Pre-Late Egyptian Reconstruction/What happened to Egyptian verbs?! Especially in relation to Semitic Languages

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So How Many Morphological Root Forms Are there?[edit]

Before we go into the various suffixes, it should be mentioned that there appeared to be some syllabic patterns which roots (of the verb type) typically followed according to however many radicals/consonants a word had:

Class Elementary
Formula
Example Formula
Root + -t/-w/ect
Example
2-Rad CāC (y)ī(y/w)[1] CǎCat/w (y)ĭwat
2-Gem CaCǎC kabǎb CǎCCat/w kăbbat/w
3-Rad CāCaC dam CǎCCat/w dmat/w
3-Rad Inf. CǎCi ~ CīCe / CiCCĕ mǎri ~ mīre / mirrĕ CăCyat/w ~ CīCyat/w măr(y)at/w ~ mīrit/w
4-Rad CǎCCaC wǎstan CaCCǎnat/w wastǎnat/w
  • Stress Patterns in lexicalized words occasionally moved one syllable to the right without a logical explanation (as of yet), i.e.:
dmaw => sadmǎw
Other times the suffix ending vanished alltogether, in affect causing an accented final syllable (with 3-rad roots):
dmaw => sadǎm
More in depth information on the various stress patterns can be found here.
Loaned and borrowed words conformed to Egyptian syllable and vowel patterns but in an inconsistent manner:
ⲦⲀⲠⲈⲢⲒ - to prepare (Arabic loan verb)
  • Vowel Length/Quantity, i.e., O = Ⲱ, Ⲉ = Ⲏ, ect are randomly interchangeable especially between the Coptic dialects and Vowel Quality is debatable.
  • 2-Gem Roots often times followed the 2-rad form.
  • Internal Modifcations of 2-rad roots with what appears to be a vocalic suffix (i.e., -w or -j) conformed to some kind of an apophonic assimilation best defined as an umlaut. This was especially the case with 2-rad roots in the Qualitative/Stative category:
kamǎm (kām) => kǎmu/kăma ~ ⲔⲎⲘ
A metaphonic assimilation also appears to be the case with many plurals which conform to a broken plural:
natară(w) => ⲚⲦⲎⲢ
This leads me to believe, in my own opinion, that the plural suffix was semi-vocalic -u, being treated the same as the abstract -w affix (which I would term semi-consonantal) whenever it was a vowel, so that in Late Egyptian, when both suffixes came into contact with one another the combination: -Ⲉ(Ⲉ)Ⲩ (-ĕw) was born. Based upon this theory we are dealing with three separate -w categories by the time of Coptic:
  • Plural -Ⲉ(Ⲉ)Ⲩ => Abstract -w + Plural -u ... leading to the Coptic pluralic ending: -ⲎⲨ ... originally we may have been dealing with an /-awu/ combination, more information here.
  • Abstract -w: -Ⲁ(O)Ⲩ/-O(O)Ⲩ (seems to originate from /-w/ + 1 syllable, i.e., the dual -wj) ... according to Coptic reflexes, abstract -w, since it was semi-consonantal, was originally pronounced -aw > -e according to two possible theories:
1) -w was followed by another syllable: ⲤⲚⲀOⲨ /sn.wj/ - two; ⲢⲘⲠOOⲨⲈ /ranp.wt/ - years
2) -w by itself had two outcomes:
A - Vocalic: Ϭ(Ⲓ)ⲚⲈ /k(ɜ)mw/ - gardener; Ⲏ(Ⲉ)ⲚⲦOⲨ /hndwy/ - India (adj.)
B - Consonantal: ϤⲦOOⲨ /fd.w/ - four (the alternative spelling: ϤⲦⲀⲨ, indicates an abstract/nominal -w ending). This spelling is the least possible for the abstract -w in Coptic, even in stressed position.
An interesting observation here is that generally speaking, words ending in the abstract -w did not apophonize, with the exception of a handful of Coptic nouns, i.e,: ⲤⲈϨ/ⲤⲀϨ[2] - scribe, ⲚⲈ(Ⲉ)Ϥ / ⲚⲎϤ - sailor, ect. This indicates that the abstract -w may have been deemed consonantal in nature in Pre-historic Egyptian, with a gradual reduction to -Ⲉ in stressed position parallel to the feminine -at < -Ⲉ reduction.
  • The feminine plural: -OOⲨⲈ / -ⲰOⲨⲒ (-ăwuat) would fall under the above abstract -w category, whereas the Coptic plural ending -ⲰOⲨ appears to be secondary, possibly evolving from roots ending in a weak radical + Plural -w ending (i.e., ϢⲘⲘO /šmꜢ/ => ϢⲘⲘⲰOⲨ /šmꜢ.w/)
  • Broken Plural: CCⲎC / CCOOC, CCⲰⲰC, CCⲈⲨC, ect => Plural -w /-u ending ... seems to have been originally -u, following the pattern of the Qualitative/Stative umlaut. There is some indirect evidence indicating that the plural, in Pre-historic Egyptian, was -i(yu), stemming from the ancestor of the Semitic plural -iyum, but in most cases it evolved into -u with sporadic instances of the interchanging of -w < -i still in tact even in Coptic (i.e., ϢⲘⲘOⲒ[3] = ϢⲘⲘⲰOⲨ /šmꜢ.w/ - stranger).
  • Another interesting observation to take heed of, is that the Egyptian umlaut appeared to primarily affect Egyptian native words within the period of the Canaanite shift and did not appear to affect loan words into Coptic thereafter:


Notes[edit]

  • The above studies leads me to also believe, in my own opinion, that Egyptian was in the process of thus evolving into a poly-synthetic language, akin to her Semitic sister languages, whereas it was formally structured by a series of affixes. By the time of the Old Kingdom, a majority of these affixes became a part of the word then losing their intended use, and by the time of Coptic, the only true affixes remaining were some of the suffix pronouns, as well as the general plural ending -OOⲨⲈ /-ⲰOⲨⲒ. In other instances umlauts differentiated newly formed vocalic patterns which did not appear until the later phases of the language, probably starting during the period of the Canaanite vowel shift.
  • The issue of the vowels is quite interesting. I do believe, after all the studies I have encountered on the subject, that Egyptian consonants bared "sound" in combination with a general vowel, so for example, as noted above, a 3-rad word would typically follow the pattern: CáCɘC, and once other words or suffixes were attached to this word, a change of pronunciation occurred, i.e.:
CáCəC => CəCáC + əC = CəCáCəC
It is to be noted that some scholars believed this change in "stress" was in "free variation", never-the-less, the vowel must have not only been inherited to the consonant but at times co-articulated especially in the later phases of the Egyptian language. And in unstressed position the vowel must have always been reduced to a schwa, so it was not practical for the Egyptians to have an Abugida script (syllabic alphabet), and instead opted to create an Abjad script (consonantal script) dabbled/sprinkled with logograms similar to the Japanese and Chinese scripts. Once the vowels grew more developed, a new script was used adopting Greek letters. The Demotic script could also be said to have conformed to an Arabic-esque or Hebrew-esque alphabet in the pre-Coptic phase of the Egyptian language.

Proposed Suffixes[edit]

Below are the suffixes believed to have been still productive until the Canaanite vowel shift and observable in the hieroglyphics.

-t Noun Suffix[edit]

1 - Noun Compliment of Adjectives

  • bjn - bad; evil -- bjnt - evil (noun)
  • dḥr - bitter -- dḥrt - bitterness
  • md - deep -- mdt - depth
  • hɜb - crooked -- hɜbt - curl; crookedness

2 - Tangible/Abstract Noun Compliment of a Noun

  • tbw - sole of foot -- tbwt - sandal
  • mk - protector -- mkt - protection
  • hnm - basin ? for irrigation -- hnmt - cistern; well

3 - Deverbative Object of Action

  • pd - to draw bow -- pdt - bow
  • twɜ - to support; hold up, set (crown on head) -- twɜt - temple roof
  • qnb - to bend, bow -- qnbt - corner, angle

4 - Deverbative Attributive (Most Productive in Ancient Egyptian)

  • dm - to pierce (sky); sharpen; be sharp -- dmt - knife

5 - Deverbative Instrument/Agent (Most Productive in Ancient Egyptian)

  • zf - to cut up; cut off -- zft - knife
  • šꜥ - to cut off; šꜥt - knife
  • mnꜥ - to nurse -- mnꜥt - nurse

6 - Deverbative Complement, forming inter alia Abstract Nouns (Most Productive in Ancient Egyptian)

