Paideia High School/Heliganstadt Testament; Symphony No. 9, op. 125, IV
Heliganstadt Testament; Symphony No. 9, op. 125, IV is a Paideia Unit Plan. These guidelines address teachers for the purpose of guiding instruction. See Paideia Learning Plan for the student's point of view.
Column One[edit | edit source]
Column One teaching and learning should make up about 10% to 15% of the total scheduled instructional time. It is didactic in nature and uses teacher lectures, text books or other didactic instructional materials, and questioning appropriate to this mode of education. Teaching in this mode encompasses of three facets: Exoridium, Interpretation, and Erudition.
Exordium[edit | edit source]
The Exordium is the teacher's didactic introduction to the work that is the subject of a Paideia Unit Plan. This introduction consists of both an oral and physical (or electronic) presentation of the work. For longer works, the teacher may limit the oral presentation to key parts of the work. The teacher should read texts live distinctly, accurately, and intelligently. Other works should be orally presented similarly as appropriate to the type of work. In addition, the teacher should provide high quality audio and video recordings of works if possible. Students should have a consumable print copy of the work both electronically and in hard-copy if possible.
Oral Presentation[edit | edit source]
- Instructor will read the "Heliganstadt Testament." Students will also be expected to read, memorize and recite portions of the English text. Students will also learn to sing portions of Op. 125, IV in German.
- A recording of Symphony No. 9, Op. 125, I-IV will be used
- Video recording of a live performance of Op. 125, IV will be used, taken from "Copying Beethoven."
Written Presentation[edit | edit source]
"The Ninth" by Richard Taruskin, Oxford History of Western Music, pp. 1-9, user login required
"Beethoven, Ludwig van, §5: 1801–2: Deafness" by Joseph Kerman, Alan Tyson (with Scott G. Burnham), Grove Music Online, pp. 1-3, user login required
HELIGANSTADT TESTAMENT[edit | edit source]
(English translation of text written by Ludwig Van Beethoven, 1802)
For my brothers Carl and Johann Beethoven
Oh you men who think or say that I am malevolent, stubborn, or misanthropic, how greatly do you wrong me. You do not know the secret cause which makes me seem that way to you. From childhood on, my heart and soul have been full of the tender feeling of goodwill, and I was even inclined to accomplish great things. But, think that for six years now I have been hopelessly afflicted, made worse by senseless physicians, from year to year deceived with hopes of improvement, finally compelled to face the prospect of a lasting malady (whose cure will take years or, perhaps, be impossible).
Though born with a fiery, active temperament, even susceptible to the diversions of society, I was soon compelled to isolate myself, to live life alone. If at times I tried to forget all this, oh, how harshly was I flung back by the doubly sad experience of my bad hearing. Yet it was impossible for me to say to people, "Speak Louder, shout, for I am deaf". Oh, how could I possibly admit an infirmity in the one sense which ought to be more perfect in me than others, a sense which I once possessed in the hightést perfection, a perfection such as few in my profession enjoy or ever have enjoyed. – Oh I cannot do it; therefore forgive me when you see me draw back when I would have gladly mingled with you.
My misfortune is doubly painful to me because I am bound to be misunderstood; for me there can be no relaxation with my fellow men, no refined conversations, no mutual exchange of ideas. I must live almost alone, like one who has been banished. I can mix with society only as much as true necessity demands. If I approach near to people a hot terror seizes upon me, and I fear being exposed to the danger that my condition might be noticed. Thus it has been during the last six months which I have spent in the country. By ordering me to spare my hearing as much as possible, my intelligent doctor almost fell in with my own present frame of mind, though sometimes I ran counter to it by yielding to my desire for companionship.
