Pre-Late Egyptian Reconstruction/Adjectives

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The Adjective

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In Afro-Asiatic languages, adjectives can be tricky subject matter, this is no exception in Egyptian and especially so in the hieroglyphics. Something to note is that most scholars point to a synthetic/inflectional difference between the various kinds and uses of the adjective or the stressed vowel was /a/ and bound construction was enforced. The possible vocalic forms (using the |a-i-u| Vowel Semitic-centric Theory), using Coptic references and other related languages, will be presented alongside examples of the adjectives. We'll begin by dissecting the adjective, in Egyptian there are three kinds of adjectives:

  • Primary - there exists only one in Egyptian[1]: nb - all, every (ⲚⲒⲘCopt[2]).
  • Secondary - is actually a Participle formed from the verb. Most adjectives will fall under this category.
  • Derived - are made from a preposition or a noun; an example would be the nisba.

And Egyptian uses adjectives in three ways:

as a Modifier

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When an adjective acts as a Modifier (or Qualifier) it follows the noun it modifies and agrees with it in gender and number:

  • sɜ nfr - a good son (ⲚⲞⲨϤⲈCopt Masc Form)
  • dpt nfrt - a good boat (ⲚOϤⲢⲈCopt Fem Form)
  • prw nfrw - fine houses (no Coptic reflexes but may have been spelled similar to: ⲚϤⲈⲈⲨ, ⲚϤⲎⲨ)[3]
  • ḥjmwt nfrwt - beautiful women (no Coptic reflexes but may have been spelled similar to: ⲚϤⲢOOⲨⲈ)

Quick Notes

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  • "The oldest construction of the genitive was formed by placing the noun of possession, in construct form, before the noun of the possessor, in the absolute form. This construction had almost disappeared in Coptic. The few remaining examples of this construction are

the Compound Nouns", (Plum.42; v. also Plum 29)[4].

... when two or more words are placed closely together to form a compound noun or group, the tone falls on the last word only and the Formative Vowel of the preceding word or words shortens; e.g. ϨOⲨ-ⲘⲒⲤⲈ ‘Birthday’ (from ϨOOⲨ ‘Day’ and ⲘⲒⲤⲈ ‘To give birth to’), ⲠⲈⲒ + ⲢⲰⲘⲈ ‘This man’ (from ⲠⲀⲒ +‘This’ and ⲢⲰⲘⲈ ‘Man’), ⲤⲔⲢⲔⲢ.Ⲡ.ⲔOⲦ ‘To revolve the wheel’ (from ⲤⲔOⲢⲔⲢ ‘To roll’ and Ⲡ.ⲔOⲦ ‘The wheel')[5]...
  • Syntax was governed by a rigid word order, with modifiers occurring in second position. Genitival constructions are of two types in all phases of Egyptian: noun with reduced stress bound to the possessor or noun plus the genitival adjective n(y) ‘of’ followed by the possessor[6].

as a Modifier: Continued

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  • a suffix pronoun,
  • nb (ⲚⲒⲘCopt) - all, every,
  • or a demonstrative/definite article (pnMasc, tnFem; ect.),

is used, then it stands directly before any other adjective because they are priority when modifying the noun while the suffix pronouns take the most priority, nb takes secondary priority and demonstrative/definite articles take last priority. For example:

  • ḫt nbt nfrt[7] - all sorts of fine things
  • sḫr pn bjn - this bad plan
  • ntr pf mnḫ - that beneficial god
  • sḫrw.j jqrw - my excellent plans (possibly a direct Afro-Asiatic cognate: (w)aqāru(m)Akkadian, waquraArabic, yqrHebrew - all roots point to a an adjective-verb "to be excellent")[8]
  • dpt.j tn nfrt - this fine boat of mine
  • rdj.jn ḥm n ntr pn ꜥɜ - then the majesty of this great god ordered

In such case, if there are several adjectives being used in one sentence, the order should go in proper grammatical synchronization as well as the adjectives should all have the same forms:

  • ḫt nbt nfrt wꜥbt - every good and clean thing

The "nfr ḥr" Construction[9]

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In hieroglyphics there is an adjectival construction termed: The nfr ḥr Construction. This is basically a fancy way of defining an adjective + noun phrase using the adjective first (which is basically being used as it was a noun) and then afterwards the noun- utilizing the direct genitive. So for example we have:

nfr ḥr - good of face; fair of face

These types of constructions are typically used to describe a person's characteristics either in a literal sense or idiomatically. Here are some more examples:

ꜥšꜢ zrw - one who has many sheep, lit: many of sheep
bnr mrwt - sweet with regard to love; who's love is sweet; lovable
qꜢ sꜢ - high of back; arrogant; presumptuous
qꜢ ḫrw - high of voice; noisy; loud-mouthed
Ꜣw jb - long-hearted; joyous; happy
Ꜣw drt - long-handed; generous (extending the hand to help others)
nfrwt nt ḥꜥ - those who have beautiful bodies lit: beautiful ones of their bodies

These constructions can be treated as if they were collectively one adjective and in such case must agree with the gender and number of the noun it modifies:

z bnr mrwt - a lovable man
sꜢt bnrt mrwt - a lovable daughter
zhɜw jqr n dbꜥw.f - a scribe skilled with his fingers lit: a scribe, a skilled one of his fingers[10]

The Fake Adjectives

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The words:

  • kyMasc (ⲔⲈ, ⲔⲎ, ⲔⲀⲒ-, ⲔOⲨ[11]- Copt)
  • ktFem (ⲔⲈⲦ, ⲬⲈⲦ, ⲔⲎⲦ, ⲔⲎⲦⲈ, ⲔⲈⲦⲈCopt)
  • kty

All terms meaning "other, another", do not follow the noun as they are nouns not adjectives, they take on the meaning "another one". When it is used with a noun, ky always precedes the noun:

ky sb(ɜ) - another gate; the other gate
kt ḫt - the other thing; another thing
k(j)wj bjtjw - other hereditary kings

When used in this way, ky does not actually modify the noun: instead, it is the first noun of a noun phrase of apposition. Since it is a noun, ky can also be used by itself: for example, ky "another one, the other one". It can take suffix pronouns:

kty.f wɜt - it's other path, lit: it's other one, the path

When the plural is used by itself to mean "others" or "the others", it has a different form from that used to modify plural nouns:

kt ḫt / kt ḫj - actually, a compound noun formed from kt - other and ḫt - thing.

Other words which follow a similar pattern include:

  • tnw / tnw - each; each one ... tunnuu, tinnuu [t-n-w (ME t-n-w) < *klw = Sem. kull [13]
  • nhj - some; a little; a few .. ϨⲈⲚ, ϨⲀⲚ, ϨOⲈⲒⲚⲈ

These words are always the first noun of a genitival noun phrase; tnw is used in the direct genitive, and nhj in the indirect genitive:

tnw rnpt - each year; lit: each one of the year
tnw rnpt nbt - a single year
nhj n r(m)t - a few people; lit: some of people
nh(j) n ḥmɜt - a little salt; some salt; lit: some of salt

Middle Egyptian also uses a few prepositional phrases (consisting of a preposition followed by a noun) that are best translated by the English adjectives “whole, complete, entire.” The most common are:

r dr - literally: to the limit
r ɜw - literally: according to the length
mj qd - literally: like the shape
mj qj - literally: like the character

These phrases are used to modify a noun. They always stand after the noun and any other modifiers the noun may have, and usually have a third-person suffix pronoun that agrees in gender and number with the noun. For example:

tɜ pn r dr.f - this entire land; lit: this land to it's limit
ḥwt-ntr mj qd.s - the whole temple; lit: the god's enclosure like it's shape

In some Demotic texts, three adjectival equivalents took a corresponding suffix pronoun of the noun:

  • (r) dr - all; entirely
pɜ tɜ dr=f - the entire land
nt nb nt mtw pɜ wr swnw dr=w - everything which belongs to the chief physician, entirely
  • (n) rn - (above-)named; mentioned
pɜ rmt rn=f - the above named man
  • wꜥ.ṱ - alone; only
wꜥ.ṱ=k - you alone
mw wꜥ.ṱ=f - water alone
The Interrogative Adjective
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Egyptian has one interrogative adjective:

  • wr - how much? How great? (OⲨⲎⲢ)

This is actually the adjective-verb wrr - "great" used as a noun and it is used only in questions.