  • sf - to be mild, merciful -- sft - clemency
  • mn - to hurt -- mnt - malady
  • d - to hack up, destroy -- ꜥdt - slaughter, massacre

-y Noun & Adjective Suffix[edit]

1 - Functions as a deverbative and as a formative of attribute nouns in Afroasiatic languages but in Ancient Egyptian most often derive agent nouns from other nouns:

  • pdt - bow -- pdty - bowman
  • ꜥḥt - farmland -- ꜥḥty - cultivator
  • sḥ - council; counsel -- sḥy - man of good council

2 - Adjective or Adverb Forming Functions

  • tp -head -- tpy - being upon; principal first
  • iɜb - east wind -- iɜby - east, eastern; left

3 - Deriving a Noun From a Noun by the Addition of -t and the -y Nominal Suffixes:

  • rw - lion -- rwty - lion's den

-y Verb Extension[edit]

The verb extension in -y has several recurrent functions wherever it is or has been productive in the Afrasan family. Widely in Afrasan, -y can have a durative effect or is added to verbs whose meanings already inherently convey an extended action.

1 - Denominative

  • mk - protector -- mky - to guard, protect
  • šf - respect, honor ? -- šfy - to respect

2 - Inchoative

  • dwɜ- to rise early -- dwɜ-y-t - morning (+ y as inchoative i.e., become morning, + -t noun suffix)
  • tbw - sole of foot -- tbi - to be shod
  • tbwt - sandal (why is this here??)
  • wɜ - far; long ago -- wɜi - to become distant
  • qn - fat (adj); fat (noun) -- qny - to become fat
  • mn - sick man -- mni - to be ill; suffer
  • gb - deficiency, deprecation -- gbi - to be weak; deprived, deficient
  • iɜw - old man -- iɜwi - to be aged, attain old age

3 - As a Marker of Extended Action

  • hbhb - to traverse (redup. stem) travel -- hbi - to tread out; tread
  • ꜥḫt - to swoop -- ꜥḫi - to fly
  • fdq - to divide; split -- fdi - to pluck; pull up; uproot, pull out

-w Noun Suffix[edit]

This suffix functioned more generally than -y, as a deverbative

1 - Agent Nouns

  • sf - to be mild; merciful -- sfw - gentleman
  • mtr - to testify concerning -- mtrw - witness
Note: ⲘⲈⲦⲢⲎ - witness (ⲘⲚⲦⲢⲈ) -- ⲘⲈⲐⲦⲢⲈⲨ - witnesses
  • nd - to grind -- ndw - miller
  • dɜi - to oppose -- dɜiw - opponent
  • bhɜ - to flee -- bhɜw - fugitive

2 - (less commonly) Instrument Nouns

  • spḥ - to lasso -- spḥw - lasso
  • ḥtr - to bind together -- ḥtrw - lashings
  • qɜs - to bind, tie -- qɜsw - bonds

3 - Attribute Nouns, Including Nouns Derived From Adjectives

  • tnm - to disappear -- tnmw - darkness
  • tbb - to step on (gemin. as iter.) -- tbw - sole of foot
  • tɜ - hot -- tɜw - heat
  • dšr - red -- dšrw - blood
  • wbn - to rise, shine (sun) -- wbnw - eastern; the east

4 - Noun complements

  • sf - to mix -- sfw - muddle
  • gs - to anoint -- gsw - ointment
  • dwɜ - to rise early -- dwɜw - dawn, morning, tomorrow
  • nhp - to rise early in the morning -- nhpw - dawn; early morning


Formerly Productive Suffixes[edit]

There is considerable evidence of stems consisting of suffixes which then create new words which are then eventually lexicalized. Ehret[4] (and some other respected scholars), for example, posited that some three consonant verbs whose third consonant from Egyptian and related languages were actually verbs with two consonants whose third consonant was actually a suffix (though, it is to be noted that in some cases the fourth consonant held the suffix instead). In addition to the above mentioned suffixes, a second and much larger body of root extensions seems to have been either rarely productive or no longer productive so at all in ancient Egyptian. Their former existence can be discovered through the techniques of internal reconstruction.


-ɜ Noun Suffix[edit]

The -ɜ noun suffix can be divided into two main origins: the PAA -r Noun Suffix, and the PAA -ʔ Noun Suffix, which sometimes conflated into one suffix not only in PAA but also in Egyptian.

