Evidence based assessment/Schizophrenia (disorder portfolio)

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Medical disclaimer: This page is for educational and informational purposes only and may not be construed as medical advice. The information is not intended to replace medical advice offered by physicians. Please refer to the full text of the Wikiversity medical disclaimer.

What is a "portfolio"?[edit]

For background information on what assessment portfolios are, click the link in the heading above.

Preparation phase[edit]

Diagnostic Criteria for Schizophrenia[edit]

ICD-10 Diagnostic Criteria For schizophrenia, ICD-10 defines the criteria as:[1]

General criteria for paranoid, hebephrenic, catatonic, and undifferentiated schizophrenia[edit]

Either at least one of the syndromes, symptoms, and signs listed under (1) below, or at least two of the symptoms and signs listed under (2) should be present for most of the time during an episode of psychotic illness lasting for at least 1 month (or at some time during most of the days).

(1) At least one of the following must be present: (a) thought echo, thought insertion or withdrawal, or thought broadcasting; (b) delusions of control, influence, of passivity, clearly referred to body or limb movements or specific thoughts, actions, or sensations; delusional perception; (c) hallucinatory voices giving a running commentary on the patient's behaviour, or discussing the patient among themselves, or other types of hallucinatory voices coming from some part of the body; (d) persistent delusions of other kinds that are culturally inappropriate and completely impossible (e.g. being able to control the weather, or being in communication with aliens from another world).

(2) Or at least two of the following: (a)persistent hallucinations in any modality, when occurring every day for at least 1 month, when accompanied by delusions (which may be fleeting or half-formed) without clear affective content, or when accompanied by persistent over-valued ideas (b)neologisms, breaks, or interpolations in the train of thought, resulting in incoherence or irrelevant speech; (c) catatonic behaviour, such as excitement posturing or waxy flexibility, negativism, mutism, and stupor; (d) "negative" symptoms, such as marked apathy, [paucity of speech, and blunting or incongruity of emotional responses (it must be clear that these are not due to depression or to neuroleptic medication).

Changes in DSM-5 The diagnostic criteria for depressive disorders changed slightly from DSM-IV to DSM-5. A summary is available here.


Base rates of schizophrenia in different populations and clinical settings[edit]

This section describes the demographic setting of the population(s) sampled, base rates of diagnosis, country/region sampled and the diagnostic method that was used. Using this information, clinicians will be able to anchor the rate of schizophrenia they are likely to see in their clinical practice.

  • To find prevalence rates across multiple disorders, click here.
Setting Base Rate Demography Diagnostic Method Best Recommended For
Non-institutionalized civilians[2] 0.5% 48 contiguous US states CIDI, SCID
Community sample[3] 1.3% Urban settings in 5 states (MD, NC, CN, CA, MO) DIS
Inmates with severe mental disorders[4] 23.5% incarcerated†, 69.7% hospitalized involuntarily† All Federal Penitentiaries in Quebec-incarcerated and inmates currently hospitalized involuntarily SCID
Patients presenting for inpatient and ambulatory services[5]
  • African-American (males – 19.1%, females – 11.3%)
  • Latino (males – 9.4%, females – 6.2%)
  • European-American (males – 9.9%, females – 6.1%)
  • (Rates are for all psychotic disorders – authors note this was “mostly schizophrenia”)
New Jersey BASIS-32
General population (community, inpatient, and outpatient)[6] 0.7% Global – 44 countries Clinical interview
General population[7] 0.87% Finland CIDI, SCID
County Mental Health Service Users[8] 54% - homeless individuals San Diego County Chart Diagnosis
Inpatient service[9]
  • 39% - non-homeless
  • 8.4% - 65 years and up
  • 17% - 19-64 years
Maryland Psychiatrist Diagnosis
Insurance claimants in 2002[10] Medicaid – 1.66%, Uninsured – 1.02%, Medicare – 0.83%, Privately insured – 0.13%, Veterans (through VA) – 1.41% USA (Note: Medicaid rate was calculated using California Medi-Cal rates as a proxy) Physician diagnosis

