Nursing Study Guide/Eye and Ear Disorders
Eye and ear disorders
Nursing Study Guide Eye disorders
2.7% are blind or low vision. Refractive errors are the most common, myopia at 25.4%, hyperopia at 9.9%. Cataracts are 17.2%, macular degeneration 7.6%, diabetic neuropathy 3.4%, glaucoma 1.9%
May be bacterial (staphylococcus, hemophalius, gonococcus) and is a medical emergency. May be viral (adenovirus is most common among adults, also herpes simplex). May be fungal.
Manifestations include redness, burning, pruritis, a gritty or sandy sensation, photophobia, tearing, and discharge. Associated manifestations include pharyngitis, fever, malaise, and lymphadenopathy.
Chronic conjunctivitis may be caused by chlamydia trachomatis. It is endemic in Africa, the Middle East, and Asia. May be transmitted via genitals during birth.
Conjunctivitis may be diagnosed using culture and sensitivity testing, fluorescence staining, scrapings from conjunctiva, blood counts, antibody titers. Medications are specific to the causative organism; may include antibiotic, antivirals, antifungals, antihistamines, complementary/alternative therapy, eye irrigation, and saline compresses.
Nursing Care for clients suffering conjunctivitis includes health promotion, handwashing, sharing personal items (makeup, contacts), assessment, health history (symptoms, allergies, history of illness, any chronic illnesses), physical assessment (visual acuity, inspection, vital signs). Nursing Diagnoses (ND) for clients with conjunctivitis include the following: Risk for Infection, and Risk for disturbed sensory perception visual
Corneal disorders: refractory errors
Corneal disorders include refractory errors, which include abnormal curvature of cornea; this is the most common visual acuity problem. Mypoia is "nearsightedness" in which the curvature of the cornea is elongated, and the image focuses in front of the retina. In hyperopia the curvature of the cornea is shortened, causing the focus of the image to be behind the retina. In astigmatism the curvature of the cornea is irregular, resulting in distorted vision.
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Nursing Study Guide