# New Zealand Pilot License/Flight and Aircraft Performance

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This resource is about Subject 22 of the New Zealand Pilot License.

## 22.2.2: Units of measurement

State

(a) the International System (SI) units for length, mass, time, temperature (K

and °C);

(b) the derivation of the SI units for force, pressure, power, and the non-SI

units;

(c) foot, nautical mile, knot and horsepower.
22.2.4

Differentiate between scalar and vector quantities; and

(a) explain and or apply vector addition and subtraction;
(b) demonstrate understanding and ability to resolve vector diagrams or

problems.

22.2.6

Define speed, velocity and acceleration.

22.2.8

Describe Newton’s three laws of motion; and

(a) explain inertia;
(b) differentiate between mass and weight;
(c) state the value of the acceleration caused by the earth’s gravity; and
(d) define momentum.
22.2.10
Describe motion on a curved path; and
(a) differentiate between centripetal force and centrifugal reaction;
(b) explain the factors affecting centripetal force and rate of turn.
22.2.12
Describe the trig functions for the sine, cosine and tangent of an angle.
22.2.14
Describe the moment of a force, and the moment of a couple.
22.2.16
Describe the conditions required for translational equilibrium and for

rotational equilibrium.

22.2.18
Explain the meaning of centre of gravity (centre of mass).
22.2.20
Explain the meanings of work, power and energy; and describe kinetic energy

and potential energy.

Page 71

Advisory Circular AC 61-1.5 Revision 13 15 December 2006 CAA of NZ 70 Sub Topic Syllabus Item 22.2.22 Interpret simple graphs.

## 22.4: The Atmosphere

22.4.2 Explain the air density, and describe the effect of temperature, pressure and humidity on atmospheric density. 22.4.4 Describe the normal changes in pressure, temperature and density with increased altitude in the atmosphere. 22.4.6 State the ISA sea-level pressure and temperature conditions, and the approximate lapse rates in the lower atmosphere. 22.4.8 Describe the approximate altitude bands in which atmospheric pressure and density are reduced to 75, 50 and 25% of their normal sea level values. 22.4.10 Explain the meaning of density altitude (DA) and, in broad terms, the effect of pressure, temperature and humidity on DA and thus aerodynamic and engine performance. 22.4.12 Explain the term viscosity, when related to air.

## 22.6: Basic Aerodynamic Theory

22.6.2 Describe the terms freestream static pressure, dynamic pressure (including the term ½ρV²) and total (or pitot) pressure. 22.6.4 Explain the principle of airspeed indication, and indicate the relationship between indicated, calibrated, equivalent and true airspeeds (IAS, CAS, EAS, and TAS). 22.6.6 With respect to aerofoils, describe the meanings of the following terms: section, leading edge, trailing edge, chord, chord line, thickness, thickness/chord ratio, camber. 22.6.7 Distinguish between high-lift, general purpose (GP) and high-speed aerofoil sections. 22.6.8 Define relative airflow and angle of attack (α). 22.6.10 State Bernoulli’s theorem in simple terms, and describe streamline flow, turbulent flow, and the application of Bernoulli’s theorem to the streamline flow around an aerofoil. 22.6.12 Describe a venturi and explain venturi effect. 22.6.14 Explain the changes to the airflow and pressure distribution around a typical aerofoil in a low- subsonic speed airflow as α is increased from the zero-lift angle to beyond the stalling angle. 22.6.16 Explain the terms upwash and downwash in an airflow. 22.6.18 Explain the term centre of pressure (CP); and describe typical movement of Page 72 Advisory Circular AC 61-1.5 Revision 13 15 December 2006 CAA of NZ 71 Sub Topic Syllabus Item the CP with increasing angle of attack (α). 22.6.20 Define the total aerodynamic reaction force (TR) of an aerofoil; 22.6.22 Describe how TR varies with increasing angle of attack (α). 22.6.24 Define the TR components lift and drag.

## 22.8: Lift

22.8.2 Identify the factors affecting lift (low-subsonic speed airflow). 22.8.4 State the lift formula, and the three basic functions contained within it. 22.8.6 Describe the meaning of the term, coefficient of lift (CL). 22.8.8 Given a typical CL versus α curve for a GP-type aerofoil, identify: (a) the zero lift angle; (b) the angle for maximum CL (CLmax). 22.8.10 Explain the meaning of a high CLmax. 22.8.12 With respect to the CL curve, describe the effect of: (a) increased camber; (b) surface roughness (e.g. contamination). 22.8.14 Describe three-dimensional flow over a wing and explain how wingtip and trailing edge vortices are formed. 22.8.16 Explain the effect of induced downwash on α. 22.8.18 Define aspect ratio (AR) and describe the effect of AR on CL.

## 22.10: Drag

22.10.2 Identify and explain the components of total drag. 22.10.4 Explain the term boundary layer. 22.10.6 Describe: (a) laminar boundary layer flow; (b) turbulent boundary layer flow; (c) transition point. 22.10.8 Explain skin-friction drag and state the factors affecting it. Page 73 Advisory Circular AC 61-1.5 Revision 13 15 December 2006 CAA of NZ 72 Sub Topic Syllabus Item 22.10.10 Explain form drag and state the factors affecting it. 22.10.12 Describe the effect of streamlining in reducing form drag. 22.10.14 Describe interference drag and the measures for reducing it. 22.10.16 Explain the origin of induced drag; and (a) list the factors affecting it; (b) explain typical measures for reducing it. 22.10.18 State the meaning of the term coefficient of drag (CD); and describe the main features of a typical curve of CD versus α. 22.10.20 State the drag formula, and the three basic functions contained within it. 22.10.22 Describe typical curves of induced drag, all other drag, and total drag versus IAS in straight and level flight. 22.10.24 From information provided or a diagram identify the speed for minimum drag and maximum lift/drag ratio. 22.10.26 Distinguish between graphs for CD and total drag. 22.10.28 Explain a typical graph for lift/drag (L/D) ratio versus α. 22.10.30 Explain from a typical graph the most efficient angle of attack, the zero lift position, and the stalling angle.

## 22.12: Lift Augmentation

22.12.2 Explain the basic purpose of lift augmentation devices. 22.12.4 Explain the basic principles of trailing and leading-edge flaps. 22.12.6 Explain the effects of lowering trailing edge flap on; CL, CD, L/D ratio, CP movement, angle-of-attack and nose attitude. 22.12.8 Distinguish between the effects of lowering leading-edge flap on angle-of- attack, nose attitude and movement of the CP with those of trailing-edge flap. 22.12.10 Given a description or diagram identify the main types of trailing-edge flap and compare their relative performance (in generating lift and drag). 22.12.12 Given a description or diagram identify the main types of leading-edge flap. 22.12.14 Explain the basic principles of slats and slots. 22.12.16 Explain the effect of operating leading-edge slats on CL, stalling angle and nose attitude. Page 74 Advisory Circular AC 61-1.5 Revision 13 15 December 2006 CAA of NZ 73 Sub Topic Syllabus Item 22.12.18 Show understanding of the theory of spoilers and give examples of their use.

## 22.14: Flight Controls

22.14.2 Identify the three aircraft axes, movement about those axes, and primary flight controls. 22.14.4 Explain how control in pitch, roll, and yaw is achieved. 22.14.6 Identify and explain: (a) the secondary effect of aileron; (b) adverse yaw and methods used to counteract it; (c) the secondary effect of rudder. 22.14.8 Describe the effects of airspeed and slipstream on control effectiveness. 22.14.10 Explain the basic principles of trim tabs, and describe the correct method of using trim controls. 22.14.12 Explain the reason for aerodynamic balancing of control surfaces. 22.14.14 Describe the main methods for achieving control balance. 22.14.16 Differentiate between a balance tab and an anti-balance tab. 22.14.18 Explain the purpose for mass balancing. 22.14.20 Describe and explain flexural and torsional flutter. 22.14.22 Describe the methods of providing mass balance.

## 22.16: Stalling and Spinning

22.16.2 Explain the stalled condition of an aerofoil. 22.16.4 Explain basic stall speed and relate it to the lift formula. 22.16.6 Describe typical symptoms and other indications of the approach to the stall. 22.16.8 Describe the changes in the airflow over the wing, movement of the CP, and aircraft attitude as the point of stall is reached. 22.16.10 Explain the standard recovery from the stalled condition. 22.16.12 Describe how the following factors affect stalling speed: (a) aircraft weight; (b) load factor; (c) power; Page 75 Advisory Circular AC 61-1.5 Revision 13 15 December 2006 CAA of NZ 74 Sub Topic Syllabus Item (d) altitude; (e) the use of flaps and slats; (f) contamination of the wing surfaces. 22.16.14 Describe the conditions which encourage a wing-drop at the stall. 22.16.16 Explain the design measures taken to reduce the tendency for wing-drop. 22.16.18 Explain the caution against using aileron near or at the stalling angle. 22.16.20 Describe the standard technique for recovery: (a) from a stall which has resulted in a wing-drop; (b) at the onset of the stall. 22.16.22 Explain the process of autorotation (leading to the spin). 22.16.24 Describe the characteristics of the upright spin, and explain: (a) the instrument indications which confirm the fact and direction of a spin; (b) the difference between the spin and spiral dive; (c) the standard recovery technique.

## 22.18: Straight and Level Flight

22.18.2 Explain the four forces acting and the conditions required for steady straight and level flight. 22.18.4 For a conventional aeroplane configuration, describe: (a) the lift/weight and thrust/drag couples; (b) pitching moments and the tailplane stabilising moment; (c) pitching moments caused by power changes, undercarriage and flap extension. 22.18.6 Explain the power and attitude relationships at various airspeeds in straight and level flight. 22.18.8 For unaccelerated level flight: (a) state the power required formula (power = drag x TAS); (b) explain the difference between the drag curve and the power required curve; (c) distinguish between the minimum drag speed and the minimum power speed. Page 76 Advisory Circular AC 61-1.5 Revision 13 15 December 2006 CAA of NZ 75 Sub Topic Syllabus Item 22.18.10 Given typical power available and power required curves, explain: (a) the maximum and minimum speeds for level flight; (b) the effects of increased weight and altitude.

## 22.20: Climbing and Descending

22.20.2 Identify the forces acting in a steady climb. 22.20.4 Given typical power required and power available curves, explain: (a) how a curve of excess power available (EP) can be derived; (b) where the speeds for maximum rate of climb, and maximum angle of climb occur on the EP curve. 22.20.6 State what the Vx and Vy speeds are and differentiate between these speeds and the normal climb speed. 22.20.8 Define absolute ceiling and service ceiling. 22.20.10 Explain the factors affecting climb performance (power applied, airspeed, flap and/or undercarriage extension, weight, altitude, temperature, manoeuvring, and wind - in relation to net flight path). 22.20.12 Identify the forces acting in a glide and a steady power-on descent. 22.20.14 Explain the connection between L/D ratio, glide angle, airspeed and gliding range. 22.20.16 Describe the effect of: (a) weight on glide angle and best glide speed; (b) wind on net flight path.

## 22.22: Turning

22.22.2 Explain how the required turning (centripetal) force is generated. 22.22.4 Define load factor. 22.22.6 Describe how load factor increases with bank angle. 22.22.8 Explain the connection between load factor and percentage increase in stalling speed. 22.22.10 Explain the factors affecting rate and radius of turn. 22.22.12 Explain the conditions for a maximum rate/minimum radius turn. 22.22.14 Explain the effect of wind during: Page 77 Advisory Circular AC 61-1.5 Revision 13 15 December 2006 CAA of NZ 76 Sub Topic Syllabus Item (a) a constant-bank turn; (b) a constant-radius turn around a ground feature. 22.22.16 In climbing and descending turns, describe: (a) the effect on rate of climb/descent; (b) the tendency to overbank/underbank. 22.22.18 Describe the forces acting during a manoeuvre in the looping plane; and 22.22.20 Identify the factors affecting the radius of a looping manoeuvre. 22.22.22 Describe design manoeuvre speed (Va) and explain the features of a typical V- n (or V-g) diagram.