The Attributive Construction in Coptic

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Because Egyptian didn't appear to have distinct uses between a noun or adjective (which were both used interchangeably) and the inflected forms between the two became assimilated phonologically, as the language progressed a new construction came into place which is actually the child of the indirect genitive which was termed the Attributive Construction. In this construction, if an attribute was used to describe a noun the genitive/dative preposition < `Ⲛ > - of was used between the two words with the attributive/adjective located after the noun, so for example:

ⲠⲒⲢⲰⲘⲒ `ⲚⲀⲚⲀⲤB. Coptic = the old man
ⲠⲄⲈⲚOⲤ `ⲚⲂⲢⲢ`ⲈS. Coptic = the new race

In the above construction an adjective was being used but a noun can also be used which is placed after the noun:

ϮϢOⲨⲢⲎ `ⲚⲚOⲨⲂ - the golden censor

`Ⲙ is used before the consonants: Ⲙ, Ⲡ, Ⲃ, Ⲫ, Ⲯ... so for example:

ⲠⲒⲢⲰⲘⲒ `ⲘⲂⲈⲢⲒB. Coptic - the new man

Used Before the Noun

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  • In Coptic, the adjective ⲚⲒϢϮB. Coptic can be used before or after the noun and when used before the noun the conjunction < `Ⲛ > is used before the noun:
ⲠⲒⲚⲒϢϮ `ⲚⲀⲢⲬⲎⲀⲊⲊⲈⲖOⲤB. Coptic - The great archangel!
  • In Demotic[14], the adjective ḫ(ꜥ)m / h̭(ꜥ)m - small, can also be used before the noun:
h̭(ꜥ)m shDem- small document
Note: In some texts, h̭(ꜥ)m was connected to the following noun by the genitive n, indicating that this word was actually being treated as a noun and was acting in the same way as ky - other. Both mɜꜥ - truth and mɜw - new, were usually replaced by the corresponding noun after the preposition n:
n mɜꜥ - true
n mɜw - new
  • In fact any adjective, in Coptic, can be used before the noun which in turn adds a layer of emphasis:
ⲠⲠOⲚⲎⲢOⲤ `ⲚⲄⲈⲚOⲤ - The wicked race!

as a Predicate

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Not only can an adjective modify a noun (the handsome man) but it can also serve as a Predicate of a sentence (The man is handsome). The combination of the two words is handsome is termed an adjectival predicate (there is no verb for 'is' in Egyptian instead it is implied in this type of construction). Because there is no verb for 'is', when an adjectival predicate is used to make a sentence it is thus called sentences with adjectival predicates.

Adjectival sentences follow the pattern, PREDICATE - SUBJECT with the predicate first and the subject second. Also, the adjectival predicate occurs as the first word in a sentence. Here's some examples of sentences with adjectival predicates:

  • jqr sḫr pn - this plan is excellent
  • ꜥɜ sn - it is large
  • is nfrt - the beautiful one is old
  • wr sw - he is great
  • nfr jb.j - my heart is happy
  • nḏm bit tn - this honey is sweet
  • nḫt s - this man is great
  • bjn sy - she is bad

Note: The Adjectival Predicate had ceased to exist (in Coptic); such adjectives as did survive from the older stage of the language were treated as substantives and therefore appear as Nominal Predicates[15].

Note 2: At the core of a Middle Egyptian nominal sentence or adjectival sentence is the predicate followed in bound constructions directly by a nominal subject[16]

Exclamatory -wy

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The rule that adjectival predicates are masculine singular in form has one exception. Egyptian uses the old masculine dual form of the adjective (with the dual ending –wj) in exclamatory adjectival sentences. These are almost always translated in English with the word How as the first word of the sentence; for example:

  • nfrwj ḥjmt tn - How beautiful is this woman; lit: this woman is doubly beautiful
  • nfrwj sy - How good she is!
  • ꜥɜwy pḥty n(y) jmn - How great is the might of Amun!
  • wr.wy nb - how great is/was the lord

Note: Because the "weak" consonant j is often omitted in writing, it is important to remember that this is the only time an adjectival predicate can have an ending: thus, a sentence must be read jqrw(j) sḫrw "How excellent are the plans!" and not *jqrw sḫrw "The plans are excellent".

Important Notes

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1) The adjectival predicate always has the simplest form, which is normally that of the masculine singular [17].This is true regardless of whether it has a masculine, feminine, or plural subject, for example:

  • jqr nn n sḫrw - these plans are excellent[18]
  • nfr ḥjmt tn - this woman is beautiful
  • ꜥɜ dpt tn - this boat is large

2) Translations into English can include present or past tense based upon context but Egyptian adjectival predicates do not indicate references in time. For example:

  • nfr sw - it was nice or it is nice
  • nfr pr n(y) tɜty - the vizier's house was nice or the vizier's house is nice

3) If the subject is a pronoun then the dependent pronouns are used rather than the suffix pronoun.

nfr tw /tw - You (masc) are good
nfr tn - you (fem) are good
nfr sw - He is good
nfr sj - She is good
nfr tn / tn - You (pl)are good
nfr sn - They are good
nfr st - It (neuter) is good, they (neuter) are good
nfrwj st - How good it is! (exclamatory)
First Person uses a different construction and is regarded instead as a nominal sentence rather than a predicate sentence:
jnk nfr - I am (a) good (one)
jnn nfrw - We are good (ones)

4) The adjectival predicate can be preceded by the introductory particle mk[19] but not with jw (ⲈCopt).

sdm=f of Adjective-Verbs in Demotic

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As Egyptian progressed, according to Demotic (and to a lesser degree in Coptic) there was an addition of (which has an unknown origin) to the front of adjective verbs when used as a verb:

  • nɜ ꜥɜ (ⲚⲀⲀS.B., ⲚⲀⲈS.F., ⲚⲀⲀ=, ⲚⲈⲈ-) - to be large; to be great
  • nɜ nfr (ⲚⲀⲚOⲨ-, ⲚⲀⲚⲈ-) - to be good
nɜ nfr ḥɜṱ=f - his heart (was/is) good; he is/was happy
m-jr d nɜ-nfr=y (n) sh - Don't say "I am good at writing'

But it appeared that when used as a subjunctive, was not used in initial position:

m-jr tj ꜥšɜ nɜy=k mt.w(t) - Don't talk too much! lit: Don't let your words be numerous!
my ꜥɜ(y) nɜ rmt.w - let the men be great!

Nor was it used in the aorist:

ḫr ꜥšɜ nkt - Property is plentiful

Nor was it used in the qualitative:

m-jr d tw=y ꜥšɜ nkt - Don't say "I have much property' lit: I am numerous (of) property

Nor was it used in the infinitive:

m-jr ꜥšɜy d mt.t jjr-ḥr pɜ y=k ḥry - Don't talk too much in the presence of your superior!

Modifier VS Predicate Bound Constructions

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Some notes taken from this source[20] or this one[21], referencing Hebrew but can also be applied to Egyptian:

Attributive adjective- a modifying word; an adjective that posits an attribute or expresses a quality of the noun it modifies, as in black cat, where black is an attributive adjective.

