Research in programming Wikidata/Banks

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This reserch is devoted to the study of banks's properties based on the knowledge base of the Wikidata international project. SPARQL queries were used in order to analyse and compute "banks" objects in Wikidata. A list of all existing banks in the world and a list of countries ordered by number of banks were created. A graph of banks and their parent companies or owners was constructed. In addition, conclusions were drawn regarding completeness of Wikidata on this topic.

List of banks[edit]

Let's list all banks.

Given:

#added 2017-02
#List of `instances of` "bank" 
SELECT ?bank ?bankLabel
WHERE
{
    ?bank wdt:P31 wd:Q22687.  # It is a "instance of" bank.
    SERVICE wikibase:label { bd:serviceParam wikibase:language "en" }
}

SPARQL query on query.wikidata.org, 783 results (as of 16.02.2017).

The disadvantage of this list is that several objects don't have names on Wikidata (No label defined). Let's try to get a list of banks which do not have an empty label field.

SELECT ?bank ?bank_label
WHERE
{
    ?bank wdt:P31 wd:Q22687; # It is an "instance of" a bank.
    rdfs:label ?bank_label . # It is a label of a bank.

    FILTER (LANG(?bank_label) = "en") . 
}

SPARQL query on query.wikidata.org, 404 results (as of 16.02.2017).

👍 Examples of the most complete and well-developed banks on Wikidata include: Deutsche Bank,Grameen Bank, UBS.

👎 There are almost empty and uninformative banks, for example, Rosgosstrakh Bank, Baltic Bank, Unicredit Bank (Russia).

Number of banks in different countries[edit]

Let's calculate number of banks in every country in the world. The resulting list contains countries sorted by descending number of banks.

Given:

  1. instance of (P31),
  2. country (P17).
#added 2017-02                                                        
SELECT ?countryLabel (count(?bank) as ?count)             # Count of banks having property "country"             
WHERE
{
    ?bank  wdt:P31 wd:Q22687.                             # It is an "instance of" a bank
    ?bank wdt:P17 ?country.                               # It is property of a bank

  SERVICE wikibase:label { bd:serviceParam wikibase:language "en" }
 }
  GROUP BY ?country ?countryLabel                          # Group by country
  ORDER BY DESC (?count)                                   # Order by count of banks (descending)

[1], 73 results (as of 20.03.2017).

According to Wikidata countries with the highest number of banks are: Russia (122), Sweden (53), USA (45), Germany (34) and Spain (30).

The result list of all banks has 783 records.[1]. Request of the number of banks in each country in the world compared to the previous one returns significantly fewer banks: there are only 484 (sum of column "number" ) as at 11.03.17 [2].

Thus, most of the instances of "bank" do not have the property "country (P17)", that is, many banks of Wikidata do not have information about countries in which they are located. Additionally, the task was considered no longer existing countries, for example, USSR (Q15180). It is the state that existed from 1922 to 1991.

Graph of banks and their mother company and owners[edit]

Let's construct the graph with banks and their owners and parent companies.

Given:

  1. instance of (P31),
  2. owned by (P127),
  3. parent organization (P749),
  4. logo (P154),
#added 2017-03 
#defaultView:Graph 
SELECT ?parentbank ?parentbankLabel ?parentbanklogo ?bank ?bankLabel ?banklogo 
WHERE 
{ 
?parentbank wdt:P31 wd:Q22687 .                                                # It is a "instance of" bank. 
{?parentbank wdt:P749 ?bank } UNION                                            #It is property of bank (parent organization)
{ ?parentbank wdt:P127 ?bank }                                                  #  It is property of bank (owned by).
OPTIONAL{                                                                       #  Add logo images for parent companies and banks.
?parentbank wdt:P154 ?parentbanklogo .                                          #  It is property of parent company.
?bank wdt:P154 ?banklogo .                                                      #  It is property of bank.
} 
SERVICE wikibase:label { bd:serviceParam wikibase:language "en". }

SPARQL query on query.wikidata.org, 144 results (as of 12.04.17).

This graph has 128 vertices, which are parent companies or owners. Many banks have not logos and most of the subgraphs have a single edge on the graph. The arrows of the graph are directed from the banks to their owners or parent organizations. For example, the graph fragment depicted objects: "UniCredit Bank (Russia)" and its parent organization "Bank Austria" and other banks.

Banks and their mother company and owners
The graph's fragment of banks and their owners and parent organizations


Filling objects[edit]

Information about banks located in 31 countries was updated at Wikidata. 31 banks was added to Russia, nine to the people's Republic of China, eight to Kazakhstan, six banks to Ukraine, four to Poland, four to Moldova, three to France, three to Austria, four to Azerbaijan, three to USA and others.

Before filling Wikidata contained only 91 Russian banks, 53 banks of Sweden, 41 banks of USA, 32 German banks, 29 Spanish banks and other.

Thus, the total number of banks at Wikidata was increased by 100 and equals to 584, and the number of countries with banks was increased by ten and equals 87.

As of 09.04.2017 Wikidata contains the following countries with the highest number of banks: Russia (122 banks), Sweden (54), USA (43), Germany (33), Spain (31), and the total number of banks is equal to 876.

