Sajem Tan/Morphological cases
The use of morphological cases can be a little unusual for English speakers, but Bee (Jim Henry) has given some excellent examples.
Thefnolmthot tanzlulc snamdah Kizhult. bear-RECP sentence give-PFV bee Bee gave a sentence to Bear.
"-thot" marks the recipient of verbs like give, sell, send, etc. It could also mark the destination of a motion verb, if it is not marked by a more specific spatial postposition.
Kizhultzheh tanzlulc Thefnolm snamdahsun. bee-SRC sentence bear give-PFV-PASS Bear received a sentence from Bee.
Note that "Thefnolm" comes before the verb here because it is an experiencer subject. Bear is not actively *doing* something, like Bee was doing in the previous sentence.
Sajem Tanzheh tanfeh Kizhult. common honey-FOC speak-DUR bee Bee is talking about Sajem Tan.
"-zheh" marks the source for verbs like "receive", and also the topic of speaking/thinking verbs.
slolmgu gamykah ninuhmsho tat. axe-INSTR1 tree-PL cut-CNT dad Dad is chopping down trees with an axe.
"-gu" marks the use of tools that can be held in the hand. It is the equivalent of English "with" in "with an axe".
Kixikolmvah katolcfeh Zhuhzhim helicopter-INSTR2 pilot-DUR dust Dust pilots a helicopter.
"-vah" marks the use of vehicles, or tools too large to hold, or intangible tools like software.
Thefnolmkahm tanfeh Kizhult. bear-COM speak-DUR bee Bee is conversing with Bear.
"-kahm" is the equivalent of "with" in "with such-and-such person", i.e. "in company with," "accompanied by," "in cahoots with," etc.
Kizhultveh Thefnolm duhttuum. bee-CMP bear big-CMP-GNM Bear is bigger than Bee.
Zathelnveh Kizhult cimuht duhtum. spider-CMP bee equal big-GNM Bee is as big as Spider.
"-veh" marks the standard of comparison, equivalent to "as" or "than" in English. Again, because being bigger or as big as something is not an action Bee and Bear are doing, they go before the verb.
Thefnolmo, xanolnfeh Kizhult. bear-VOC greet-DUR bee Bee greets you, O Bear.
The vocative "-o" marks the person being addressed.