Predicative adjective- an adjective that predicates an attribute of a noun or clause; the word that makes a statement about the subject of a clause or sentence, as in the cat is black, where black is a predicative adjective.

1) The attributive adjective always follows the noun and agrees with the noun in number, gender and definiteness (notice that this is a phrase, not a sentence)
* Normally, the adjective is placed after the noun it modifies, but when emphasis is placed upon the adjective, it will be placed before the noun.
* The attributive adjective must agree in gender, number and definiteness with the noun it modifies. To agree in definiteness is to agree with the noun’s definiteness. If the noun is definite, the adjective will also be definite.
2) The adjective can be used to construct a simple noun sentence where the noun functions as the subject and the adjective as the predicate. In this case the “to be” verb must be supplied in the English. The predicative adjective usually precedes but sometimes follows the noun[22]. The predicate adjective agrees with the noun in number and gender, but it is never definite (i.e. the predicate adjective never takes the article)[23]
* The predicate adjective must agree with its subject noun in gender and number, but it will never take the definite article, even if the noun is definite.

Some Implications:
1. Any adjective that precedes the noun is predicative.
2. An adjective that follows the noun is probably attributive but might be predicative.
3. Any adjective with an article is attributive.
4. An adjective without an article is predicative if it precedes the noun.
5. An adjective without an article that follows a definite noun is predicative.
6. An adjective without an article that follows an indefinite noun could be either attributive or predicative.

as a Noun

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Most adjectives can also stand on their own being used as a noun:

  • Ⲡ-ϪⲀϪⲈ - the enemy (ϪⲀϪⲈCopt - hostile; drdr ~ dɜdɜ - foreign)

When they are used as nouns, adjectives behave like other nouns. They can have the same plural and dual forms as other nouns. For example:

  • Masculine nfr - a good one
  • Masculine Plural nfrw - good ones
  • Masculine Dual nfrwj - two good ones
  • Feminine nfrt - a good one
  • Feminine Plural nfrwt - good ones
  • Feminine Dual nfrtj - two good ones

Like other nouns, they can also have suffix pronouns, and can even be modified by demonstratives or other adjectives: for example:

  • - their good one
  • nfr pn - this good one
  • nfrw nbw - all the good ones

Independent Use of the Feminine Singular[24]

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If used in the feminine form, it generally takes on the additional meaning of "something that is ..." or "a ... thing".

nfrt - a beauty (or a fine piece, as in reference to furniture) (ⲚOϤⲢⲈCopt, the lexiconized noun means "good, profit, advantage").
bjnt - what is bad
ꜥɜt - something great

Archive of Egyptian Adjective-Verb Roots

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ɜd - to be weak, to be listless
ɜd - to be angry, to be aggressive, to be savage; ɜdw - attacker, aggressor
ɜḫ - to be useful, to be effective
ɜwj - to be long; to be extended; ɜwj jb - be happy, lit: long of heart

ⲰOⲨ (used in compounds)
ⲀⲨ, ⲀⲨⲒⲤ-c is dependent pronoun 'she' -sw, ⲀⲨⲈⲒⲤ - imperative

3ḫ - beneficial

ntk nṯr 3ḫ iqr n t3wy - You are a benificial and excellent god of the two lands

ʲ , j

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jrš - to be cold

ⲀⲢOϢ - to be cold; (as masc noun) cold

jqr - to be excellent

šmsw jqr - excellent follower[25]
clever, skilled, excellent; be ~ (adj/v) .... yaaqur, yaqri/yaaqer (j-q-r) || Aram. & Hebr. #j-q-r[26]
waqūrArabic - dignified; venerable, yāqarHebrew - precious; highly esteemed

jdj - to be senseless; to be deaf; to be dumb

ˤ , ꜥ

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ꜥɜj - to be big; to be important; to be great

wsir nṯr ʿ3 nty m 3bḏw - Osiris, great god who is in Abydos
sꜢ=j rꜥ ntr ꜥꜢ r jr sw - my son Re, god who is greater than he who begot him
rdj.jn ḥm n ntr pn ꜥɜ - then the majesty of this great god ordered
ntr ꜥꜢ n sp tpj pꜢwtj qmꜢ nfrw=k - the great god of the primordial time, the primeval god who created your beauty
ⲀⲒⲀⲒ, ⲀⲒⲈⲨⲈ, ⲀⲈⲒⲈⲨⲒⲈ, (OⲒ, ⲀⲈⲒqual) - to increase in size; to advance in age; (as masc noun) increase; growth
ⲀⲒⲈⲨⲦⲈ - is originally imperative plus dependent pronoun 'she' -sw
ⲀⲈⲒⲎⲤ (ꜥɜt) - (fem noun) greatness
-O / -Ⲁ - used in compounds, means 'great; big'
-ⲰOⲨ, -ⲀⲒ / -OⲒ - plural used in compounds, means 'big; great'
Proto-Afro-Asiatic: *riyVʕ- to grow

d / ꜥd - to be safe
ꜥqɜ - to be straight; accurate
ꜥwn - to be greedy
ꜥšɜ - to be many; to be numerous; (of people) to be rich (m "of")

r sꜥšꜢ mnw - (in order) to increase
ḥf3w ʿš3(w) ntyw r-gs st tn - Many serpents which are beside this place
mfḫ(Ꜣ)t ꜥꜢw(t) nbt špst ḥmt dḥt(y) mj ꜥšꜢ.sn - turquoise, all (kinds of) precious stones, copper and lead in (lit. according to) their abundance
ꜥšrHebrew - to be rich
ⲀϢⲀⲒ, ⲀϢⲈ(Ⲉ)Ⲓ ... ⲀϢⲈⲈⲒⲦⲈis an imperative + dependent personal pronoun 'you' - ⲦⲈ - to become many; (as masc noun) multitude
ⲀϢⲎ, ⲀϢⲈ, ⲀϢⲎⲒ, ⲀϢⲈⲒⲦⲈ (from ꜥšɜt) - (fem noun) multitude

wꜣš / wꜣs - be happy

Proto-Afro-Asiatic: *ʔuĉ- be gay

wꜥb - to be pure; to be clean; to purify oneself (as verb); to bathe (as verb)

ḫt nbt nfrt wꜥbt ḥtpt - every good, pure and satisfying thing
OⲨOⲠ - to be pure; to be innocent
pure; be ~, purify (adj/v) .... wu9bi, wi9bi / wuu9ub? wu9ab(b)? (pro *wa99ab-) (w-9-b < PAA *-wa29- (Ehret) || AL: (unspecified) fut. form *uw9obu, EotW 125 || Copt. uop; SCopt. ua'b 'pure'
OⲨⲎ(Ⲏ)Ⲃ, OⲨⲒⲈⲒⲂⲈ - priest
priest, laypriest (n) - wi9(9)ab; wu9b-i (w-9-b) || Copt. uee'b/uii'ib || AL *wii9ab, LI 30

wrr - to be great; wr-jb - insolent

wr snd=k - great is the fear of you
šꜢs{n} r Ꜣbw jn n=j djdjt r wr - go to Elephantine, and bring me haematite in great quantity!
ḥꜥpjw wrw - great inundations
rbb / rbꜥSemitic - great; South Cushitic: *ʔur- 'big, large'; Proto-South Cushitic: *ʔur-; Proto-Semitic: *wVrVy-
OⲨⲎⲢMasc, OⲨⲎⲢⲈFem - adj. great
great (adj) - waar (v. *waarar or *warr-u 'to be great') (w-r || EotW 113); (+ 'of length') (R)iw? (R)aaw? (3-w (= 9-3?) || Copt. aw, oo