  • nd - to grind -- ndɜw - chips (of stone) (with -w plural)
  • qmd - to device, invent -- qmɜ - appearance, form (also to create, produce)

-n Adjective Suffix[edit]

The evidence of the -n suffix is not extensive and has been lexicalized early on.

  • sf - to be mild, merciful -- sfn - to be kindly merciful (proposed earlier adjective: kindly, merciful... converted to essive verb)
  • tbhn - to leap, prance (of animals) -- tbn - to be quick (proposed earlier adjective: quick... converted to essive verb "to be quick")

-m Noun and Adjective Suffixes[edit]

So far, just two examples exist of both uses:

1 - Noun Suffix

  • hnw - brook -- hnm - basin ? for irrigation

2 - Adjective Deriving

  • nqꜥ - to scrape, incise; polish --- nqm - to be bald (proposed underlining adjective converted to essive verb)

-r Noun and Adjective Suffix[edit]

Originates from PAA -l suffix.

1 - Noun Suffix

  • qɜb - to fold over -- qɜr - bundle
  • qɜ - to bind tie
  • ḥt - to become entangled -- ḥtr - yoke of oxen
  • ḥtr - to bind together
  • bꜥbꜥ - to bubble -- bꜥr - fountain

2 - Adjective Suffix

  • mɜꜥt - ideal state of things, proper ordering of life (here, the root is proposed as "mꜥ" with -t noun suffix ending) -- mꜥr - fortunate, successful, without fault
  • wš - to fall out (hair); lack; be destroyed; desolate (a place) -- wšr - to be despoiled; be barren (woman) (proposed derivation adjective: despoiled, lacking, converted to essive verb)

-s Noun Forming Suffix[edit]

This suffix is so far only attested in the Chadic, Semitic, and Egyptian branches of Afrasan but not in the earlier diverging Cushitic and Omotic branches. The comparative evidence suggests that this suffix may have originated as a deverbative complement formative.

  • dɜi - to oppose -- dɜis - dispute, argument: civil war (also converted to verb 'to dispute, argue [with])
  • ḫɜb - to be bent -- ḫɜs - curl (on front of Red Crown)
  • ḫɜm - to bow down

-s Causative as a Verb Suffix[edit]

The -s causative started out as a suffix, then was used as a prefix. Egyptian internal evidence indicates fossil, suffixed occurrences of this extension in ancient Egyptian, left over from a much earlier period before it moved to a prefixal location.

  • qɜb - to fold over, double over -- qɜs - to bind, tie
  • qɜr - bundle
  • qɜb - intestines
  • ḥtm - to perish, be destroyed -- ḥts - to bring to an end

-s Verb Extension Non-Causative[edit]

In general when an -s verb extension is used and a causative is not intended, the -s suffix appears to accompany an implication of extended action.

  • ḫɜr - to bolt ? (of horses) -- ḫɜs - to scramble ?
  • ḫɜḫ - to be speedy; hurry
  • dgɜ - to walk -- dgs - to walk
  • wgp - to triturate -- wgs - to cut open
  • ḫbḫb - to pierce, to kill (redup) -- ḫbs - to hack up the earth
  • wḥɜ - to hew (a stone) -- wḥs - to cut off (hair)
  • nḥ - ? -- nḥs - to mumble incantations (is a hypothesized root + -s suffix). The Semitic root lḥš - to adjure, to conjure could thus be an Egyptian borrowing into Semitic languages. Interestingly there is also the Egyptian verb: nḥj - to pray. These studies come from the origin of the word: nḥsj - Nubian (nḥsjw - those who mumble incantations)[5]. The Hebrew word taḥpanḥēs probably represents the Egyptian phrase: t-h-p-nḥsj - meaning uncertain, but with Nubian references[6].
Note: In the cases of dgs, wgs, ḫbs and wḥs, final -s is not likely to be a fossilized causative because it attaches to a root already transitive in meaning.

-b Animate Noun Suffix[edit]

  • qɜb - to fold over
  • qɜs - to bind, tie
  • qɜr - bundle
  • qɜb - intestines (from the twisting shape of the small intestines)

-w Verb Extension[edit]

Normally, in the Afrasan family as a whole, the -w extension had virtually the same range of functions as the -y verb extension. Instances of the -w extension are relatively rare in Egyptian but nonetheless still exist. In the below example the -w extension takes on a durative effect (more examples are in the process of being published)

  • zwn - to perish -- zwnw - to suffer

-t Verb Extension[edit]

Conveys a continuing action.

