Physics/Essays/Anonymous/Low energy nuclear matter transformations
Low energy nuclear matter transformations – electromagnetic (or electronic) pulse initialization of the selfamplifying accumulation processes with the intrinsic explosion compression of the target material to the nuclear super density. Here we have almost complete nuclear transformation of the definite primary chemical element (Cu, for example) to different other stable chemical elements (Mg, Fe, Ta, etc.)  .
The experiments were made during last ten years (start at 1999) in the Electrodynamics Laboratory of Proton-21 company in Kyiv, Ukraine. This work has been carried out within the commercial project called Luch, which is developed on Adamenko initiative (PI) and aims at the creation of new, efficient and environmentally safe nuclear technologies for neutralizing the radioactivity and synthesizing stable isotopes of chemical elements, including superheavy ones.
Experimental installation looks like vacuum diode with the niddle anode made for electric field increase. Furthermore, anode was made from the pure technical copper (99.99%), however, other chemical elements could be used, such as argentums, tantalum, plumbum etc.
Adamenko experiments used the following electron beam characteristics for atom compression at the anode surface:
- Electron “coherent” beam energy: J;
- Electromagnetic pulse duration: s;
Electromagnetic pulse power: W;
- Residual pressure inside camera: Pa.
- Compressed atom concentration: 1/m^3;
- «Lattice constant» for compressed atom: m;
- Atoms number that deal with the “transmutation process”: .
Considering that every atom of the target has about 100 atomic mass (), than the total nucleon number (the difference between proton and neutron masses could be neglected for simplicity) which took part in the transformation process will be:
One proton compression requires the definite energy:
Thus, the input electron beam energy could compress the following proton number of the target:
The relationship between the really compressed protons and the protons compressed by input energy is:
So, the “energy deficit” will be about fife order of magnitude (it depends of the target material).
It has been observed that at the end of experimental compression procedure the target explodes from inside. The explosion results are exploded “volcano” with a tubular crater, and left its traces, some drops, on the surface of one of the “petals” of the exploded tube which formerly was a monolithic target rod.
Numerous studies of the element and isotope composition of the exploded target surface and accumulating screen, conducted using various methods, have shown the presence, in different amounts, of all elements of Mendeleev periodic table among the target ejections. Most of chemical elements found in accumulating screens and remnants of the target either were not found in the materials of which targets and screens were initially made, or they were present in those materials in concentrations and amounts several orders lower than in the resulting ones. In addition, for most of the created elements, their isotopic composition has been significantly different from natural conditions. For example, the target №1754 has at one of its part the following composition of different chemical elements, presented at table 1.
Classical approach to the Adamenko problem[edit | edit source]
Classical properties of the Adamenko sphere[edit | edit source]
In the general case the Adamenko sphere has the following classical properties (for copper target):
- m - Adamenko sphere radius;
- m^2 - Adamenko sphere surface area;
- m^3 - Adamenko sphere volume;
- kg/m^3 – pure copper mass density ;
- kg – copper mass of the Adamenko sphere;
- - atomic number of the Adamenko sphere;
- - copper atomic number;
- - copper electron (charge) number;
- - total electron number in the Adamenko sphere;
- - electron compression factor for an arbitrary atom;
- - proton-electron mass ratio;
- - fine structure constant.
Thus, we should to place the following number of electrons on the Adamenko sphere, to compress the copper atomic electronic shells to the protonic scale:
The productivity coefficient of the Adamenko sphere can be defined as:
Thus, we can to find out the minimal electronic scale on the Adamenko sphere from the condition:
Considering the following limit for “minimal electron radius”:
we could to find out the productivity coefficient:
where - proton characteristic length. It is evident that we have here the extremely small electron scale, which could be in the very strong electric fields only. In another words, we need additional energy for the external electron compression on the Adamenko sphere. However, we have no any additional energy to do this process real (to say nothing of the Pauli principle!). Therefore, we need another (quantum) mechanism to consider this process properly.
Energy balance problem for the Adamenko experiments[edit | edit source]
Let us consider how much energy used the melting process. It is known that copper melting temperature is C. The heat of melting is defined by the following equation:
where J/kg – the heat of melting density for copper . The heat of evaporation is defined by the following equation:
where J/kg - the heat of evaporating density for copper. It is evident that melting and evaporation processes need very small energy with compare to the input energy in the Adamenko experiments (J). However, what about the ionization processes? If we use all input energy to the ionization then we obtain the following electron number:
where J – ionization energy for Bohr atom. This number is about the total electron number in the Adamenko sphere
However this fact does not confirm that all input energy yields to the copper atom ionization. Note that bigger energy part yields to the quantum pumping of the electromagnetic resonator, formed by the Adamenko sphere.