Completeness of data[edit]

Completeness of Wikidata: banks of the world[edit]

It is a very difficult task — to find information about an accurate number of banks in the world.

According to the article by V. Statkevich [3] the main problem is the variety of types of these financial institutions, which in the calculations can be considerable differences. It is especially difficult to determine the exact number of banks in large countries with a developed credit system, such as the USA and China.

There are 8131 bank in 31 countries, as in stated in the table in the article written by V. Statkevich [3].

Since the summation do not take in to account all countries, so, the result is inaccurate. According to the article by S. R. Moiseev "the Optimal structure of the banking market: how many banks are necessary for Russia?" [4] of 2000, the number of banks in the industrial countries is 15255, Southeast Asia 1059 , Latin America — 302, Central and Eastern Europe — 929, and the countries with the largest number of banks (for 2005) are: USA (7475), Germany (2400), Russia (1210), Austria (882), France (880). Wikidata (as at 09.04.17) contain substantially less of the banks and the proportion of countries remains the same: Russia is not presented to the Bank 122, USA — 43, Germany 33, France — 28, Austria — 6.

Russian Wikipedia has not a singe list of a banks in the world but English Wikipedia has a list of Central banks of the world and lists of banks of different countries.

According to the category of list of banks (alphabetically) in the English Wikipedia, there are 4560 banks.

Completeness of Russian banks’s data[edit]

Today in Russia, as in most countries, there is a two-tier banking system. The first level is represented by the Bank of Russia (Central Bank), which conducts settlements between credit institutions and regulates their activities. Functions of the Central bank are regulated by the Federal law dated 10 July 2002 № 86-FZ "On the Central Bank of the Russian Federation (Bank of Russia)". The second level is the commercial banks that provide financial services to businesses and individuals. According to the legislation of the Russian Federation license to credit institutions the Central Bank has the right to revoke the license. [5]

Let's see the number of banks in Russia was carried out search request on credit institutions on the official website of the Central Bank of the Russian Federation[6], the parameters of which are:

  1. type: bank
  2. status: authorized bank (license is not revoked).

There are 556 banks in Russia (as of 10.03.2017), acсording to search request on the webcite of Central Bank of The Russian Federation (result do not include the Central Bank).[6]

According to the category of "Banks of Russia" in the Russian Wikipedia, there are 118 banks in Russia.

According to the category of list of banks in Russia in the English Wikipedia, there are 779 banks in Russia.

During the analysis the list of banks in Russia of English Wikipedia it was found that the majority of banks do not specify the license status and the number of operating banks (status: active) is only 67.

Consequently, the English Wikipedia contain incomplete data. Information of the Russian Wikipedia (118 banks) is comparison with the data of the Central Bank of the Russian Federation shows that Russian Wikipedia contains incomplete data, in addition, the result includes inoperative banks.

The result of a SPARQL query[7] yields 122 banks in Russia. Thus, Wikidata contains only 21.94 % of Russian banks as of 11.03.2017.It shoud be noted that this query returned not existing banks also. For example, "Bank24.ru" (Q4077329), commercial bank, existed in Russia from 1992 to 2014, as it stated in the Wikipedia article "Bank24.ru".

Future work[edit]

  1. Find the bank of Russia with the maximum equity.
    Use the property "total equity (P2137)".
  2. Create a diagram with the history of the creation and termination of banks in the world and for each country.
    Diagram should be constructed in such a way that it is possible to estimate appeared ("inception (P571)") and destroyed ("dissolved, abolished or demolished (P576)") in different years.
  3. Build a graph, where the vertices are countries with banks or headquarters. The arc of the graph is directed from the countries with banks in the countries where the headquarters of banks is located. This will allow you to see how countries are connected with each other by means of banks and their headquarters.
    Use the property "headquarters location (P159)".
    Subtask: draw lines on the map from the banks to headquarters.

Tests[edit]

1

When these Russian banks were created?

20 century 21 century
Rosselkhozbank
Sberbank of Russia
Rosgosstrakh Bank
SMP Bank

2

Which of these Russian banks had the highest value of net profit (more than 970 billions)?

Bank Ugra
Moscow Industrial Bank
Kuban Credit
Sberbank of Russia

3

The salary of one employee of the bank is one of the coefficients assess the profitability of the entire staff of the bank, which equals to the ratio of the net profit of the bank to the number of employees. Arrange logos of Russian banks in descending order of this ratio. Given: "Sberbank of Russia" — 222,9 billion, with 330 000 employees; "Citibank — 6.1 billion, 4,000 employees; " TransCreditBank" — 14, 2 billion, with 7700 employees, the "UniCredit Bank of Russia" — 9.5 billion rubles, 4900 employees.

First place, Second place, Third place, Fourth place
Sberbank logo.png
Citibank.svg
ТрансКредитБанк.png
UniCredit Bank of Russia (without logo)


SPARQL queries with answers:

References[edit]

  1. SPARQL query. List of banks all the world (as of 16.02.2017)
  2. SPARQL query.The number of banks by country (as of 11.03.2017)
  3. 3.0 3.1 Statkevich 2016.
  4. S. R. Moiseev 2006.
  5. Information portal "Banki".
  6. 6.0 6.1 Bank of Russia.
  7. SPARQL-query.The number of banks by country (in 11.03.2017)