†Rates reflect schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Note: DIS = Diagnostic Interview Schedule, CIDI = Composite International Diagnostic Interview, SCID = Structured Diagnostic Interview for DSM, BASIC-32 = Behavior and Symptoms Identification Scale

Search terms: [Schizophrenia] AND [prevalence OR incidence], [Schizophrenia] AND [Prevalence] AND [Outpatient OR inpatient] in PsycINFO, Medline, and PubMed

Prediction phase[edit]

Screening instruments for schizophrenia[edit]

The following section contains a list of screening and diagnostic instruments for schizophrenia. The section includes administration information, psychometric data, and PDFs or links to the screenings. Screenings are used as part of the prediction phase of assessment; for more information on interpretation of this data, or how screenings fit in to the assessment process, click here.

Recommended screening instruments[edit]

Screening Instrument Format Population Administration Time Resources
Psychiatric Diagnostic Screening Questionnaire (PDSQ)[11] Self-report, yes-or-no items Ages 18+ 15-20 minutes -Available from Western Psychological Services
Structured Interview for Psychosis-Risk Syndrome (SIPS) [12] Structured interview by a clinician or experienced rater Pre-clinical adolescents and adults 2-3 hours -Available from PRIME clinic at Yale University, contact Dr. Barbara Walsh at 203-974-7052

-PDF Version

Bonn Scale for the Assessment of Basic Symptoms (BSABS)[12] Semi-structured interview by a clinician or experienced rater Pre-clinical, residual, and at-risk adolescents and adults 2-3 hours -Available from Amazon

-Available from publisher Shaker Verlag

Likelihood ratios and AUCs of screening measures for schizophrenia[edit]

  • For a list of the likelihood ratios for more broadly reaching screening instruments, click here.
Screening Measure (Primary Reference) AUC LR+ (Score) LR- (Score) Citation Clinical generalizability Download Link
Psychiatric Diagnostic Screening Questionnaire – PDSQ (Zimmerman & Mattia, 2001a)[13] .92 (N = 799) 2.7 (Subscale cutoff score = 1) .33 (Subscale cutoff score = 1) (Zimmerman & Sheeran, 2004)[14] Low – can distinguish psychotic disorders from non-psychotic disorders but cannot distinguish schizophrenia from other psychotic disorders (ex: MDD with psychosis) Not free
Structured Interview for Prodromal Syndromes – SIPS (Miller et al., 1999)[15] Not given (N = 34) 3.5 (not given) 0 (not given) (Miller et al., 2003)[16] Moderate – has some predictive validity (46% of those identified as prodromal by the SIPS developed schizophrenia psychosis within 6 mo.) SIPS
Bonn Scale for the Assessment of basic Symptoms – BSABS (Gross, 1989)[17]
  • Cluster 1 = thought, language, perception, and motor disturbances
  • Cluster 2 = impaired bodily sensations
  • Cluster 3 = impaired tolerance to normal stress
  • Cluster 4 = disorders of emotion and affect including impaired thought, energy, concentration, and memory
  • Cluster 5 = increased emotional reactivity, impaired ability to maintain or initiate social contacts, and disturbances in nonverbal expression
(N = 160)
  • C1 = 0.81
  • C2 = 0.50
  • C3 = 0.52
  • C4 = 0.57
  • C5 = 0.58
Overall = 2.4 (>=1)
  • C1 = 3.1
  • C2 = 0.48
  • C3 = 0.97
  • C4 = 1.1
  • C5 = 1.4 (*)
Overall = 0.03 (>=1)
  • C1 = 0.52
  • C2 = 1.0
  • C3 = 0.77
  • C4 = 0.5
  • C5 = 0.70 (*)
(Klosterkotter, Hellmich, Steinmeyer, Schultze-Lutter, 2001)[18] Moderate – has some predictive validity for individuals who are in the prodromal period or suspected to be in the prodromal period of schizophrenia overall, cluster 1 has best predictive accuracy and may be most useful Not found
Symptom Severity Scale of the DSM5 0.85 (N=314) 3.53 0.35 Ritsner, Mar, Arbitman, & Grinshpoon (2013) Medium: Schizophrenia versus all other psychotic disorders, but has not been studied in a variety of populations with schizophrenia as it is a relatively new measure. DSM 5 Scale
Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS)

(Stanley, Flszbein, & Opfer, 1987)

0.91 (N=314) N/A N/A Ritsner, Mar, Arbitman, & Grinshpoon (2013) Note: 45 minute clinical interview. Requires training. Attached to appendix. Not free
NIMH: Diagnostic Interview Schedule – Psychotic Symptoms Scale

(Robins et al., 1981).

N/A 4.4 1.7 Eaton et al. (1991) Note: Quick self-report interview that screens for psychotic symptoms. Should be followed up with more indepth diagnostic assessments. Not found
Royal Park Multi- Diagnostic Instrument for Psychosis (RPMIP) (McGorry, Copolov, & Singh (1990). 0.78 (N=200) 0.8 1.625 McGorry, McKenzie, & Jackson (2000) Note: Interview that requires training. Not found
Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ) and Survey of Attitudes and Experiences (SAE) 0.74 (N=339) 1.76 0.59 Venables & Raine (2015) Note: Samples included young, predominantly female samples of nonclinical controls.

Self-report measure, likelihood ratios are composite scores for three factors

SPQ

(SAE not found)

UCSD performance-based skills assessment (UPSA) in predicting independence 0.74 (N=434) 2.03 0.47 Mausbach et al. (2008) Note: Two cut-off scores were suggested for predicting independent living in this population. These data are based on the cut-off score of 75 (greater sensitivity) Not found

Note: ‡ Used the SCID administered by trained raters. • Used Present State Examination 9 and psychiatrist diagnosis. (*) Cutoff score for all clusters was 15% of symptoms in that cluster present (for cluster 1= 5/35 symptoms)

  • “LR+” refers to the change in likelihood ratio associated with a positive test score, and “LR-” is the likelihood ratio for a low score. Likelihood ratios of 1 indicate that the test result did not change impressions at all. LRs larger than 10 or smaller than .10 are frequently clinically decisive; 5 or .20 are helpful, and between 2.0 and .5 are small enough that they rarely result in clinically meaningful changes of formulation (Sackett et al., 2000).

Search terms: [schizophrenia] AND [sensitivity OR specificity] AND [differential diagnosis] AND [prodrome] in MedLine and PsycINFO

Interpreting schizophrenia screening measure scores[edit]

  • For information on interpreting screening measure scores, click here.

Prescription phase[edit]

Gold standard diagnostic interviews[edit]

For a list of broad reaching diagnostic interviews sortable by disorder with PDFs (if applicable), click here.

Recommended diagnostic interviews for schizophrenia[edit]

Diagnostic Interview Format Population Administration Time Resources
Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-V (SCID)[19] Semi-structured interview to be administered by a clinician or an experienced rater Adults

(Ages 18+)

Varies -Available for purchase from APA Publishing (Note: Not free)

-Modified [1] (not most recent version, SCID-I)

-Located on Penn Lab, See Appendix 1 for schizophrenia modules

Process phase[edit]

The following section contains a list of process and outcome measures for schizophrenia. The section includes benchmarks based on published norms and on mood samples for several outcome and severity measures, as well as information about commonly used process measures. Process and outcome measures are used as part of the process phase of assessment. For more information of differences between process and outcome measures, see the page on the process phase of assessment.