Electric field effect in the applied physics[edit | edit source]
To the contrary of “field theory” the s.c. concept of electric field effect appeared in the technical sphere and therefore it is properly patented. For example, the idea of MOS-transistor appeared at the end of 20-es of the 20-th century and therefore its priority was patented by Lilienfeld in the USA , and by Heil in the Great Britain . The construction of these devices was primitive and trivial: metallic and semiconductor plates divided by dielectric. These devices were controlled by the electric field applied to the gate electrode. William Shockley made number attempt to the practical realization of this idea at the end of 30-ies of the 20-th century . He used germanium plate as semiconductor, mica plate as dielectric and metallic plate as gate. Yes, Shockley obtained the conductivity modulation, however the amplification effect was insignificant. Furthermore, these devices were unstable in time, and therefore they did not obtain practical realization in the industry. However at that time the macroscopic theory of the modulation processes was constructed and the dominant role of the “surface states” was discovered by Bardeen .
The practical realization of the field effect became possible by using the silicon as semiconductor and after development of the “passivation procedure” of the silicon surface by the Atalla group , та Кангом . Thus, from the early 60-es of the 20-th century the field effect MOS-transistors became the leading active devices in the microelectronics industry (up today: the most of the contemporary microprocessors were made on the MOS-technology!). ). It is worth noting that the two dimensional (2D-) layers of the current curriers at the silicon-silicon oxide interface had the rectangular topology, since the device width should be bigger then device length (better amplifying). So, the “comb channel topology” was developed for compactization of the transistors on the silicon surface. However, the “cylindrical topology «for MOS-transistor was used in the physical experiments for currier mobility measurements. The revolutionary discovery by Klaus von Klitzing of the w:Quantum Hall effect (KHE)  on the long channel MOS-transistors at the helium temperatures and strong magnetic fields, broadened the field-effect conception on the quantum phenomena range. Thus, at the helium temperatures and strong transverse magnetic field the 2d- quantum electromagnetic resonators of the Hall type arises. At the end of 80-ies of the 20-th century were discovered the quantum galvanomagnetic effects at the silicon interface on the industrial MOS-transistors at the room temperatures and higher   . These effects were connected with the surface area and temperature quantization, however to the contrary to KHE, they were observed at the room temperatures. It is worth noting, that here we have the induced 2D-structure with the minimal symmetry and strong transversal electric field.
Field effect in the spherical symmetry devices[edit | edit source]
It is known, that when we place an electric charge on the metallic empty sphere, then the electric field will be outside metallic sphere. However, there is no any electric field (it will be compensated!) inside empty sphere. Furthermore, closed metallic surfaces are used for screening of any electric fields in technique. Other case is the spherical capacitor! We have here electric field inside capacitor only (closed topology). For the case, when an external plate has radius bigger then an internal ones (), then we shall have an amplification of electric field, even in the case when the internal radius has the nuclear radius! Thus, the practical using of the spherical capacitors is perspective for the atomic electron shells compression, placed in the mesoscopic sphere. In another words an accumulation of the excessive elections on en external sphere is equivalent to the increasing of the nuclear charge, which could be used for the compression of the atomic electronic shells! However, the practical realization of such sphere is a very hard problem, but the field effect properties make a good deal in our case. Actually, at the strong electric field it is possible creating the quantum 2D-layers on the limited (quantized) surface area. In the case of flat structure we shall have the flat surface quantum, but in the case of the spherical structures – we shall have the spherical surface quantum. The typical example is the Bohr atom. Note that, the Bohr radius is due to the Schrödinger equation, where it is the standard normalization factor for the length. Let us consider, as an example, the mesoscopic sphere with one charged ion inside. Further, we place the large negative charge on the sphere:
Then the electronic atomic shell collapses to the characteristic proton length. In the real case we shall have the nuclear radius due to “uncompressive” properties of the nucleons:
Here we considered the nuclear density approximately the same as proton ones:
It is evident that compression we should have excessive energy dissipation, which is equal to the electron transportation work from to :
We have here the two possibilities for the next events. In the first case, when the energy is taken from the quantum system, we shall have the stable nuclear structure (so called – “neutron matter”) after external electrons are moved out. However, in the second case, when the excessive energy is conservated inside quantum system, we shall have the restoration process to the initial state, when the external electrons are moved from the sphere. Note that, the “restored” element will not be obviously the same as been at the experiment beginning.
