercaja”, Zaragoza.
- ↑ 6.0 6.1 1998 “ The ' Dispensarium ' or ' Enquiridion ' the complementary work of the Dioscorides, both by Servetus” and “ The book of work of Michael Servetus for his Dioscorides and his 'Dispensarium' ”. González Echeverría, Francisco Javier. Program of the congress and resume of the comunications, XI National Congress on History of Medicine, Santiago de Compostela, University of Santiago de Compostela ,pp. 83-84.
- ↑ 2001 “ An attributable spanish work to Michael Servetus: ' the Dioscorides of Sesma' ”. González Echeverría, Francisco Javier. Varia Histórico- Médica. Edition coordinated by : Jesús Castellanos Guerrero (coord.), Isabel Jiménez Lucena, María José Ruiz Somavilla y Pilar Gardeta Sabater. Minutes from the X Congress on History of Medicine, February 1986, Málaga. Printed by Imagraf, Málaga,pp. 37-55.
- ↑ 1998 “The book of work of Michael Servetus for his Dioscorides and his Dispensarium”(Le livre de travail de Michel Servet pour ses Dioscorides et Dispensarium) and “Iridion, The work The Dispensarium or Enquiridion complementary of the Dioscorides of Michael Servetus” ( Iridion, L’oeuvre Le Dispensarium ou Enquiridion complémentaire sur le Dioscorides de Michel Servet) González Echeverría, in : Book of summaries, 36th International Congress on the History of Medicine, Tunis (Livre des Résumés, 36ème Congrès International d’ Histoire de la médicine, Tunis), 6th- 11th Septembre 1998, (two comunicacions), pp. 199 y 210.
- ↑ 1998 “The book of work of Michael Servetus for his Dioscorides and his Dispensarium”(Le livre de travail de Michel Servet pour ses Dioscorides et Dispensarium) and “Iridion, The work The Dispensarium or Enquiridion complementary of the Dioscorides of Michael Servetus” ( Iridion, L’oeuvre Le Dispensarium ou Enquiridion complémentaire sur le Dioscorides de Michel Servet) González Echeverría, in : Book of summaries, 36th International Congress on the History of Medicine, Tunis (Livre des Résumés, 36 ème Congrès International d’ Histoire de la médicine, Tunis), 6th- 11th Septembre 1998, (two comunicacions), pp. 199 y 210.
- ↑ 2002 “ Michael Servetus in the 'Opera Omnia' of Galenus of 1548-1551 printed by Jean Frellon”, González Echeverría, Francisco Javier. Book of comunications, XII National Congress on History of Medicine., Albacete,7-9 of febrabry, pp 42-43
- ↑ 2004 “The edition of Lyon of the ‘Opera omnia’ by Galenus of the printer Jean Frellon (1548-1551) commented by Michael Servetus”, González Echeverría and Ancín Chandía, Teresa. In: Medicine in the pressence of the new millennium: a historical perspective. Coordinators: José Martínez Pérez,Isabel Porras Gallo, Pedro Samblás Tilve, Mercedes Del Cura González, Minutes from the XII Congress in History of Medicine, 7–9 February 2002, Albacete. Ed. Of the University of Castilla-La Mancha. Cuenca, pp. 645-657.
- ↑ 2000- “ Find of new editions of Bibles and of two ' lost ' gramatical works of Michael Servetus” and “ The doctor Michael Servetus was descendant of jews”, González Echeverría , Francisco Javier. Abstracts, 37th International Congress on the History of Medicine, September 10–15, 2000, Galveston, Texas, U.S.A., pp. 22-23.
- ↑ 2001- “ Portraits or graffical boards of the stories of the Old Godspell. Spanish Summary”, González Echeverría, Francisco Javier. Government of Navarra, Pamplona 2001. Double edition : facsimile and critical edition. Prologue by Julio Segura Moneo.
- ↑ 14.0 14.1 2005 “Deux nouvelles oeuvres de Michel Servet ou de Villeneuve : L’Andrianne en latinespagnol et un Lexicon greco-latin”, González Echeverría, Francisco Javier. In : Book of Abstracts, 3rd Meeting of the ISHM, 11-14 Septembre 2005, Patrás, Greece, p. 92.