Severity and outcome[edit]

Clinically significant change benchmarks with common instruments for schizophrenia[edit]

Measure Scale Cut Scores* Critical Change
(Unstandardized Scores)
A B C 95% 90% SEdifference
Benchmarks Based on Published Norms for Samples with Schizophrenia
Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale
(1987 Norms)
PANSS Positive Scale 6 n/a n/a 8.8 7.4 4.5
PANSS Negative Scale
8.8 n/a n/a 7.0 5.9 3.6
PANSS General Psychopathology Scale
18.8 n/a n/a 9.5 8.0 4.8
Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms (SAPS) and Negative Symptoms (SANS)
(1991 Norms)
SAPS -6.9 n/a n/a 13.4 11.3 6.8
SANS
0.6 n/a n/a 13.9 11.7 7.1
Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS)
(2007)
SWLS 5.8 36.4 22.1 7.3 6.2 3.7
Cogtest Battery Composite Score
34 70 55 9.9 8.3 5.0
Beck Depression Inventory 4 22 15 9 8 4.8
Overall Functioning: Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) 26.8 81.6 54.8 8.3 7.0 4.2
Social Skills (Social Functioning Scale) 90.9 268.7 102.1 7.2 6.0 3.6

Note: “A” = Away from the clinical range, “B” = Back into the nonclinical range, “C” = Closer to the nonclinical than clinical mean.

Note: Clinical significance may be limited for use in schizophrenia as the disorder is currently incurable and the extent to which a return to normal functioning may be less common. For this reason, some investigators have used methods other than those proposed by Jacobson and Truax (1991) to develop cut-off points (Jacobson et al. 1999).

  • Example: Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) cut-off scores of 40, 45 and 50 have been mentioned for clinically significant change for schizophrenia patients in hospital settings (Schennach et al. 2015).

Search terms: [schizophrenia] AND [clinical significance OR outcomes OR change] AND [PANSS OR SWLS] in MedLine and PsycINFO

Treatment[edit]

Cognitive behavioral therapy to routine care has shown limited evidence of an average effect size on psychosis symptoms. However, individual CBT is not widely available in the US, and group CBT is likely more cost-efficient. Other general treatment information can be found here.

External Resources[edit]

  1. ICD-11 diagnostic criteria
  2. Find-a-Therapist (a curated list of find-a-therapist websites where you can find a provider)
  3. NIMH (information about schizophrenia)
  4. OMIM (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man)
    1. 181500

Web-based resources[edit]

Online Support Group for Family Members & Individuals with Schizophrenia

Website

Chatrooms for Individuals with Schizophrenia:

General Information about Schizophrenia

References[edit]