But what a humiliation for me when someone standing next to me heard a flute in the distance and I heard nothing, or someone standing next to me heard a shepherd singing and again I heard nothing. Such incidents drove me almost to despair; a little more of that and I would have ended my life. It was only my art that held me back. Oh, it seemed to me impossible to leave the world until I had forth all that I felt was within me. So I endured this wretched existence, truly wretched for so susceptible a body, which can be thrown by a sudden change from the best condition to the worst. Patience, they say, is what I must now choose for my guide, and I have done so - I hope my determination will remain firm to endure until it pleases the inexorable Parcae to break the thread. Perhaps I shall get better, perhaps not; I am ready. - Forced to become a philosopher already in my twenty-eight year, oh, it is not easy, and for the artist much more difficult than for anyone else. Divine One, thou seest my inmost soul thou knowest that therein dwells the love of mankind and the desire to do good. Oh, fellow men, when at some point you read this, consider then that you have done me injustice. Someone who has had misfortune may console himself to find a similar case to his, who despite all the limitations of Nature nevertheless did everything within his powers to become accepted among worthy artist and men.
You, my brothers Carl and Johann, as soon as I am dead, if Dr. Schmid is still alive, ask him in my name to describe my malady, and attach this written documentation to his account of my illness so that so far as it is possible at least the world may become reconciled to me after my death. At the same time, I declare you two to be the heirs to my small fortune (if so it can be called); divide it fairly, bear with and help each other. What injury you have done me you know was long ago forgiven. To you, brother Carl, I give special thanks for the attachment you have shown me of late. It is my wish that you may have at better and freer life than I have had. Recommend virtue to your children; it alone, not money, can make them happy. I speak from experience; this was what upheld me in time of misery. Thanks for it and to my art, I did not end my life by suicide - Farewell and love each other.
I thank all my friends, particularly Prince Lichnowsky and Professor Schmid; I would like the instruments from Prince L. to be preserved by one of you, but not to be the cause of strife between you, and as soon as they can serve you a better purpose, then sell them. How happy I shall be if I can still be helpful to you in my grave - so be it. With joy I hasten towards death. If it comes before I have had the chance to develop all my artistic capacities, it will still be coming too soon despite my harsh fate, and I should probably wish it later - yet even so I should be happy, for would it not free me from the state of endless suffering? Come when thou wilt, I shall meet thee bravely. Farewell and do not wholly forget me when I am dead; I deserve this from you, for during my lifetime I was thinking of you often and of ways to make you happy - be soo - .
Ludwig van Beethoven
October 6th, 1802
Sheet Music: Symphony No. 9, Op. 125, IV[edit | edit source]
Ode to Joy: English Text[edit | edit source]
English Translation of 'Ode to Joy' By Aaron Green, About.com Guide (Adapted by Beethoven and translated to English)
O friends, no more these sounds!Let us sing more cheerful songs,More full of joy!
Joy, bright spark of divinity,Daughter of Elysium, Fire-inspired we tread Thy sanctuary.Thy magic power re-unites All that custom has divided, All men become brothers, Under the sway of thy gentle wings.
Whoever has created An abiding friendship, Or has won A true and loving wife, All who can call at least one soul theirs, Join our song of praise; But those who cannot must creep tearfully Away from our circle.
All creatures drink of joy At natures breast. Just and unjust Alike taste of her gift; She gave us kisses and the fruit of the vine, A tried friend to the end. Even the worm can feel contentment, And the cherub stands before God!
Gladly, like the heavenly bodies Which He sent on their courses Through the splendor of the firmament; Thus, brothers, you should run your race, like a hero going to victory!
You millions, I embrace you. This kiss is for all the world! Brothers, above the starry canopy There must dwell a loving father.
Do you fall in worship, you millions? World, do you know your creator? Seek Him in the heavens; Above the stars must he dwell.
http://classicalmusic.about.com/od/romanticperiodsymphonies/qt/Beethovenjoytxt.htm downloaded 2/14/11 2:07PM
An Die Freude: German Text, by Schiller[edit | edit source]
An Die Freude: German Text, adapted by Beethoven[edit | edit source]
Interpretation[edit | edit source]
Textual Interpretation refers to the teacher's didactic analysis of a written work in terms of the four major questions a demanding reader should ask of a text. Using the term work instead of book, these questions are: (1) What is the text about as a whole? (2) What is being said in detail, and how? (3) Is the text true, in whole or part? and (4) What of it? The Exordium begins to answer the first question because it introduces the whole text both orally and in writing (although the oral presentation may be limited in the case of longer works). It is in the Interpretation stage of Column One instruction that the teacher didactically begins to thoroughly unlock the second question. The third and fourth questions are relevant to Interpretation, but question two receives most of the teacher's attention. It is only when the student begins Column Two activities that a fuller grasp of questions three and four begins to mature in the student's mind. Consistent with the purpose of Column One instruction, the teacher is simply introducing elements of proper interpretation for the student to build on during Column Two and Column Three learning.