Quantum approach to the Adamenko problem[edit | edit source]
In the strong electric field the electronic quantum vortex could be produced . In the general case this effect produces the surface quantization, which is placed perpendicular to the electric field:
where is the electron mass. This surface quantum in the case of spherical symmetry by automatically induces the quantum electromagnetic resonator (QER), which has the following parameters:
- is the capacitance of the QER;
- is the inductance of the QER;
:Om is the characteristic impedance of the QER; : is the resonance angular frequency;
- is the QER period of oscillations;
:Jж is the one photon energy for QER;
where m is the electron Compton wave-length, H/m is the magnetic, and F/m is the electric vacuum constants.
The external action (macroscopic one) which is applied to the Adamenko system could be presented as:
- J s,
where с is the external pulse duration, and J is the external pulse energy.
The microscopic action could be presented as:
Note that it is the action quantum here. Thus, the maximal photon number, which the Adamenko sphere produces, will be:
Note that this number exceeds the required electron number for the Adamenko sphere which is needed to compress the atoms to the nuclear density inside it. It is worth noting that, electromagnetic oscillations of the QER induce the electric charge:
where C is the elementary induced electric charge of the QER.
Thus, in the range of QER conception we solve the Pauli principle problem for the external electrons by automatically. Furthermore, the induced electron number is sufficient to compress almost all atoms (ions) in the induced Adamenko sphere.
See also[edit | edit source]
References[edit | edit source]
- С.В.Адаменко. Концепция искусственно инициируемого коллапса вещества и основные результаты первого этапа ее экспериментальной реализации // Препринт 2004, Киев, Академпериодика, с. 36. Pdf)
- Controlled Nucleosynthesis. Breakthroughs in Experiment and Theory, Series: Fundamental Theories of Physics , Vol. 156, Adamenko, Stanislav; Selleri, Franco; Merwe, Alwyn van der (Eds.), 780 p. (Springer, 2007). Pdf
- Adamenko S.V. et al. Effect of auto-focusing of the electron beam in the relativistic vacuum diode. Proceedings of the 1999 Particle Accelerator Conference, New york, 1999.
- Vysotskii V.I., Adamenko S.V. et al. Creating and using of superdense micrj-beams of relativistic electrons. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research. A455 (2000) pp.123-127.
- Адаменко С.В., Пащенко А.В., Шаповал И.Н. и Новиков В.Е. Процессы с обострением и дробление масштабов в плазменно-полевых структурах. Вопросы атомной науки и техники. 2003, №4,с.171-176.
- Свойства элементов: Справ. изд./Под ред. Дрица М.Е. М.:Металлургия, 1985, 672с.
- Кузьмичев В.Е. Законы и формулы физики / Отв.ред. В.К.Тартаковский.- Kиев:Наук.думка,1989.-864с.
- Lilienfeld J.E. Method and Apparatus for Controlling Electric Currents. US Patent #1745175, 1930, january.
- Heil O. Impruvements in or Relating to Electric Amplifiers and other Control Arrangements. UK Patent #439457, 1935, December.
- Shokley W., Pearson G.L. Modulation of Conductance of Thin Films of Semiconductors by Surface Charges. Phys. Rev., 1948, 74, July, p.232-233.
- Bardeen J., Phys. Rev., 71, 1947, p.717.
- Atalla M.M., Tannenbaum E., Scheiber E.J. Stabilization of Silicon Surfaces by Thermally Grown Oxides. Bell Syst. Tech. J., 1959, 38, May, p.749-783.
- Kahng D., Atalla M.M. Silicon— Silicon Dioxide Field Induced Devices. Solid- State Device Research Conference, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1960, June.
- von Klitzing, K. (1980). "New Method for High-Accuracy Determination of the Fine-Structure Constant Based on Quantized Hall Resistance". Physical Review Letters 45 (6): 494–497. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.45.494.
- Yakymakha O.L.(1989). High Temperature Quantum Galvanomagnetic Effects in the Two- Dimensional Inversion Layers of MOSFET's (In Russian). Kyiv: Vyscha Shkola. p.91. ISBN 5-11-002309-3. djvu
- Yakymakha O.L., Kalnibolotskij Y.M., Solid- State Electronics, vol.37, No.10,1994.,pp.1739-1751 Pdf Cite error: Invalid
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- Yakymakha O.L., Kalnibolotskij Y.M., Solid- State Electronics, vol.38, No.3,1995.,pp.661-671 pdf