Click here for references
  1. "ICD-10 Version:2016". icd.who.int. Archived from the original on 2019-10-03. Retrieved 2018-10-29.
  2. Kessler, RC; McGonagle, KA; Zhao, S; Nelson, CB; Hughes, M; Eshleman, S; Wittchen, HU; Kendler, KS (January 1994). "Lifetime and 12-month prevalence of DSM-III-R psychiatric disorders in the United States. Results from the National Comorbidity Survey.". Archives of general psychiatry 51 (1): 8-19. PMID 8279933. 
  3. Robins, edited by Lee N.; Freedman, Darrel A. Regier ; with foreword by Daniel X. (1991). Psychiatric disorders in America : the epidemiologic catchment area study. New York: Free Press. ISBN 9780029265710.CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
  4. Dumais, A; Côté, G; Lesage, A (March 2010). "Clinical and sociodemographic profiles of male inmates with severe mental illness: a comparison with voluntarily and involuntarily hospitalized patients.". Canadian journal of psychiatry. Revue canadienne de psychiatrie 55 (3): 172-9. PMID 20370968. 
  5. Minsky, S; Vega, W; Miskimen, T; Gara, M; Escobar, J (June 2003). "Diagnostic patterns in Latino, African American, and European American psychiatric patients.". Archives of general psychiatry 60 (6): 637-44. PMID 12796227. 
  6. Saha, Sukanta; Chant, David; Welham, Joy; McGrath, John (May 2005). "A systematic review of the prevalence of schizophrenia". PLoS medicine 2 (5): e141. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0020141. ISSN 1549-1676. PMID 15916472. PMC PMC1140952. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15916472. 
  7. Perälä, Jonna; Suvisaari, Jaana; Saarni, Samuli I.; Kuoppasalmi, Kimmo; Isometsä, Erkki; Pirkola, Sami; Partonen, Timo; Tuulio-Henriksson, Annamari et al. (January 2007). "Lifetime prevalence of psychotic and bipolar I disorders in a general population". Archives of General Psychiatry 64 (1): 19–28. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.64.1.19. ISSN 0003-990X. PMID 17199051. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17199051. 
  8. Folsom, DP; Hawthorne, W; Lindamer, L; Gilmer, T; Bailey, A; Golshan, S; Garcia, P; Unützer, J et al. (February 2005). "Prevalence and risk factors for homelessness and utilization of mental health services among 10,340 patients with serious mental illness in a large public mental health system.". The American journal of psychiatry 162 (2): 370-6. PMID 15677603. 
  9. Brown, Samuel L. (2001-06-01). "Variations in Utilization and Cost of Inpatient Psychiatric Services Among Adults in Maryland". Psychiatric Services 52 (6): 841–843. doi:10.1176/appi.ps.52.6.841. ISSN 1075-2730. https://ps.psychiatryonline.org/doi/abs/10.1176/appi.ps.52.6.841. 
  10. Wu, EQ; Shi, L; Birnbaum, H; Hudson, T; Kessler, R (November 2006). "Annual prevalence of diagnosed schizophrenia in the USA: a claims data analysis approach.". Psychological medicine 36 (11): 1535-40. PMID 16907994. 
  11. "(PDSQ™) Psychiatric Diagnostic Screening Questionnaire™ | WPS". www.wpspublish.com. Retrieved 2018-03-08.
  12. 12.0 12.1 The assessment of psychosis : a reference book and rating scales for research and practice. Waters, Flavie,, Stephane, Massoud,. New York, NY. ISBN 9781315885605. OCLC 897376853.CS1 maint: others (link)
  13. Zimmerman, M; Mattia, JI (2001). "The Psychiatric Diagnostic Screening Questionnaire: development, reliability and validity.". Comprehensive psychiatry 42 (3): 175-89. PMID 11349235. 
  14. Zimmerman, M; Sheeran, T (March 2003). "Screening for principal versus comorbid conditions in psychiatric outpatients with the Psychiatric Diagnostic Screening Questionnaire.". Psychological assessment 15 (1): 110-4. PMID 12674730. 
  15. Miller, TJ; McGlashan, TH; Woods, SW; Stein, K; Driesen, N; Corcoran, CM; Hoffman, R; Davidson, L (1999). "Symptom assessment in schizophrenic prodromal states.". The Psychiatric quarterly 70 (4): 273-87. PMID 10587984. 
  16. Miller, TJ; McGlashan, TH; Rosen, JL; Cadenhead, K; Cannon, T; Ventura, J; McFarlane, W; Perkins, DO et al. (2003). "Prodromal assessment with the structured interview for prodromal syndromes and the scale of prodromal symptoms: predictive validity, interrater reliability, and training to reliability.". Schizophrenia bulletin 29 (4): 703-15. PMID 14989408. 
  17. Gross, G (November 1989). "The 'basic' symptoms of schizophrenia.". The British journal of psychiatry. Supplement (7): 21-5; discussion 37-40. PMID 2695138. 
  18. Klosterkötter, J; Hellmich, M; Steinmeyer, EM; Schultze-Lutter, F (February 2001). "Diagnosing schizophrenia in the initial prodromal phase.". Archives of general psychiatry 58 (2): 158-64. PMID 11177117. 
  19. "Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-5 (SCID-5)". www.appi.org. Retrieved 2018-03-08.
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