  • ꜥḫi - to fly -- ꜥḫt - to swoop
  • nwd - to vacillate -- nwtwt - to totter (partially redup. nw)
  • nwr - to shake
  • nwd - to deviate
  • nwn - to let hair hang loose over forehead
  • nfnfn - to unroll (partially redup. stem as iter.) -- nft - to loosen, detach
  • nfꜥ - to remove
  • ḥpgt - leaping dance (-t noun suffix with 'g' addition) -- ḥpt - to travel, hurry

-n Verb Extension[edit]

Associated with action that has duration.

  • si - to shuffle -- sin - to run
  • sysy - to hasten, to hurry (redup. sten as inten.)
  • nwd - to vacillate -- nwn - to let hair hang loose over forehead
  • pšš - to straddle; spread oneself; spread out -- pšn - to separate (combatants)
  • tbn - to be quick -- tbhn - to prance, leap (of animals)
  • nft - to loosen, detach -- nfnfn - to unroll (partially redup. nfn)
  • nfꜥ - to remove
  • wbḫ - to be bright
  • ꜥwɜ - to look after, care for ? -- ꜥwn - to covert

-m Verb Extension[edit]

1 - Action Done with Duration or Done Repetitively

  • sḥr - to strike -- sḥm - to crush, pound
  • wɜi - to roast (grain) ? -- wɜm - to bake ?
  • wɜwɜt - fiery one ? (redup. stem + -t noun stem)
  • wɜwɜw - sheen (redup. stem + -w noun suffix)
  • ḫnp - to breathe - ḫnm - to breathe; smell (odors)
  • ḫɜb - to be bent (of arm) -- ḫɜm - to bow down; bend (arm, in respect)
  • ḫɜs - curl on front of Red Crown
  • hɜb - crooked -- hɜm - to bend down (arms in respect)
  • nhd - to rage, act fiercely -- nhm - to shout (also nhmhm - to yell) (stem partially redup. as intens.)
  • ḥtp - to be at peace; be peaceful (after storm); occupy (throne); rest (in tomb) -- ḥtm-t - chair (stem ḥtm - to stay seated)
  • ḥɜq - to plunder; capture (towns); carry off (captives) -- ḥɜm - to catch (fish)
  • ḥɜd - fish trap
  • ḥɜb - to fish

2 - Action of Ongoing Effect

  • ḥts - to bring to an end -- ḥtm - to perish
  • šni - to enclose; surround -- šnm - to enclose; incorporate; join together; join
  • ḥtp - offerings; altar -- ḥtm - to provide
  • tnbh - to turn aside; swerve -- tnm - to turn aside; go astray; deflect (of balance); be confused (of roads)

-d Verb Extension[edit]

Original PAA dl suffix.

1 - Reciprocal or Associated Action

  • dmi - to touch, be joined -- dmd - to assemble; associate; join; accumulate
  • nwd - to vacillate -- nwd - to deviate ? (underlying root nw - to turn)

2 - Inchoative Outcomes

  • wrš - ro spend the day, spend time -- wrd - to grow weary, tire
  • mnꜥ - to nurse -- mnd - breast (proposed derivation: noun < former verb with sense, "to get sucked"; i.e., breast is that which is sucked)

-d Verb Extension[edit]

1 - Extended or Ongoing Action

  • ḫnz - to traverse a region -- ḫnd - to tread
  • qmɜ - appearance, form -- qmd - to devise, invent
  • qmɜ - to mourn -- qmd - to mourn
  • nwr - to shake -- nwd - to vacillate
  • nb - to tie -- nbd - to plait
  • nhm - to shout -- nwd - to enrage, act fiercely
  • nšnš - to tear up (documents) (redup. nš and as iterative) - nšd - to tear up
  • wšɜ - to utter (plaudits), recite (praises) - wšd - to address

2 - Stativity

  • ḥɜb - to fish -- ḥɜd - fish trap (proposed derivation: noun from former verb meaning "to be caught [of fish]": trap that is that in which the fish is caught)

3 - Intransitiveness

  • wbḫ - to be bright -- wbd - to burn; be scalded
  • wbn - to rise, shine (of sun)

-b Verb Extension[edit]

Similar to the previous -d extension:

1 - Extended Action

  • tnm - to turn aside; go astray, ect -- tnbh - to turn aside, swerve; run at random
  • zny - to pass -- znb - to overstep (boundary); overthrow (landmark) (i.e., continue on beyond some point)
  • ḥsq - to decapitate -- ḥsb - to break up
  • tš - to split (wood); smash (heads); grind (corn) -- tšb - to smash
  • tštš - to crush (redup. as intens.)
  • ḥɜm - to catch (fish) - ḥɜb - to fish
  • ḫšḫš - rubble (redup. ḫs and as intens.) - ḫšb - to mutilate
  • ḥn - to provide -- ḥnb - to convey

2 - Stativity

  • ḫɜm - to bow down, bend (arm in attitude of respect) - ḫɜb - to be bent (of arm)
  • hɜm - to bend down (arms in respect) -- hɜb - crooked; crookedness; crookedly

3 - Intransitiveness

  • qni - to surround -- qnb - to bend, bow, incline oneself
  • qɜs - to bind, tie -- qɜb - to fold over, double over

-r Verb Extension[edit]

PAA -r fell together in most word-final positions with < ɜ > in Egyptian. The PAA -r extension is associated with action having duration and a diffuse scope of action and so has been called a "diffusive".

1 - Extended Activity

  • qmd - to mourn -- qmɜ - to mourn
  • ꜥwn - to covert -- ꜥwɜ - to look after, care for ?
  • ngi - to break open, break up -- ngɜ - to slaughter (ritually)
  • dgs - to walk -- dgɜ - to walk
  • wdi - to depart; stray (of cattle) -- wdɜ - to go, set out, proceed
  • wḥs - to cut off (hair) -- wḥɜ - to hew (stone)

2 - Action That Is Diffuse or Scatters Outward In Its Affect

  • sti - to strew, sow -- stɜ - to sow
  • nft - breath, wind (stem nf + t noun suffix) -- nfɜ - to blow (out of the nose)
  • wšd - to address -- wšɜ - to utter (plaudits), recite (praises)
  • nwd - to vacillate -- nwr - to to shake (PAA stays Eg. r / w_#)

-ɜ Verb extension[edit]

In PAA -ʔ, a narrowly focused action carried to completion. This PAA -ʔ extension has been termed "concisive", giving focus to the action of the verb. The same can be said of the Egyptian -ɜ extension which parrallels the PAA -ʔ extension.

  • dm - to pierce (sky); be sharp; sharpen -- dmɜ - to cut off heads
  • mni - to moor (ship) -- mntɜ - to fasten
  • mnḫ - to string (beads)

2nd -r Verb Extension[edit]

Originally PAA -l extension. This extension has has been termed "finitive".

1 - An Action Carried to Completion

  • ḥt - to become entangled (of hair) -- ḥtr - to bind together
  • ḥwtf - to rob, plunder -- ḥwrꜥ - to steal
  • tɜw - to take up, seize, snatch, don, rob, steal -- tɜr - to make fast, take possession of

2 - An Action Abruptly Carried Out

  • ḫɜs - to scramble -- ḫɜr - to bolt ? (of horses)

-ꜥ Verb Extension[edit]

Proposed PAA -ʔ extension has been given the name "sunderative" or "partive" because it repeatedly occurs as the third consonant in verbs bearing the following three related connotations:

1 - Action Directed Away From or Out of Something

  • mnd - breast -- mnꜥ - to nurse (i.e., to suck out milk)
  • šni - to dispel (strife) -- šnꜥ - to turn back, repulse, repel
  • ḫɜḫ - to spear (fish) -- ḫɜꜥ - to throw; thrust; harpoon (hippo)
  • pnq - to bail out -- pnꜥyt - cataract (stem + -y and -t noun suffix)

2 - Action That Separates One Thing From Another

  • nft - to loosen -- nfꜥ - to remove
  • wdḥ - to wean -- wdꜥ - to cut (cords), cut off (head); be parted (of lips of wound); open (door); distinguish; remove
  • nqm - to be bald -- nqꜥ - to scrape, incise; polish ? (proposed original sense: to scrape off)
  • ḥwtf - to rob plunder -- ḥwrꜥ - to steal (notice how the -ꜥ extension is used after the third consonant)

3 - (and less often) Itive, that is, Action Directed Toward Something Else

  • ꜥmꜥm - to smear (redup. stem as iterative or extended action) -- ꜥmꜥ - to smear (i.e, spread fluid on something else)

-š Verb extension[edit]

PAA -ɫ extension has been proposed to have originally denoted venitive direction of movement.