wmt - to be thick; to be stout

OⲨⲘOⲦ, OⲨⲘⲀⲦ(Ⲉ) - to be thick
OⲨO(O)ⲘⲦⲈ (from wmtt) - tower

wꜥj - to be alone

tɜw wꜥ - sole wind
OⲨⲀ, OⲨⲈ, OⲨⲈⲒ ,OⲨⲈⲈⲒ, OⲨⲀⲒ, OⲨⲀⲒⲈⲒ, OⲨⲀⲈ - someone; (the number) "one"
one (num) .... wi99u (or *wa(a)9u) (w-9(-w) || Copt. ua || Proto-Khoisan *ui 'one/alone' (Takács) may be related; AL gives *wu99uw
OⲨⲈⲒⲀ, OⲨ(Ⲉ)ⲒⲈ - someone (fem)
OⲨⲰⲦ(Ⲉ) (from wꜥtj) - single; alone

d - to be green; to be blue-green; to be fresh; to be fortunate

OⲨⲰⲦ - to be fresh
OⲨO(O)ⲦⲈ (from wɜdt) - vegetables
Semitic warq - leaf
- there shows an opposition between the two Egyptian roots wɜd (see wɜd '/wa:riɟ/ "green"), which displays palatalization, and jɜq (see jɜq */juʀqat/ "vegetables"), which does not, both derived from an identical Afroas. root *wrq[27]

wdɜ - to be intact; to be uninjured; to be prosperous; wdɜ jb - to be glad ~ wdɜ jb.k - may it please you

s(nb.w) (w)dꜢ(.w) ꜥnḫ(.w) - health, prosperity, life
wdɜ.t pw nw - this is an intact garment
OⲨϪⲀⲒ - to be sound; to be whole; to be safe; (as masc noun) health; safety; weal
ⲀⲦOⲨ - incurable

wsḫ - to be broad; to be wide
wɜy - to be distant

OⲨⲈ, OⲨⲎ, OⲨⲈⲒⲈ, OⲨⲎ(Ⲏ)Ⲓ - to be distant

bjn / bnDem - to be bad ... James P Allen vocalizes this as a Pre-Coptic ban (should technically be baʔn) and the feminine version as báʔnat

Proto-Afro-Asiatic: *bayan- to be bad; to be angry; to lie
ⲂⲰⲰⲚMasc, ⲂⲞⲨⲞⲨⲚⲈ - adj. bad
ⲂⲞⲞⲚⲈFem, ⲂⲰⲚⲈ, ⲂⲀⲚⲒ - adj. (also noun) evil; misfortune
ⲈⲂⲒⲎⲚ (Ꜣbyn) - a wretched person (as a loan-word in Hebrew אֶבְיוֹן - ebyon[28])
bad; be bad (adj/v) .... bayu(u)n, ba'u(u)n / baayan, baa'an [b-j-n < PAA *bayan- ; SCopt. _boo'n_ 'evil, misfortune' (< *baayVn-) || AL *bAAyin, LI 33, *bA3na.t 'a bad thing', LI 60[29]

bnr / bnj - to be sweet; to be pleasant; bnryt - sweetness

bit bnr wʿb ntt m pr nsw - sweet and pure honey which is in the king’s house
Ⲃ(Ⲉ)ⲚⲚⲈ, ⲂⲎⲚ(Ⲛ)ⲒF. Copt (from bnrt / bnjt ???) - date-palm tree
- this word in Egyptian also has the meaning 'date (the fruit)' and is found somewhat vocalized in Old Nubian (ⲠⲈⲚⲦⲒ) and Nobiin fénti affected by the singulative suffix of Proto-Nubian -ti[30]
baanir/baaner (b-n-r) - pleasant[31]

bɜgj - to be lazy

mr - to be sick; to be painful; mr r, mr n - painful to; mr jb n - have compassion for, be sorry for

Proto-Afro-Asiatic: *ma(Ha)r- to be ill; to be weak ... Semitic: *marih- weak, suffering pain; məryaAramaic - (adj) sick

mn - to be firm, established, remain; mn m - fixed to, attached to
mnḫ - to be functional; to be worthwhile; to be effective

sšm ḥm=j ḥr mtn nfr m sḫrw=f mnḫw - who guides My Majesty on the good road, through his excellent plans
ntr mnḫ mꜥr spw - the excellent god who is successful
beneficent, efficient; be ~ (adj/v) .... maanikh/maanekh [m-n-x]

mjkɜ - to be brave
mɜr / mɜj - to be poor; to be needy
mɜr - to be wretched

wretched (adj) - muRri, murri [m-3-r, ME v. m-r [*murr or *marr < *murar-r]; presuming a connection with Sem. #m-r-r 'to be bitter' (Akkad. murru); cf. /canal/][32]

mɜwj - to be new

 ḥwt-ntr mɜwt - new temple
ⲘOⲨⲒ, ⲘOⲨOⲨⲒ (ⲘOⲨⲈⲒ and ⲘⲀ may also be accounted for) - adj new
Proto-Afro-Asiatic: *may/ʔ- be new (Central Chadic: *mway- 'new', Western Chadic: *mwaH- 'new'; Mofu-Gudur: máwúya)

mɜꜥ - true; correct; proper; mɜꜥ ḫrw - justified, lit: true of voice

d ḥr ḫꜢswt.f ḫsbd mɜꜥ - silver from its foreign lands, true lapis-lazuli
dd.n(.j) m mɜꜥt = I spoke in truth
ⲘⲈ, ⲘⲈⲈ, ⲘⲎ, ⲘⲎⲈ, ⲘⲎⲒ (from mɜꜥ.t) - fem noun truth; justice
The origins of this word is obscured, but it is likely possible that it was borrowed from another language as it was not used in any other forms. For example, the Hebrew word אֱמוּנָה (e-mu-nah) means firmness, securely fixed in place[33] and is taken from the verb aman[34] - to support or make firm ... Philippi's law is the process by which original /i/ in closed stressed syllables shifts to /a/ (e.g. /*bint/ > בַּת /bat/ 'daughter'), or sometimes in the Tiberian tradition /ɛ/ (e.g. /ʔamint/ > אֱמֶת /ɛ̆mɛt/ 'truth'[35]). Another form of this exists with the word, אֱמֶת (e-met) (’ă-mit is another form of this verb) - truth.
El Amarna letters in Akkadian to Amenhotep III call pharaoh Ni-ib-mu-wa-ri-ia, Akk: -mu-a ... as I noted previously, Amarna Letter EA 29 features mAat being spelled as mu-u, where the same Akkadian vowel U (and A) is used for both Egyptian aleph and Egyptian ayin[36].
It it also hypothesized and opined that the Hebrew Biblical name מַעֲכָה (Maakah)[37] renders a corrupted version of the female name Maatkare (Μ(ο)ωχα, Μα(α)χα are the Greek versions)[38][39]
In Ethiopian tradition, her name is Makeda, which is derived from Hatshepsut’s prenomen Maatkare [Makera]’[40] ... though, Makada or Makueda, the personal name of the queen in Ethiopian legend, might be interpreted as a popular rendering of the title of mqtwyt; this title may be derived from Ancient Egyptian m'kit (𓅖𓎡𓇌𓏏𓏛 ) "protectress, housewife"[41]
The Kalenjin used to refer to themselves as children of Miot or Myoot, known in Ancient Egypt as Ma-at, another deity of Old Egyptians[42]

mḥ(j) - concerned, be concerned for, take thought for, ponder on; mḥ - (noun) care

nfr - to be perfect; to be good; to be good looking (beautiful or handsome)

rsw.t nfr.t - good dreams (vs bad dreams rsw.t ḏw.t)
nfr.wj st - how good it is!
wn.jn=s{t} ḥr swr nfr ḥr jb=s{t} - then she drank and it pleased her heart
ḫpr nfrwt pw m jmꜢw - thus beautiful women came into being in Momemphis
ntr ꜥꜢ n sp tpj pꜢwtj qmꜢ nfrw=k - the great god of the primordial time, the primeval god who created your beauty
ⲚⲞⲨϤⲈMasc - adj. good
ⲚⲞϤⲢⲈFem - adj. good
ⲚⲞⲨϤⲢ - to be good
good; beautiful; be ~ (adj/v) - naaf-ir, -ur, nafri / naafer (n-f-r < PAA *fir- 'be good' (cf. Aram. shappiir of id. meaning) || Bedja nefir 'good'][43]
beauty (n) - nåfr-uu; naafaar-uu (n-f-r-w) || SCopt. adj. nufe 'beautiful'; cp. the CGr. theonym Onnophris

nb - all, everything

ḫt nbt - everything
ntrw nbw - all gods
tɜw nbw - every land
ⲚⲒⲘ, ⲚⲒⲂⲈ, ⲚⲒⲂⲈⲚ - adj all
- nemb-u/i (n-b #2) < PAA *reb- (OS) || Copt. nibe(n), SCopt. nim (*bb > *mb > m?), FCopt. nibi || AL *nib, EotW 114; here is applied *e-Nasal-V > i-Nasal (e.g. in Romance) which fits the root by OS
everyone - bu(u)-nambi (*baaw-? *biw-?) [b-w - n-b || cf. the Lat. spelling Buubastis_ (a theonym with same #_b-w_?)

nb - lord

lord, owner (n) .... niib-u/a (n-b #1) || /i/ recorded in Akkad. ts. || Copt. neeb/niib; in CGr. -neefis, LI 55; cf. also Arab. naab 'tribal chief'
lady (n) .... niiba.t, -ii.t, nibayya.t (n-b.t #1) || q.v. /lord, owner; girl

nds - to be little; to be small

Proto-Afro-Asiatic: *gus- be small
ꜥwt nds.t - small cattle
n kɜ n nds qn gb(ɜ).f - here, nds means 'commoner' or 'citizen' and acts as a noun[44]
m[45] jr nds jqr - acting as an excellent commoner

ndm - to be sweet

jw ndm ḥr jb=j - and it was pleasure to my heart
ndm sj - she is pleasant
ḫꜢw nb ndm st ḫprw m pwnt - all kinds of sweet-smelling herbs that grow in Punt
ḫꜢw nb ndm stj jbr pn psdt - all (kinds of) plants of pleasant fragnance, (and) ladanum for the Ennead
nꜥmSemitic - to be sweet
ⲚOⲨⲦⲘ - to be sweet; to be pleasant; (as noun) sweetness
ⲚOⲨⲦⲈⲘ - adj sweet
sweet; be ~ (adj/v) .... naaDim? naDmi? / naaDem (n-D-m) || AL *naaDim 'sweet'[46]

nḫt - to be forceful; to be successful

 kɜ nḫt[47] - victorious/mighty bull (epithet of a pharaoh)
ky sp gr n nḫt wd.n rꜥ ḫr=j - now another victory that Re commanded for me
ⲚⲒϢϮBoh - adj great; large
ⲚϢOⲦ (also ⲚOⲨϢⲦ) - to be hard; to be strong; to be difficult; (as masc noun) hardness; boldness
ⲚⲀϢⲦⲈ / ⲚⲀϢϮ, ⲚⲈϢϮ (from nḫtt) - (noun fem and masc) strength; strengthener; protector
ⲚⲈϢⲦⲈ - (masc noun) hard; rough person; (as adj) hard
  • This is a tricky word:
- Reconfirms the mystery of this word here on this site[48] where it says: while nḫt is an Egyptian word, with the meaning attributed, I also find this unlikely (Unless someone has a source)
- Also appears to follow the Arabic CiCāC (derived noun; verbal noun form I or III) as well as a regular verbal noun CaCaC in the infinitive[49]
- strong; successful, victorious; be ~ (adj/v) .... naakhit (*nakhuut?) / naakhat [n-x-t][50]
nn t nwt m sqrw-ꜥnḫ jnn ḥm=f m nḫtw=f - countless were the captives that His Majesty brought away from his victories

nḫ - to be pitiful
ntr(j) - divine

divine (adj) .... naaTarii? nuTuurii? (naTrii?) (n-T-r-j); cf. adjective variation in Eg. Arabic

ršj / ršw - to be delighted; to be rejoiced; rš - joyful

dream (n) - raswa.t, -i.t, risuu(wa).t ~ rusuwwa.t r-s-w.t < *rasVw- (OS); SCopt. rasu, ACopt. resu, FCopt. lesvi, LCopt. resue; Vycichl suggests *risw-, see note on vocalization under 'glass' & compare 'joy'
joy (n) - rishwa.t, rishya.t, r-sh-w.t; Copt. rashe, BCopt. rashi; Vycichl; cf. 'dream'

rnpw / renpj- to be young; to be fresh

ⲢOⲘⲠⲈ (rnpt) - year
(Ⲉ)ⲢⲠⲰ - unknown meaning in Crumm's dictionary, but seems to be a 'twig' or 'vine leaves'.. is associated with the Egyptian root rnpwt - vegetables, herbs[51].
year (n) - ranpu.t (r-n-p.t); Copt. rompe; STS; AL *ranpa.t, LI 59
young; be ~ (adj/v) .... ranpi/raanep [r-n-p][52]

rwd / rwd - to be firm

ntk ntr jr tm(w) ꜥnḫ.sn m rwd ꜥwj.kj - You are the god who made all (men), it is by the strength of your arms that they live…
OⲨⲢOⲦ - to be glad; to be eager
-ⲢOⲦ - adj firm

d - to be bright; to be white; ḥd ḥr - cheerful, lit: to be bright of face; ḥd tɜ - dawn, lit: the land becomes bright; ḥddwt - brightness; ḥdt - white linen/clothes, the white crown; ḥdw - onions

qsw=f m ḥd ḥꜥw=f m nbw šnj=f m ḫsbd mꜢꜥt - his bones were of silver, his flesh of gold, and his hair of real lapis lazuli
ϨⲀⲦ, ϨⲎⲦ, ϨⲈⲦ - (noun)[53] silver
white, bright (adj) ... HuDD-[i] (verbal *HiDaDD- or *HaaDeD) (H-D)

ḥtp - to be calm; to be content; to occupy (a seat); m ḥtp - in peace; in safety

jj.{t}wj m ḥtp jmꜢyt - welcome in peace oh gracious one!
ḫt nbt nfrt wꜥbt ḥtpt - every good, pure and satisfying thing
Νεφώτης ~ nfr-ḥtp - beautiful as to peace (an Egyptian king's name in Greek) shows an original ḥǎtip form
please, make content (v) .... Haatap [H-t-p || AL *Haatip (ap) 'pleasing', LI 36]
calm, content; be ~ (adj/v) .... (pp/stat >) Hatpi / (v) Haatep (H-t-p) || # hatpi in cuneiform ts., Robinson: The Story of Writing p. 96 || q.v. /please, make content

ḥzɜ - to be wild
ḥns - to be narrow
ḥwr - to be poor; to be wretched
ḥɜj - to be naked; undressed; (as transitive verb) make naked; undress; reveal

rdj.n(.j) t n ḥqr ḥbsw n ḥɜ(w)ty - I gave bread to the hungry, clothes to the naked
naked (adj) - Haa'ii? Hi"ay? (H-3-y), Aram. -aay vs. (more original Afroasiatic) Arabic - ii [54]

ḥr - terrible; terrify

pꜢ wd pꜢ nḫtw dj ḥry ... - the one who had ordered this victory and caused the fright ...
ḥryt ḥm=j r dnbw rsw - fright of My Majesty to the southern boundary marker

ḥqr - to be hungry; ḥqr(w) - noun/adj hunger

rdj.n(.j) t n ḥqr ḥbsw n ḥɜ(w)ty - I gave bread to the hungry, clothes to the naked
ϨⲔⲞ / ϨⲒⲔⲀ - be hungry ... ḥqr [ḥa'qar] (AE, 248) - hungry → [ḥqoʔ] (1,000 BCE); Copt: ϨKO
ḥqr.tʲ [ḥa'qirtVʲ] (AE, 257) - she is hungry
ϨⲔⲔⲈ [from ḥqr(.w)??]- (as an adj and noun) poor
- hunger (n) .... Hiqur-u, Huqur-u (H-q-r(-w) || Copt. heeke, heeki 'poor'[55]

ḫdj - to go downstream/north; m ḫdj - downstream/north
ḫwd - to be rich

rich (adj) - ḫaawid [ḫ-w-d][56]

hzj / hsy- to be wretched; to be miserable; to be vile; to be feeble/weak; humble of rank; mean (of conduct); vile (of enemies, speech)
hpn - fat

fat (adj) - khaapin; khappiin, -uun (x-p-n < PAA *-gha1p- (Ehret))

sms(w) - eldest, elder (both adj and noun)

ntr sms ḫpr.n=j jm=f ntrw tpjw-ꜥ - 'O eldest god, in whom I came into being, and ancestor gods

snd - to be frightened

snḏ.wt… m grḥ - terrors in the night (nightmare)[57]
jbw=sn snd.w (stative) - their hearts are fearful
mḏℨ.t n.t dr snḏ.wt nty ḥr jj.t r hℨy.t ḥr m grḥ - the book of driving out terrors which come in order to descend upon a man in the night
dj.n=f snd=j m ḫꜢstjw nbt - he placed the fear of me among all foreigners

sšɜ (originally šsɜ) - to be aware; to be wise
snb - to be healthy

some scholars (i.e., Gardiner) associate Semitic salima (be healthy) to this root which would then cause a sort of assimilation n > l next to m, and an irregular change from m < b[58] (albeit these assimilations do exist throughout the Egyptian language unpredictably). snb is also associated with simba-Shona-Bantu (be healthy; powerful)[59] - but this can also be explained as a direct loan word from Egyptian into Bantu.

smr - friendly

Proto-Afro-Asiatic: *s/cVlVm- be unharmed; friendly (Akkadian: šalāmu 'be unharmed, in good conditions; Hebrew: šālam 'be completed, ready (work, construction); remain healthy, unharmed; keep peace

sbq - splendid
spd - sharp, effective, skilled

jnk spd ḥr ḫrp mrt.f r jwt hrw nfr n.j jm.f, rdj.n.j st n zꜢ.j m jmjt-pr - I was effective on managing my subordinates/servants until until the day came when (lit. in which) it was well with me. I have given this (lit. it) to my son as a testament.
Proto-Afro-Asiatic: *sVpVd- pierce, be sharp (Hebrew: špd, Aramaic: spd)
s-p-d , sapdi/saaped sharp; be ~ (adj/v) - AL *sapIdtVj 'thou (m.) art sharp', (*/sa:-pid-ta:/?)[60]

sḫm - to be mighty, powerful; sḫm (as verb) - to have power ~ sḫm n - to give power to

mighty; be ~ (adj/v) - sakhmi/saakhem [s-x-m || compare Sum. shumah 'mighty'; Hebr. shacham 'granite' (for curiosity qq. 9aaSam 'he was mighty', LSArab. _9aZuma_); LSArab. shaHuma 'he was/has become fat'

sꜢ - to be weak

sꜢ ꜥ m nb ꜥ tw <r> nd ḫrt nd ḫrt - (sꜢ ꜥ - weak of arm, nfr ḥr construction) and nb ꜥ - lit master/possessor/lord of arm, word play with the phrase nd ḫrt, the first is an infinitive (the object of the preposition r in a pseudo-verbal construction) and the second, a perfective active participle, lit. “one is to pay respect to one who (once) paid respect”.

štɜ - to be inaccessible; to be secret

tꜢ wꜢt štꜢ(t) wn(t) m jb.n ḫpr.t(j) m wꜢt nfrt - the difficult road ..

šrr / šrj - to be little

rśw.t nb.t šrj.t - every little dream
jw=j m šrj n jrt=j ḥmt - I was a young man before I had married
Akk. šerru "(little) child"; Brb. *i-šir "child"; Om. *šEr- "thin"
ϢⲒⲢⲈMasc, ϢⲎⲢⲈ - adj. (and noun) small; son; child
ϢⲈⲈⲢⲈFem, ϢⲀⲒⲢⲒ - adj. (and noun) small
son (n) - *zii3V > ziiR-i/u (z-3) || OCopt. si- x2 in pr names; cf. also SCopt. sheere/shiire 'son, child' || Vycichl proposes one-time *z-3-y = *za3iiy - compare to AL's (LE?) *shiirij, LI 60

špss / špsj - to be fine; to be special; to be noble

ꜥꜢt nb špst - all kinds of precious stones
jḥw nb špssw m ꜥꜢtt nb(t) msḫnt hnmw jr r(m)t - possessor of fine things of all valuable stones of the abode of Khnum who created mankind

šwj - to be empty; to be free (m “of”)

qbb - to be cool; to be cold; to be purified

Proto-Afro-Asiatic: *ḳab- cold; Low East Cushitic: *ḳab- 'cold'
ⲔⲂO, ⲔⲂⲀⲂ, ⲬⲂOⲂ ⲔⲂⲀ (ⲔⲎⲂqualitative, ⲔⲂⲰOⲨBoh. Coptic Noun) - to be cool
cool, calm (v) - qubabb- (q-b-b < PAA *k'a1b- (Ehret) || Copt. kbo, kvo, BCopt. khbob/khvov || cf. Hebr. #q-p-: > qaaphaa 'freeze, congeal, stiffen' || AL *qabAb, LI 42 || noun q-b-w = qaabuu, qibbuu, qubaabuu - 'cold breeze'
breeze: cool breeze (n) - qaabuu [q-b-w][61]

qɜj - to be tall; to be high; to be exalted; to be loud (idiomatic expression)
qsn - to be difficult

qsn=sn ḥtp(.w) - and the misery from them has been pacified
difficult; be ~ (adj/v) .... qåsni, qaasin / qaasen, qisann- [q-s-n || Hebr. qaashee (adj), qaashaa (v) 'it was difficult'[62]

qnj - to be diligent; to be brave; to be persevering

mj.k r hrd qn - look, more than a brave boy
wn-jn.j hr knt m-bhf(?? Ccheck spelling) - then I showed bravery before
jw rn n qn m jrt.n=f - the name of a brave man is in what he has done
ꜥḥꜥ.n=j r pꜢ dpt mḥtj ḥr qnn=j - I was taken to the ship 'The Northern', because I was brave
jst wj m tp n mša=n mꜢ.n ḥm=f qnn=j - Now, I was in the van of our army, and His Majesty saw my valour ḥr rdjt n=j nbw n qnt - I was given gold of valour
mꜢ.n ḥm=f qnt=j - and his majesty saw my valour
wḥm.n=f n=j qnt ꜥꜢt - he again did for me a very brave act
wd.n ḫpš=f qn - which his strong arm had attacked

qn (qnʲ.t) [qinʲit] (AE, 47) - to become fat Copt: KNNE/KNNIE
qnd - to be angry, to be furious; sqnd (causative) - enrage

dj.f st m ꜥꜢy n nswt n hrw sqnd.f NK- he shall place them in the conflagration of the King on the day of his destructive wrath

ktt - to be little; to be low: to be weak (of enemy) (MK); kt.t - louse (an insect) and a word they also used for little girls[63]... ktt is the entire root with the feminine version being spelled the same way. There is another root kt attested which is defined as pettiness and appears to be a noun[64]...

ktt jtj wr jpt ḫɜ.tw.s m wbn - little barley and a large amount of grain, it measures overflowing [65]
ɜ.t kt.t mjt.t rsw.t, jw pḥ.tw mwt ḥr rḫ st - a short moment, like a dream, and one reaches death trying to know them[66]
zɜt ktt - little daughter
Proto-Afro-Asiatic: *k(ʷ)at- be small (Akkadian: katû, Proto-WChadic: *kat- ~ *kwit-), Hebrew: קַטַּת - kat·täth' Part of Speech: proper locative noun - small, from קָטָן - kä·tän' Part of Speech: adjective, young, small, insignificant, unimportant; Gafat: kitāti - small children[67]
little, some, a bit (adv) .... nåkiit; nikkat, -ut; nukayyit (n-k-t) [68]
ⲔOⲨϪⲒ and ⲔOⲨⲒ are associated with this root[69]

kmm - to be black

ⲔⲀⲘⲈMasc, ⲔⲘⲘⲈ (pl ⲔⲀⲘⲀⲨⲈⲒ) - adj black
black; be black (adj/v) .... kummi/kumam(m) (k-m(-m) < PAA *kum- (OS) || Copt. kmom, kmam be(come) black; kame, kmme, kam, (F) kem(i) - black; Aram. ukkaam - 'black'; note Sum. kum -2/-4 '(to be) hot' || AL suggests v. *kamAm, LI 88[70]
jnr km - black stone
jwn-f km(.w)dem/LEg - it's color is black (verbal predicate, old perfective)
jwn-f km(.w) nḫtdem/LEg - it's color is dark black(verbal predicate, old perfective)
ⲔⲀⲘⲎFem - adj black
ⲔⲎⲘⲈ (kmt)- the black land, Egypt (note: ⲔⲎⲘqualitative)
kuuma.t (pro *kuumu.t) (k-m.t) || AL concurs, EotW 127/LI 42, Copt. keeme, F Copt. keemi; as a curiosity, note the "similar" vocalization in Arab. suudaa'; q.v. /black; land[71]
ḥry tp kmt dšrt - the leaders of Egypt and the desert
ⲔⲘⲎⲘⲈ (kmmt, kmjmjt) - noun darkness
ⲔⲘOⲘ (kmm) = to be black; also noun blackness
Proto-Afro-Asiatic: *kum- be black; Semitic: *ʔVka/um- 'black'

gb - to become weak; to become feeble; gby (as a noun) weak... Notes: Late Eg loss of the laryngeal (substituted by -y) ?

ϬⲂⲂⲈ - to become feeble; to be timid
ϬⲰⲂ - (subst and adj) weak person
Proto-Afro-Asiatic: *gabVḥ- to be weak

gnn - to be weak, to be soft; gnnwt - weakness

weak; be ~ (adj/v) .... ginni/ginan(n) [g-n-n < PAA *gVlal-][72]

gr - to be still; to be silent

jr gr.k hpr n.k pḥw - If you are silent (or “still”), results will happen for you
ϬⲰ (gr) - to desist; to stop

gꜢ - to be(come)ugly

ϬⲀ(Ⲉ)ⲒⲈ - ugly one; ugliness; disgrace

gɜw - (as an adjective-verb) to be narrow, to be constricted, to lack; (as a transitive verb) deprive (m of); (noun) absence, lack; m gɜw - from the lack of; n gɜw - through the lack of

ḥr.w rs m gwɜyt - ready for battle in a narrow defile
gꜢw - narrow ~ ϬⲰOⲨ ~ gāꜢaw
as adjective: gɜw [ga:Riw] (AE, 260) - narrow Copt: ⲔOⲨⲒ / ⲔOⲨⲈⲒ / ⲔOⲨϪⲒ / (ⲔOⲨ-, ⲔⲀ- , ⲔO-) - small person or thing; young person; in Demotic it is spelled gwy or ky

tm - to be complete, entire, everything, the universe; nb tm - lord of all; tmw (plural) - totality of men, everyone

tms / tms LEg - red, ruddy, violet (lit: red colored), fury, rage; tms(t) / tms(t) - red(-colored) material; tmsw (plural) - lit: red things 1) "redness" especially in reference to hostile red ink 2) evil or bad[73]

dbꜢ tmsw - reward/repay for bad/evil wrongdoings
wḥs / wsḥ tmsw - destroy the evil/faults
sjn tmsw - obliterate/erase mistakes
dr tmsw - depart/repeal evil
Eg. tms [GT: <*kms] - red, ruddy, violet[74]
Eventually, ṯms replaced the more common term for red, dšr(LEFEBVRE 1949). Note also in a medical text (P. Edwin Smith case 39) a reference is made to the production of pus and redness (ṯms.w), which appears in a gloss as red things (jḫ.t dšr)[75]
timas / timas, timasaw[76]

tnr - to be eager

dꜢmw ntj r ḫpr r swhꜢ jm.j ḥr tnr.j - The noun phrase dꜢmw ntj r ḫpr is the subject of an r + infinitive construction applied to the 4ae-inf. verb swhi 'boast, vaunt' (spelled here swhꜢ). The object is the prepositional phrase jm.j 'of me'. In the final adverbial phrase the noun is a variant spelling of tnr 'eager(ness), energy” (with a seemingly out of place plural strokes) doubtless related to the Late Egyptian 3-lit. adjective-verb tnr 'strong, mighty, powerful, successful'.
eager; be ~ (adj/v) - Tånri / Taaner (not *Tinar-r-?) (T-n-r < PAA *-tl'a1l- 'to burn, make hot' (Ehret)

dšr - red; reddening; dšr jb LEg- furious; dšr ḥr LEg - furious; dšr.t - 1) desert 2) anger (also dšrw) 3) can sometimes mean 'nad' or 'evil'

jɜwt dšr.t - red lands (red mounds)
ḥrs.t dšr.t - red carnelian
ḥsmn dšr - red natron
ḫt nbt dšr.t - every bad thing
ḫt nb.t bjn.t dšr.t - every bad and evil thing
dš mj bs(j) n sdt - they shall be red like the fiery flame
red(, be ~) (adj) .... dåshri, dushri / daasher? dushar(r)? [d-sh-r || cf. Copt. toorsh, SCopt. ?tshre (Crum) 'be red, blush' || Vycichl: *daashir (mt. *daarish) 'red'
Red Land (pr n) .... dashra.t, dåshra.t (*-i.t?) (d-sh-r.t)[77]
ⲈⲦⲎϢⲒ / ⲈⲦⲈϢⲒ (dšr.t) (edrēšet < edšēret fem version of masc) - crane; mildew .. ⲦⲢOϢ - dšr - red

drdr / dɜdɜ - to be foreign

ɜpdw drdrjt - foreign flock, lit. strange bird[78]

dzr / dsr - holy; sacred

nb tɜ dsr[79] - 'lord of the Sacred Land,' epithet of the gods Anubis or Wepwawet (the location refers to the cemetery at Abydos)
Professor Antonio Loprieno finds in the Egyptian verb Dsr (to clear a path, make separate, set apart; make pure, make sacred) an indisputable cognate to the Semitic verb gzr (to cut, cut off; to separate, decide)... And it is in Daniel where we read: "that a stone ('even) was cut out (gzr: hithgezeret 'even) without hands."... In Hebrew gezerah marks land set aside, or fenced off, for pasturage; in ritual practice, it marks the rugged wasteland to which the scapegoat is sent, "a land which is cut off" (eretz gezerah, Leviticus 16:22)....For examples of Dsr as a verb of separating, we find Horus separated from the rebel Seth (and the Sethian): for you are separated (Dsr) from him in your name of Ta Djeser, the Holy Land (Dsr.t(j) jr=f m rn=k n(j) t3 Dsr). We also see Atum in action of separating (Dsr) heaven from earth and the primeval waters (Dsr pt jr t3 nnw). The hieroglyph that writes Dsr shows an outstretched arm holding a baton in act of separation (see Loprieno, 14-15)...An etymology based on North-west Semitic gzl, gṣl, ǵzl or ǵṣl would be the most likely[80]
Antonio Loprieno affirms that Semitic gzr and Arabic jazara “to cut,” are cognate with ancient Egyptian dsr “holy, sacred (temenos); seclusion; to separate[81][82]Al-Jazira also can refer to a province in Upper Mesopotamia, or to the entire Arabian peninsula (Al-Jazira al-Arabiya).

