## Form of the Earth

Describe the general shape of the earth.

Define and identify, on a diagram of the earth, and explain the meaning of the following:

• axis and direction of rotation;
• geographic poles;
• great circles;
• rhumb lines

• the equator
• parallels of latitude;
• meridians of longitude;
• position.

## Direction on the Earth

Describe the 360 degree method of indicating direction

Describe the earth's magnetic field

Define:;

• Magnetic pole
• true north
• magnetic north
• the cardinal directions of the earth;
• the quadrantal directions of the earth
• true direcetion
• magnetic direction
• compass direction
• magnetic variation
• an isogonal
• comapss deviation
• true bearing
• magnetic bearing
• compass bearing
• relative bearing

Convert between true, magnetic and compass directions

Convert between relative, true, magnetic and compass bearings

Plot and measure tracks and bearings (+- 1 degree) on a NZ Aeronautical Chart

## Distance on the Earth

Define a:

• statute mile
• nautical mile (nm)
• kilometre

Calculate the conversion between a statute mile, a nautical mile and a kilometre

State the number of feet and meters in a statute mile, a nautical mile and a kilometre

Measure distances (+- 1 nm) on a NZ Aeronautical Chart

## Speed

Define:

• a knot
• groundspeed (GS)
• indicated airspeed (IAS)
• calibrated airspeed (CAS)
• true airspeed (TAS)

## Position Referencing

Define a:

• ground position
• air position
• DR position
• pinpoint
• fix

Describe and apply the following position reference methods:

• place name
• bearing and distance
• latitude and longitude

Calculate the relative bearing of a position from an aircraft

Calculate the bearing of an aircraft from a position

## Altimetry

Define:

• height
• altitude
• mean sea level (MSL)
• ground level
• elevation
• pressure altitude (PA)
• QNH

Explain the effect of a change in mean sea level air pressure on the altimeter reading of a transiting aircraft

State and apply the altimeter setting rules in New Zealand

Explain and apply the table of cruising levels

## Principles and Terminology

Define:

• true and magnetic track / course
• wind velocity (W/V)
• *crosswind
• *drift (planned and actual)
• *track / course made good (TMG / CMG)
• port
• starboard
• *track error (TE)
• *closing angle (CA)
• *estimated time of departure (ETD)
• actual time of departure (ATD)
• *estimated elapsed time (EET)
• *estimated time of arival (ETA)
• actual time of arrival (ATA)

Explain and apply the 1:60 rule

Calculate the values marked with an * above

## Time

Describe the six figure systems of indicating date/time groups

Define:

• Coordinated Universal Time (UTC)
• Standard Time (NZST)
• Daylight Time (NZDT)

Calculate ETD and ETA in UTC given planned flight time details and reference time in NZST and/or NZDT

## