Pre-Late Egyptian Reconstruction/Templatic Class I
Egyptian words which follow Templatic Class I generally emit an underlining nominal characteristic.
The following paradigms equate to Osing and Schenkel's: Subjekts-Nominalisierungen: Nominalbildungsklasse I (forms 1-4).
'Forms 1 - 4' appear to be specific to the infinitive and sometimes nouns.
These forms may be better analyzed as an original adjectival vocalization as well as a true irregular counterpart to 'Forms 1 and 2' and they are discussed here:
The infinitive may be said to express a verbal action, which in transitive verbs passes to an object and in intransitive verbs affects the subject initiating the action. The infinitive can express an active or a passive sense (in English translations of Coptic and Egyptian infinitives); e.g. OYωN- ‘to open’ or ‘to be opened’, TAKO - ‘to destroy’ or ‘to be destroyed’, TAϪPO - to make strong’ or ‘to be strengthened’. With intransitive verbs the infinitive expresses an action without a direct object, e.g. ϩωN - ‘to come near’; or it denotes the beginning of a condition or circumstance, e.g. †ϩE - ‘to become drunken’ .
The infinitival inflections below follow different vocalizations.
The chart below outlines the formulas for those roots without ultimae-j/y consisting of what is called the a-Type pattern CaCaCaC:
|2-lit.||AāB||dād [ϪⲰ] - saying|
|2ae-gem.||AaBǎB||kamǎm [ⲔⲘⲞⲘS] - to be black|
|3-lit.||AāBaC||sānat [ⲤⲰⲚⲦ] - found, create|
|paḥrǎr - running|
sǎpdad - preparing [ⲤⲞⲂⲦⲈS]
|wǎstan - striding/expanding [ⲞⲨⲞⲤⲦⲚS]|
sǎlsal [ⲤⲞⲖⲤⲖS] - comforting, encouraging
|5-lit.||AaBǎCBaC||saqǎrqar [ⲤⲔⲞⲢⲔⲢS] - rolling|
a-Type Infinitives: Intransitives
jarǎš - become cold [ⲀⲢⲞϢS]
marǎš - become red/yellow [ⲘⲢⲞϢS]
madǎn - be at rest [ⲘⲦⲞⲚS] mdnMEg - be quiet, mtnDem - repose
ḥarǎš - become heavy [ϨⲢⲞϢS, ϨⲰⲢϢ- (lit: make heavy) make into a bad state]
naḫǎt - be(come) strong [ⲚϢⲞⲦS, ⲚⲞⲨϢⲦs. - oppress, do violence]
rawǎd - be glad/eager/ready [ⲞⲨⲢⲞⲦS] rwdMEg - be firm, rwṱDem - be firm, fresh
ḥalǎg - be merry, rejoice [ϨⲖⲞϬS - become sweet; take delight] ḥnrgMEg, ḥɜgLEg - be merry, rejoice; ḥlkDem - sweet
wamǎt - [ⲞⲨⲘⲞⲦSB / ⲞⲨⲘⲀⲦS] - thicken
ḥaqǎr - become hungry [ϨⲔⲞ].
darāɜ - become strong, firm, victorious [ϪⲢⲞSAA2 / ϬⲢⲞSB ~ drDem]
waꜥǎb - purifying [OYOΠS]
jahǎm - to sigh, groan [ⲀϨⲞⲘ - mourning]
qanǎs - [ⲔⲚⲞⲤ - stinking, stink, be putrid] = etymology is obscure: qnstDem - (fem) stinking. May come from qns - slay (which comes from Semitic) [ⲔⲰⲚⲤ - pierce, slay]
- Note: All a-Type verbs utilize the vowel /a/ within its stem- when additions are added to the verb there is sometimes a shift in stress or syncopation occurs to fit in within stress rules- this is why some intransitives have the final syllable accented as there has been final syllable syncopation for syllabic adjustment purposes, so for example:
- Ⲁ.Ⲛ.ⲀⲢⲞϢ - I became cold (intransitive)
- Ⲁ.Ⲛ.ⲠOⲢϢ.Ϥ - I spread it (transitive)
- Ⲁ.Ⲛ.ⲀⲢⲞϢ - I became cold (intransitive)
- Note 2: This same procedure also occurs with i-Type infinitives.
Conclusion & Final Formula
According to the above examples and studies, several conclusions can be had:
- It appears the main infinitival construction followed Templatic Class I: Form 1 and existed for most if not all roots.
- The |a < i| vowel replacement is discussed here but to summarize: a theory exists where there was a separate i-Type vocalization specific to the adjective-verb. This i-Type vocalization may have influenced the modification of some ultimae-j/y/ɜ/ꜥ roots.
- These generalizations are based upon three major Coptic Infinitival sub-classes of vocalizations: a-Type, i-Type and Stative/Qualitative Adaptations.
prt sm => pǎrat sǎm (párat-sǎm) - the emerging of the sm-priest
prt.s => pārtas - its emerging
Alternative Egyptian Spelling based upon ultimae-j:
pǐrit sǎm => pǐjt sǎm (píjt-sǎm)colloquial/LE
pǐrtas => pītascolloquial/LE
Egyptian Nouns which follow Templatic Class I: Form 1 and 2 [these forms may also be indistinguishable with Templatic Class II: Form 1] with an addition of feminine forms which caused alteration of stress and vowel quantity:
AǎBat (fem #2)
|sǎn [CONcopt] - brother|
sānat [CωNEcopt] - sister
jǎdat [OOTE - womb] - vulva
AǎBCat (fem #2)
|nātar [NOYTEcopt] - god|
natārat [NTωPEcopt] - goddess
rǎnpat [POMΠEcopt] - year
|4-lit.||AǎBCaD||nǎmtat [NOMTEcopt - strength, power] - nmttME - step|
Stress-tone/accent in nouns with the formation CaCaC(at) can appear to be unpredictable in many Coptic words, fortunately there is usually logic behind why the stress has shifted- for example, the difference between natārat (fem) and rǎnpat (fem #2) is the first formula represents the feminine form of a masculine formation with the feminine marker attached to the root causing the relocation of the stress one syllable to the right and the second formula is rather treated as a regular vocalized 4-lit. root but is a feminine noun. Other-times there is no concise reason.
- List of 2-lit. AǎB roots:
zǎp [COΠcopt] - time, occasion, turn
tǎm(aɜ) [TOMcopt] - mat
kǎɜ [KOcopt] - bull
rǎɜ [POcopt] - door, mouth, gate, utterance, magic spell, speech
rǎɜ [POcopt] - goose
tǎɜ [TOcopt] - land, earth
ḫǎɜ [ϢOcopt] - thousand
ḥǎr [ϩOcopt] - face
ḥǎp [ϩOΠcopt] - feast,; marriage feast, bride-chamber
bǎh [BOϩ, Bωωϩb. copt] - an idol in Alexandria (probably Buchis, sacred bull of Hermonthis)
gǎs [ϬOCcopt] - half
pǎ(y) [ΠOIcopt - bench] = pME - base, throne; pydem - seat.
sǎɜ [COIcopt] - back (of man or beast)
dǎw [TOOYcopt] - mountain, desert
wǎf(aɜ) [OYOϤcopt] - lung
- List of 2-lit. AāBat (fem) roots:
ɜāḥat [EIωϩEcopt] - field
sāḫat [CωϢEcopt] - field; meadow, country
sāḫat [CωϩEcopt - weave] - plait, weave
dārat [TωPEcopt] - hand
šāpat [ϢωΠEcopt] - cucumber (also sšpt, š(s)pt, špj)
mānat [NOYNEcopt] - root
nārat [NOYPEcopt] - vulture
bādat [BωTEcopt] - emmer (a cereal)
māmat [MOYMEcopt] - fountain, spring
nāhat [NOYϩEcopt] - sycamore tree
- List of 2-lit. AǎBat (fem) roots:
zǎwat [COOYOcopt, COYAf. copt] - wheat (also corn in Demontic and Coptic)
- List of 3-lit. AāBaC roots:
jāt(af) [EIωTcopt] - father
mālaḥ [MOYλϩcopt] - wax
rāmat [PωΜΕcopt] - man
nābas [NOYBCcopt - Christ's tree] = nbsME/LE - a (type of) tree
qābah [KωBϩcopt] - sinew, cord
wānaš [OYωNϢcopt] - wolf
jāpad [ωBTcopt] - goose (or other edible bird); poultry.
jānar [ωNEcopt] - stone
ꜥāb(aw) [ωBcopt] - lettuce
šāꜥ(ay) [Ϣωcopt] - sand
šām(aw) [ϢωMcopt] - summer
ḫāpaš [ϢωΠϢcopt] - arm, foreleg (of animals)
šādat [ϢωTEcopt] - water hole, well, pit, cistern
šādat [ϢωTEcopt] - dough, flour
sāšan [ϢωϢENcopt] - lotus (also zššn, sššn)
šāp(aj) [ϢωΠcopt] - necklet or bracelet
kā(ɜa)m [ϬωMcopt] - garden, vineyard, property
bā(ɜa)k [BωKcopt] - servant
b(aɜ)ākat [BωKIb. copt] - female servant
- List of 3-lit. AaBāCat (fem) forms:
jarātat [EPωTEcopt] - milk
- List of 3-lit. AǎBCat (fem #2) roots:
- List of 4-lit. AǎBCaD roots:
sǎntar [CONTEcopt - resin] - incense
hǎnmat [ϩONBEcopt] - spring, well
jǎtraw [EIOOP(E)copt - canal] - river
ḥǎfɜaw [ϩOϤcopt] - snake
Medial Weak Radicals
- 3.lit forms:
kǎɜas [KOEIScopt - vessel (for liquids)] - a vessel (of metal)
dǎyas [TO(E)ICcopt] - piece, rag (of cloth), linen
tǎwat [TOOYEcopt - shoe; pair of shoes] - sandals.
hǎɜan [ϩOEIMcopt] - wave (original hɜnw, hymdem)
wǎdaw [BOIT / OYOEIT] - ox; cow [wd - freely moving cattle]
- 4.lit forms:
sǎwḥat [COOYϩE Copt] - egg
bǎjnat [BOINE S.] - harp
- pg 19 http://bibletranslation.ws/down/Plumley_Coptic_Grammar.pdf
- This simply seems the vowel /a/ is distributed within the stem according to stress placement.
- Even though geminated/reduplicated roots show extreme irregularities in Coptic, it is an accepted theory that originally the AaBǎB was the main construction- but by the time Coptic came into usage newly modified forms unpredictably appeared in lieu of final-reduplicated radicals with unstable stress placement.
- Merely a hypothesis based upon construction of 2ae-gem and other reduplicated nouns.
- Carsten Peust, Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language pg 247
- These appear to be specific to static / adjective-verbs and it appears some of these verbs followed an adoptive imitation of Stative/Qualitative constructions as their infinitive form
- -ⲢⲰⲦ/-ⲢⲞⲦ- adj. firm, strong
- In Coptic this infinitive can be used as a noun to mean hunger as well as famine.
- J. Černý, Coptic Etymological Dictionary pg 59
- Excluding verbs borrowed from foreign languages.
- The loss of the vowel of the pre-stress syllable was already accomplished in the NK, cf. Zeidler (1995), and the same is probably true of the assimilation of the glottal stop to the following m. - Reading Late Egyptian by Helmut Satzinger.
- Assuming the suffix pronoun j was pronounced i like in other Afroasiatic languages.
- jb - heart; possibly had always been pronounced with an ǐ. This word is also well attested in most Afroasiatic languages typically spelled lib(b). Omotic language = yib, also some Cushitic forms utilize lap or lip.
- prj - emerge is an ultimae-j root
- The same is true of vowel quantity and quality.
- -y ending appears to have been added in colloquial speech at a later date possibly Demotic/Pre-Coptic.
- The Coptic reflex is interesting in that it shows the original |a| before a fem. -t ending.
- In hieroglyphics 'father' was usually written jtf occasionally written jt. A possible explanation for this was to distinguish from other homonyms. Another example of the -f ending would be the word snf - blood [possibly to differentiate between sn - brother]; and in Coptic we have: Pω.Ϥ - mouth (-.Ϥ - his, was added to differentiate from PO - door = PwoY - doors and PO - goose).
- in hieroglyphs spelled mnḥ or mlḥjdem
- qbhtME - tendon; feminine ending appears to have completely vanished by Pre-Coptic.
- may represent an early Egyptian instance of |-ɜa| deletion.
- Also may represent an early Egyptian instance of |-ɜa| deletion or hieroglyphic |ɜ| represented a vowel.
- May represent an early Egyptian instance of |-aɜ| deletion or hieroglyphic |ɜ| represented a vowel.
- The reduced feminine ending seemed to appear after Middle Kingdom where before the feminine -t marker was not used in hieroglyphs and the word was originally masculine.
- The long vowel ω in Coptic may indirectly represent a syllable -āʔ.