ddɜ - to be fat

dw(j) - to be bad; to be evil; to be sad of heart

rsw.t nb.t ḏw.t m ḳdd.w nb.w ḏw - all bad dreams in all bad sleep [83]
rśw.t nb.t ḏw.t mℨ.t m grḥ - all bad dreams seen in the night
dr ḏw.wt wḥs ṯms.w nb.t- drive out the evil things and eliminate all ailments
rsw.t ḏw.t - bad dreams (vs good dreams rsw.t nfr.t)
wꜢw m dw - schemers of evil
Proto-Afro-Asiatic: *ǯaw(ʔ)- (?) - to be angry; Proto-CChadic: *ʒwaʔ- evil
(v) Duw(w)-, Dewiww- [D-w #1, vn. D-w.t > *Dawwa.t, *Diwwa.t, *-yy- (*Di'uut, *Daawa.t) || Hebr. #S-w(-:) ('filth', nf Soo'at-) would seem to to follow the apparent correlation D <> S (s.), but of interest is also Sem. #d-w-:/h (Hebr. 'one was weak/unclean from menstrual bleeding', Aram. 'it was grief-causing, sad, [Syr.] wretched'); another reminiscent word, Aram. dayw-aa 'demon' is to be dismissed as suspected relative due to its probable PIE origin
evil (n) - Dawwa.t, Diwwa.t (D-w.t < D-w #1)

ddj - to be stable; to be steady

ꜥnḫ dd wꜢs - life, stability and dominion (a wishing well for the king)

Some Notes on the Vocalic Formula: using The |a-i-u| Theory

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One interesting feature of Egyptian is the ability to borrow different vocalic forms ignoring the original syntactic meaning and use them in other ways. So, with this being said, the adjective-verb when used as a true adjective could have used any of the following forms and it would still be considered grammatically correct:

  • the most popular, CaCiC (including newly modified CiCiC) - possibly most distinct to roots with a direct adjectival dimension attached to its meaning (for example; small, good, black, bright, ect). A majority of these roots also used this inflection in the infinitive as well as a noun in the Coptic phase of the language.
  • the second most popular, CuCiC (including CaCuC) - possibly distinct to those roots which had static meaning which were converted to nouns then used as adjectives afterwards (OⲨⲎⲢ - great)- in this example, it gives the literal extra meaning of the great one.
  • and to a lesser degree CaCaC (in a modified form)[84] - being used in the later phases of Egyptian once CaCiC was no longer distinct in speech thus becoming erroneously assimilated to the infinitival construction (for example: ⲂⲰⲰⲚ - bad)
  • Most adjective-verbs were most possibly directly inherited from Proto-Afroasiatic (or borrowed from neighboring languages i.e., Semitic...) then immediately fossilized in Egyptian now being used in various ways (as an adjective, a noun and an infinitive). It did not appear that they were as synthetic as many Egyptologists initially believed.
  1. Later Egyptian may have had others.
  2. There is an irregular assimilation Ⲃ < Ⲙ.
  3. During its lifetime as a spoken language, Middle Egyptian gradually lost all but the masculine singular form of modifying adjectives (with the exception of some feminine and plural forms in the later stages). In such case, in many occasions the masculine singular adjective was used to modify feminine, feminine plural and masculine plural nouns.
  4. 742 (320)
  5. ... pg 7
  7. This sentence should be properly transcribed: ḫ(w)t nb(w)t nfr(w)t but the singular version is what was popularily used.
  8. pg 18.
  9. This is generally referred to as a "bound construction: adjective + noun".
  10. This construction can even occur when the adjective is used to modify another noun... Middle Egyptian by James P. Allen pg 63.
  11. It appears this word may have originally contained a /u/ at the least in a dialect or two but eventually this word appeared to follow the a-Type pattern through analogical grammatical leveling.
  12. The plurals actually look like 'duals'.
  14. Thus Wrote Onchsheshonqy: An Introduction to Coptic pg 51
  15. ... pg 16
  16. .. pg 20
  17. While in earlier Egyptian, the adjectival predicate sometimes still agrees in gender and number with the nominal antecedent, in the classical language the unmarked form of the adjective is regularly employed, pointing to progressive grammatical analogical leveling ... Ancient Egyptian: A Linguistic Introduction by Antonio Loprieno pg 116 ...
  18. Notice the use of 'n' which is used in plural forms vs the singular forms without 'n'... nn n ntrw “these gods, those gods”, nn n ntrwt “these goddesses, those goddesses”, ect ...
  19. The particle mk actually contains the masculine suffix pronoun k and is used when addressing a male, when addressing a female mt is used, when addressing a group of people mtn is used.. later on mt (fem) and mtn (plural) were used.... Egyptian Grammar by Hoch pg 50.
  22. Can this also be the case in Egyptian?1 .. I don't know yet!!! More research on this.
  23. Also check to see if this is the case in Egyptian.
  24. Also called "Absolute Use of the Feminine Singular".
  27. Antonio Loprieno A Linguistic Introduction pg 32
  28. Coptic Etymological Dictionary by J. Cerny
  30. ... pg 176
  39. ... pg 73
  44. pg 16
  45. The preposition m governs a nonattributive (emphatic) relative form of the verb jrj. The rheme is m jr nds jqr. The emphasis is brought out using a cleft sentence.
  47. pg 2
  53. The inflection is adjectival treated as a noun in Coptic.
  58. B's in Egyptian often correspond to m's in Hebrew or Arabic. Thus the root slm in Arabic or shlm in Hebrew, "peace," "to be healthy," etc. and b's in such Semitic languages can turn up as m's in Egyptian: Rmnn for Lbnn, "Lebanon."...
  64. Dickson Middle Egyptian Dictionary pg 270
  67. ... pg 85
  74. Towards the Afro-Asiatic etymology of Egyptian zš
  78. Wrong gender and number of the modifying adjective... pg 3
  79. pg 2
  82. [3] Loprieno, La pensée et l'écriture - Pour une analyse sémiotique de la culture égyptienne (Paris: Cybele, 2001), 15 (citing Wehr & Cowan, Arabic-English Dictionary, 146; Koehler & Baumgartner, HALOT; Pyr. §1778), cited by Val Sederholm, July 29, 2010, online at search?q=zenos .
  84. For most 3-rad roots the penultimate syllable was stressed and most 4-rad roots contained syncopation of the medial syllable causing the adjectival marker i to be hidden within the unstressed syllable, in affect causing the adjectival form to be identical to the infinitival form CaCaC which also utilized penultimate stress. It is also unclear if this process existed before Coptic although there may have been a possibility it did according to Cuneiform/Akkadian transcriptions where the endings of Egyptian words (specifically those with penultimate stress) showed some vocalic discrepancies on the final unstressed syllable versus the stressed syllables which were more consistent with Coptic spellings.