Permaculture is a design system for creating sustainable human environments.
Permaculture has been developed by Bill Mollison and David Holmgren in 1974 to develop a sustainable multi-crop agricultural system based on trees, bushes, herbs, mushrooms and root systems, with an emphasis on perennial species. It is developed as a response to diminishing resources and pollution.
Permaculture relies on ecological principles to create sustainable human settlements by integrating design to support the ecological cycle of the present elements, picking eco-friendly principles from traditional knowledge and modern science. Natural systems is the main concern to build sustainable human environments and socio-economical infrastructure, to step forward to find conscientious solutions to local and global problems. Personal impressions are important to consider to make the environment appealing to humans, and inducing arts.
- Observe and interact - Everything functions at least two ways and every function is supported by many elements.
- Manage consumption and refuse, yield produce - Organise surroundings effectively and self-sustainably. This way there will be less need for maintenance by energy saving and recycling house and land models.
- Holistic approach for controlling surroundings- Intensive work in small land encouraging endogenous species.
- Cooperate with complete system- Design the area where plants and animals support each other and provide each other's maintenance. This way there will be less need for human interference and maintenance. Work together and avoid competition.
- Be patient - Slow and small solutions may seem ineffective, but in long term they may yield better results, and they are easier to control.
- Embrace diversity- If diversity is present there is a chance that there is interaction and nature will select the compatibility of species itself.
- Embrace minority- We don't know for certain which recipe will work in which environment. There is always a good chance of success if we maximise edges. This is achieved by including everything in the plan, but emphasising the most effective.
- Pace with "la vie quotidienne"- Creative use and adaptation of technology and scientific innovation is inevitable. This allows us to work effectively and save time, money and energy.
- Introduction to Permaculture
- PDC21 Taming the wicked problems of tomorrow, today
- Ecological sustainability
- Ethics and principles of permaculture By David Holmgren, author of Permaculture: Principles & Pathways Beyond Sustainability
- Ethics and principles of permaculture By Toby Hemenway, author of Gaia's Garden: A Guide to Home-Scale Permaculture
- Permaculture design (Wikieducator)
- Research Institute (Australia)
- Association (Britain)