These questions can be appropriately modified for analysis of a work in science, mathematics, or the fine arts. Analysis of these types of works proceeds in a manner analagous to that of a text. Inasmuch as imaginative literature can be considered a work of fine art, the analogies drawn in Adler's and Van Doren's How to Read a Book can serve as a guide to other types of works too.
Interpretation of <Words and Terms> or <Elements>[edit | edit source]
In textual interpretation, the teacher didactically presents the author's key terms in the stage of Interpretation of Words and Terms. In addition, the teacher anticipates unfamiliar general vocabulary. These words and terms are given didactically, either orally or in writing, or both, but the task of interpreting is a Column Two skill of learning that the teacher must coach. Consequently, the purpose of this Column One stage is merely to point out key terms and potentially unfamiliar terms. The student must learn how to interpret. Again, this planning can be adapted to other kinds of works.
Interpretation of Key Terms[edit | edit source]
The key terms are those few words or phrases the author uses in unique, special, or important ways.. In the Column Two stage, students are coached both to find these key terms and to "unlock" them on their own. This skill is essential to analytical reading. In this Column One stage, however, the teacher points out a list of such terms. Students should understand that this listing is not necessarily exhaustive. In addition, the teacher provides students with a handful of these terms with definitions worked out in detail for consideration; it should consist of about three to five terms.
- Parcae another word for the Greek Fates, three goddesses who traditionally spun out, measured, and cut the span of a man's lifetime
- <Second Term>
General Vocabulary[edit | edit source]
The teacher may anticipate general unfamiliar vocabulary and point out the more difficult words either orally or in writing or both. However, defining words using context, a dictionary, or a knowlegable friend or adult (including the teacher) is a Column Two skill that must be coached. Teachers must help students build good habits of knowing the meanings of words. Dictionaries, in both electronic and book form must be available, and students must be taught how to use them. They must also be taught how to ask for definitions--a perfectly acceptible life skill commonly used by demanding readers!
A fast tempo, this can also refer to the title of a movement within a large work
Indicates "much," the performer will frequently encounter "Molto" adjacent to another tempo marking, "Molto Allegro," which indicates "much faster."
little, the performer may interperate in the following manner "Un poco ritardando," to slow down gradually. Ritardando is to play slower, in using "poco" the composer instructs the performer to pay extra attention to the passage and to treat it even slower than expected.
Lively and brisk, this tempo will be considerably faster than "Allegro."
To play as quickly as possible
"Singing," the performer should be lyrical and melodic in their interpratation.
A slow, walking tempo
"Always," an example is "sempre legato," to always play legato, or "sempre staccato," to always play staccato. Using "sempre" the composer does not have to indicate the same articulation mark through the score.
An accent, to give weight to an individual note within a line of melody.
To play with energy
Note: Students will learn to recognize unfamiliar Italian musical vocabulary and will study the ways in which Beethoven uses expressive markings to indicate tempo changes, dynamic and melodic shaping in Op. 125, IV.
Note: If the teacher points out words in anticipation of their potential difficulty, this should be done in context by giving citations or electronically highlighting the words.
Interpretation of Sentences[edit | edit source]
One point of didactic interpretation at the level of interpreting sentences is to use grammar to get at the author's meaning. As with interpreting words and terms, this level of interpretation is also a Column Two skill that must be coached. Consequently, at the Column One didactic level, a teacher should choose a handful of the most difficult sentences in the text for demonstration. The teacher will always unlock the grammar of a few important and more difficult sentences for students independent of whether these sentences are key premeses to an argument. As appropriate to the text, a teacher should also consider demonstrating the grammar of sentences that work together as propositions in the author's most important arguments.