1 - Open-Ended, Ongoing Action

  • ḫnz - to traverse a region -- ḫntš - to walk about freely
  • ḫnd - to tread
  • wnwn - to move about (redup. stem as iterative) -- wnšnš - to walk, proceed
  • wrd - to grow weary, tire -- wrš - to spend the day, spend one's time
  • gɜp - to lance ? (infection) -- gɜš - to spill

2 - Potential Venitive Connotation

  • prš - to rend, rear, break open

-p Verb Extension[edit]

1 - Intensive

  • nhzi - to wake -- nhp - to rise early in the morning (i.e., rise up early as opposed to rising at the usual time)
  • nhm - to shout -- nhp - to mourn (mourning, we can suggest, probably required much public wailing)

2 - Intensive, in Particular in its Affects on the Thing Acted Upon

  • sti - to shoot (arrow); thrust (into); spear (fish) -- stp - to cut up (animal); cut off (limbs)
  • wgs - to cut open, gut, (fish, etc.) -- wgp - to triturate
  • ḥt - to become entangled -- ḥtp - bundle (of herbs) (verb + -t noun suffix)

3 - Extended Action or Condition Without Intensiveness

  • ḥtm - to provide -- ḥtp - offerings; altar
  • wdd - to be cooked -- wdpw - butler, cook (verb plus -w noun suffix)
  • ḥtmt - chair (stem htm + -t noun suffix, underlying ḥt - to sit, stay) -- ḥtp - to be at peace; be peaceful; become calm (after storm); occupy (throne); rest (in tomb)
  • ḫnm - to breathe -- ḫnp - to breathe

Suggested Additional Cases of Root Extensions[edit]

There are a remaining ten Egyptian consonants that occur as alternative third consonants in pairs or triplets of roots that are alike in their first two consonants and have relatable meanings. For five of these consonants, just three or four cases allowing internal reconstruction have been identified, making it more difficult to judge their validity.

ḥ Verb extension[edit]

This verb extension conforms to those attributed to the proposed ḥ extension, posited to have been in origin an iterative.

1 - Iterative

  • ptt - broken up -- ptḥ - to form (meaning of the Coptic reflex of this verb, ⲠⲰⲦϨ - to chisel, to sculpt, suggests the original meaning was 'to form from stone by breaking off pieces')

2 - Durative Connotation

  • wdꜥ - to cut (cords), cut off (heads); be parted (of lips of wound); open (door); distinguish; remove -- wdḥ - to wean
  • bꜥbꜥ - to bubble up -- bꜥḥ - inundated land (i.e., land with water continually or repeatedly flowing onto it)
  • bꜥr - fountain

-q As 3rd Consonant[edit]

From PAA -k' which gives off an intensive connotation. A second extension -kw' has been proposed as being itive/andative and is seen is the 2nd group below.

1 - Sharp or Intensive Action

  • fdi - to pluck, pull up, uproot, pull out -- fdq - to divide, split
  • ḥsb - to break up -- ḥsq - to decapitate

2 - Repetitive, Extended Action or Action Away from ("to bale out") (PAA -kw')

  • pnꜥyt - cataract -- pnq - to bale out

-z As 3rd Consonant[edit]

1 - Extended Action

  • ḫnd - to tread -- ḫnz - to traverse a region

2 - is obscured by the addition of the -i extension, which apparently was still productive in ancient Egyptian.

  • nhp - to rise early in the morning -- nhzi - to wake

-ḫ As 3rd Consonant[edit]

Two very different kinds of actions characterize the three verbs cited here with -ḫ as the third consonant, though with somewhat of a weak reference.

1 - Single Sudden Action

The propsed PAA -ɣ intensive of effect fits this group well
  • ḫɜꜥ - to throw; thrust; harpoon (hippo) -- ḫɜḫ - to spear (fish)

2 - Complementive Action (Consequence or Attribute of the Action of Underlying Verb)

The propised PAA -ɣw complementive fits best in this group
  • ḫɜr - to bolt ? (of horses) -- ḫɜḫ - to be speedy; hurry
  • wbd - to burn; be scalded -- wbḫ - to be bright (proposed underlying "continue to burn brightly," hence "be bright" as a characteristic or lasting feature)
  • wbn - to rise, shine (of sun)

-t As 3rd Consonant[edit]

Can be reconstructed as PAA -tl' that connoted a narrow focus of action.