## 22.24: Propellers

22.24.2 Define blade face, blade angle, pitch (or helix) angle, helical twist, angle of attack. 22.24.4 Describe the forces acting on a propeller blade; the rpm/airspeed relationship; and the most effective blade sections. 22.24.6 Explain how propeller pitch affects efficiency at different speeds. 22.24.8 Explain the purpose of the constant-speed (variable pitch) propeller. 22.24.10 Describe in broad terms the operation of the constant speed unit (CSU) with changes in power setting and airspeed. 22.24.12 Describe the correct procedure for handling manifold pressure and propeller controls. 22.24.14 Describe the forces acting on a propeller when: (a) windmilling; (b) feathered; (c) in reverse thrust. 22.24.16 Explain propeller centrifugal and aerodynamic twisting moments. 22.24.18 Describe asymmetric blade effect. 22.24.20 Explain the terms power absorption and propeller solidity.

## 22.26: Stability

22.26.2 Explain static stability and dynamic stability. 22.26.4 Differentiate between stability and controllability. Page 78 Advisory Circular AC 61-1.5 Revision 13 15 December 2006 CAA of NZ 77 Sub Topic Syllabus Item 22.26.6 Define longitudinal stability and explain: (a) the action of the tailplane in maintaining longitudinal stability; (b) wing pitching moments; (c) the effect of CG position. 22.26.8 Define directional stability and explain the factors affecting it. 22.26.10 Define lateral stability and explain the factors affecting it (dihedral, shielding, wing position, keel surface/fin area, sweepback). 22.26.12 Explain the requirement to match lateral and directional stability. 22.26.14 Explain the conditions of spiral instability, dutch roll, and snaking. 22.26.16 With respect to stability and control on the ground, explain: (a) the importance of CG position; (b) the differences between nosewheel and tailwheel configurations; (c) handling of controls in strong crosswinds. 22.26.18 For a single-engine propeller aircraft, explain the factors affecting swing on take-off. 22.26.20 Describe cross-wind take-off and landing techniques. 22.26.22 Explain ground effect, and relate it to take-off and landing.

## 22.28: Asymmetric Flight

22.28.2 Explain the consideration involved in coping with asymmetric thrust/drag and reduced power. 22.28.4 Explain the factors affecting yawing and rolling moments. 22.28.6 Define critical engine. 22.28.8 Recall immediate actions and techniques for identifying the failed engine. 22.28.10 Explain the three modes of constant-heading asymmetric flight. 22.28.12 Define Vmca and Vmcg.

## 22.30: Range and Endurance

22.30.2 Define specific air range (SAR) and specific fuel consumption (SFC). 22.30.4 State the general conditions for achieving maximum SAR. 22.30.6 Explain the airframe and engine considerations of flying for range (piston engine). Page 79 Advisory Circular AC 61-1.5 Revision 13 15 December 2006 CAA of NZ 78 Sub Topic Syllabus Item 22.30.8 Apply performance tables or graphs from an aircraft manual to determine best SAR under given conditions. 22.30.10 Define flying for endurance and differentiate between range flying and endurance flying (piston engine). 22.30.12 State the factors affecting endurance and explain practical endurance flying techniques.

## 22.32: Performance

22.32.2 Define: (a) Take-off distance required (TODR), take-off safety speed, and screen height (or barrier); (b) Take-off distance available (TODA) and clearway; (c) Take-off run available (TORA); (d) Accelerate-stop distance available (ASDA) and stopway; (e) Gradient and gross and net flight paths; (f) Landing distance available (LDA), landing distance required (LDR) and landing threshold; (g) Dry, wet, and contaminated (in relation to runway surface); (h) Drift down. 22.32.4 Explain the factors affecting take-off and landing performance. 22.32.6 Given an elevation, QNH and ambient temperature, calculate pressure altitude and density altitude. 22.32.8 Express an ambient temperature as a deviation from ISA temperature (and vice versa). 22.32.10 Demonstrate an ability to use wind-component graphs, and to apply runway slope and surface correction factors. 22.32.12 Demonstrate an ability to calculate take-off and landing performance in accordance with CAR Part 135 Subpart D using representative aeroplane take- off and landing performance charts (P-charts). 22.32.14 Demonstrate an ability to calculate en-route engine inoperative performance using a representative single-engine service ceiling graph.

## Notes

• Advisory Circular AC 61, New Zealand Civil Aviation Authority