Another important point is to demonstrate the meter and prosody in both poetry and prose texts. This aim is in great danger of being completely overlooked or forgotten in a world where oral reading is not nearly as common as it once was. Nevertheless, great speeches often succeed in part because the author understands prosody. Lincoln's Gettysburg Address and King's I Have a Dream serve as striking examples. The teacher should select sentences or versus to demonstrate both meter and rhythm.
- Such incidents drove me almost to despair; a little more of that and I would have ended my life. It was only my art that held me back. Oh, it seemed to me impossible to leave the world until I had forth all that I felt was within me.:
In the first sentence, what does "such incidents" refer back to? This is a pronoun form that calls on an antecedent. If you identify the specifics of his hearing loss, then they are collectively carried in as the subject of his despair. Look carefully at the verbs in this passage. "Art held me back" The verb usage "had forth" is unfamiliar in our current vernacular. Some basic analysis of how he could "have forth" what was in him creates a graphic image of the music in his soul being born into the world through him.
- <Second Sentence>: <etc.>
- <Third Sentence>: <explanation of meter and rhythm, consideration of overall prosody>
- <Fourth Sentence>: <etc.>
Interpretation of Passages[edit | edit source]
At the level of passages, the full trivium (grammar, logic, and rhetoric) come into play. First, a teacher should choose one or two of the author's most important arguments for a demonstration of how to use logic as a key to interpreting a text. Next, the teacher should select several passages to demonstrate how they conform (or not) to rhetorical, poetical, and sylistic rules. These rules, of course, must be didactically taught as prerequisites to interpretation of texts.
- <Argument>: <demonstration of both the grammar of the sentences comprising premeses and of the concluding proposition along with the logic of the argument followed by an explanation of how the arguments help to unravel the author's meaning>
- <Passage Illustrating Rhetorical Rules>: <demonstration of the rhetorical rules and their value in the success of the author's purpose>
- <Passage Illustrating Poetical Rules>: <demonstration of the poetical rules and their value in the success of the author's purpose>
- <Passage Illustration Stylistic Rules>: <demonstration of the stylistic rules and their value in the success of the author's purpose>
Erudition[edit | edit source]
Erudition refers to all manner of background information assumed by or necessary to understanding or fully appreciating the text.
<Note that these categories are presented alphabetically for ease of organization>
Anthropological References[edit | edit source]
- <information relevant to anthropological issues and discoveries--include citations--delete if not used>
Antiquarian References[edit | edit source]
- <information about references to things no longer commonly understood because of their situation in ages past--include citations--delete if not used>
Archaeological References[edit | edit source]
- <information about details related to archaeological discoveries--include citations--delete if not used>
Biographical References[edit | edit source]
"Beethoven" by Joseph Kerman et al. Grove Music Online, user login required
Cultural References[edit | edit source]
- <information and links to cultural references--include citations--delete if not used>
Ethical References[edit | edit source]
- <information and links to ethical references--include citations--delete if not used>
Geographical References[edit | edit source]
Heiligenstadt was an independent municipality until 1892 and is today a part of Döbling, the 19th district of Vienna.
Historical References[edit | edit source]
- It is interesting to consider the historical events occuring globally in Western Europe and the United States during Beethoven's lifetime between 1770-1827.
1774-First Continental Congress in Philadelphia
1774-1792-Reign of Louix XVI, King of France
1791-Death of Mozart
1802-Heliganstadt Testament, written by Beethoven in Heliganstadt, a suburb of Vienna.
1804-Napoleon declares himself Emperor
Beethoven had a turbulent relationship with Napoleon, originally intending to dedicate his third symphony, "The Eroica" to the ruler, but changed the dedication when he heard that Napeoleon had declared himself Emperor. The name "Eroica" comes from the original title "Sinfonia Eroica. .. composta per festeggiare il sovvenire di un gran Uomo," which translates in English to "Heroic Symphony. . .composed to celebrate the memory of a great man." Napoleon is said to have attended a performance of the symphony in 1809.