1 - Action with a Narrow Locus

  • mni - to moor (ship) -- mntɜ - to fasten
  • mnḫ - to string (beads)

2 - Single Action

  • zf - to cut up, cut off -- zft - to slaughter (could also be understood as a narrowly focused action if by "slaughter" was originally meant the particular action of killing the animal, accompanied by cutting the neck or spearing the beast, before the actual butchering takes place)


Proposed Root Extensions with Fewer/Dubious Examples[edit]

The next five Egyptian consonants appear for now in only one or two pairings of roots that allow us to to apply internal reconstruction techniques. They either do or do not fit in with the proposed meaning of early Afrasan extensions.

2nd -q as 3rd Consonant[edit]

1 - Action Has Duration (fits in with the proposed PAA -k durative extension)

  • sryt - cough (stem + -y ext. and + -t noun suff.) -- srq - to inhale

2 - Intensive Meaning (PAA -kw "finitive" extension, that is, a morpheme connoting an action that is not open-ended but is bounded, as an example to attack a town in open-ended but to capture a town is a bounded action)

  • ḥɜm - to catch (fish) -- ḥɜq - to plunder, capture (towns); carry off (captives)

-g as 3rd Consonant[edit]

1 - Repetitive Perhaps Intensive Action

  • ḥpt - to travel, hurry -- ḥpg-t - leaping dance (verb + -t noun suffix)

2 - Finitive or Single Action

  • brq - to shine, glitter, flash -- brg - to light up

PAA -g finitive fortative (bounded action that is strongly carried out) and PAA -gw durative, both merged into Egyptian -g, and each of the two PAA extensions could be argued to be an example of one of the two proposed extensions of the above 1 and 2 groups.

-f as 3rd (or 4th) Consonant[edit]

Can be taken as indicating a repetitive action action if we focus on the second meaning "plunder"; 'to plunder' is to steal many things. Proposed PAA -f extension to have originally been iterative.

  • ḥwrꜥ - to steal -- ḥwtf - to rob, plunder

-h as 3rd Consonant[edit]

PAA -h extension has been called an amplificative, that is, a marker of increased quantity of action.

  • tbn - to be quick -- tbhn - to prance, leap (of animals) (notice final -n of both roots)

-h as Final Consonant[edit]

Proposed PAA -xw extension with the connotation of an extendative fortative, that is, a proposed marker of an action that has duration and is strongly carried out. In Egyptian, the following -h extension seems associated to an undirected swerving about, done rapidly, i.e., by running:

  • tnm - to turn aside; go astray -- tnbh - to turn aside, swerve; run at random (-b marker of extended action)
  • mni - to moor (ship) -- mnḫ - to string (beads) (this example has a sound change, the PAA suffix being -xw an extendative fortative - the action "to string beads" is certainly an extended action but not so much "fortative" because it is not vigorously performed but it is an amplified action in the sense that it involves very long-term repetitive activity.)
  • An irregular verb.
  • My hypothesis, based upon the fact that this is an agent noun.
  • Although this appears to happen around the vicinity of a weak consonant, in most cases adjacent to /Ꜣ/.
  • All of the following information is taken from: https://books.google.com/books?id=unEB9cNse84C&pg=PA33&lpg=PA33&dq=ehret+third+consonants+in+ancient+egyptian&source=bl&ots=HiRjYbnPeh&sig=mX_ou5Xj4C1idmRavICEm1DiuCM&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwilm9eC04HbAhVHmK0KHW6nDWEQ6AEIMDAC#v=onepage&q=ehret%20third%20consonants%20in%20ancient%20egyptian&f=false
  • https://nofi.fr/2014/11/on-the-etymology-of-the-egyptian-word-nehesi-nubian/6445
  • https://books.google.com/books?id=aE7EyQ_HQAMC&pg=PA865&lpg=PA865&dq=etymology+of+nhsj+nubian&source=bl&ots=0Uq8ufSg6W&sig=kOx6IOPpxxYRWc16UY0lpMWlbw8&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiAxrXP1IHbAhUCSq0KHYniA9cQ6AEIZjAG#v=onepage&q=etymology%20of%20nhsj%20nubian&f=false