1809-Death of Haydn
1812-Napoleon retreats from Moscow
1815-Invention of the Metronome
1823-Beethoven, Symphony No. 9, Op. 125, I-IV
1827-Death of Beethoven
Prince Lichnowsky was one of Beethoven's strongest financial supporters.
Mathematical References[edit | edit source]
- <information and links to mathematical references--include citations--delete if not used>
Political References[edit | edit source]
- <information and links to political references--include citations--delete if not used>
Religious References[edit | edit source]
- <information and links to religious references--include citations--delete if not used>
Scientific References[edit | edit source]
- <information and links to scientific references--include citations--delete if not used>
Column Two[edit | edit source]
Column Two teaching consists of coaching. This mode of instruction aims at helping students to form habitual skills in the language, scientific, and fine arts. Thus, a teacher must correct students as they practice listening, speaking, reading, writing, observing with the senses unaided, observing with the aid of scientific apparatus, measuring, estimating, calculating, and exercising dexterity in the musical and visual arts. Each of these arts in turn rely upon the aquisition of fine and gross motor, imagination, and memory skills. These rules for developing Paideia Unit Plans address teachers. For their counterpart written for students, see Paideia Learning Plan.
Column Two learning comprises 65% to 75% of scheduled learning time. It's chief charactaristic is student activity. Students must be practicing some skill or skills while the teacher corrects him or her. While athletic coaching is an obvious example of this type of instruction, debate coaching, directing a drama, art instruction, and piano lessons also represent coaching. In order to coach well, a teacher must have a repertoire of activities carefully designed to exercised desired skills. Additionally, the teacher must have a clear idea of how to correct the skills as students practice them to ensure their habitual formation.
Activities[edit | edit source]
Prerequisite Activities[edit | edit source]
Fine & Gross Motor Skills[edit | edit source]
<delete if not used>
Sensory Imagination Skills[edit | edit source]
<delete if not used>
Mnuemonic Skills[edit | edit source]
<consider this category for every unit>
Language Arts[edit | edit source]
Listening Skills[edit | edit source]
- Complete Listening Worksheet of Symphony No. 9, Op. 125
- Complete sight singing exercises
- Complete rhythmic dictation taken from Op. 125, IV
- Complete melodic dictation taken from Op. 125, IV
- Practice singing individual phrases in German from Op. 125, IV accompanied and unaccompanied.
- Polish part singing of soprano, alto, tenor, bass parts from "An Die Freude."
- Students will chose a piano reduction of "An Die Freude" and will complete a roman numeral analysis of the first phrase.
Speaking Skills[edit | edit source]
- Students will practice reciting the English text of the Heliganstadt Testament
- Students will be assigned to memorize individual paragraphs of the English text
- Students will select with instructor approval a work by Beethoven and give an oral presentation to the class on the following information discovered in their study of the work. (Presentations may include student performances of voice or piano).
Basic biographical information
Genre of repertoire selection
Compositional features with a discussion of three of the following musical elements:
Text (if applicable)
Who wrote the text?
What is the text about?
What is significant about the composer's choice of text?
What is the relationship between the text and the music?
- Class discussion on the influence of Beethoven on piano technique accompanied by piano master class.
- Class discussion on the development of Beethoven's music through the three stylistic periods of his compositional output (Early, Middle, Late).
- recitation of the rules of reading from Adler's and Van Doren's How to Read a Book or similar rules
Reading Skills[edit | edit source]
- read hard-copy with a pencil in hand--always!
- marking up a text both with a pencil and electronically
- inspectional reading notes as taught in Adler's and Van Doren's How to Read a Book
- analytical reading notes as taught in the same work
- Practice reading the German choral text of "An Die Freude," Op. 125, IV
Writing Skills[edit | edit source]
- Consider the following phrase from the text of the "Heliganstadt Testament:"
"Though born with a fiery, active temperament, even susceptible to the diversions of society, I was soon compelled to isolate myself, to live life alone. If at times I tried to forget all this, oh, how harshly was I flung back by the doubly sad experience of my hearing. Yet it was impossible for me to say to people, 'Speak louder, shout for I am deaf." Rewrite in the style of the author.
- Rewrite the first paragraph of the "Heliganstadt Testament" in a style which imitates the original author, Beethoven.
- Compose an alternative ending to the final paragraph of the "Heliganstadt Testament."
- Study the following piano reduction of the "Ode to Joy" melody. Identify the form used in measures 1-16. Compose a 16 bar melody with the same form. You may select from the following meters: 3/4, 4/4, 6/8. You may select from the following key signatures: C, G, D, A. Mark each phrase in your composition and lable each theme appropriately.
- Using the piano method, Alfred's Premeier Piano Series, learn to play the "Ode to Joy" melody. Take this melody and transpose to G major, using the same meter. Complete by writing on the staff.
- Translate the orginal German title of the fourth movement of the symphony "An Die Freude" into Latin.
- Listen to the CD recording of "Beethoven Lives Upstairs." Read through the first letter in the book "Beethoven Lives Upstairs" by Barbara Nichol.
- Write a one page response to Christoph's letter, as illustrated by the CD and book.
Observation Skills[edit | edit source]
Study the following excerpt taken from Beethoven's Op. 125
- Identify and define the tempo marking used in this excerpt.
- Identify a portion of the main motive from Op. 125, IV
- Identify the key signature of measures 1-4
- Identify the modulation and new tonal center
Study the following excerpt taken from Beethoven's Op. 125
- Please lable all measures numbers
- What is the smallest note value in this example?
- Write out the counting for all measures
- Look closely at measures five and twelve. Lable the pitches in each of the measures.
- In measures five and twelve what direction is the melody moving?
- What is the relationship of the melody in measures five and twelve to the entire fourth movement of Op. 125?
Measuring Skills[edit | edit source]
Estimation Skills[edit | edit source]
Calculation Skills[edit | edit source]
Study the following excerpt from movement two of Op. 125. Rewrite measures 2-9 in the treble clef, on a separate sheet of staff paper. Determine the exact location of middle C in alto clef prior to rewriting the melody. You will need to determine whether each pitch and interval is being transposed up or down, relative to the current position of middle C in alto clef.
Solving Problems[edit | edit source]
- Students will learn to sing portions of "An Die Freude," Op. 125, IV in German. Singers will identify the technical challenges in the entire work and also contained within individual phrases or measures. Students will practice polishing in sections, identifying complex rhythms, meter and tempo changes and large intervals present in the melody. Students will learn to identify these difficult sections in the score, take them apart and sing them in the most musically efficent and artistic manner.
- Upon identifying the technical challenges in the vocal score of Op. 125, IV write a two page typed, double-spaced report detailing practice and performance strategies for learning this piece.
Correction[edit | edit source]
Column Three[edit | edit source]
Paideia High School Seminar Friday April 15, 2011: Heliganstadt Testament, Symphony No. 9, IV Op. 125 Composed by Ludwig Van Beethoven[edit | edit source]
Today we are holding our Paideia High School seminar on the Heliganstadt Testament and Symphony No. 9, Op. 125, IV composed by Ludwig Van Beethoven.
1) The Heliganstadt Testament has been given the title "Heliganstadt Testament" based upon where Beethoven was geographically when he wrote the letter. The term "Heliganstadt" itself does not describe the ideas or themes contained in the letter. On your paper please write down a title that you feel best describes the letter Beethoven wrote to his brothers. (Round Robin) a. Follow up by questioning individual students
b. Use the text to support answers
c. Can you characterize the main theme of Bethoven's letter in 1-3 sentences?
i. Support answers from the text
2) Provide students with scenario of the prince and pig story. a. Ask students to give examples from film with aligned with audacity and egotism of Beethoven.
References[edit | edit source]
- How to Read a Book by Mortimer J. Adler & Charles Van Doren, 1972, pp. 46-7)
- see Adler, The Paideia Proposal, 1982, pp. 27-8; see also Adler, The Paideia Program, 1984, ch. 2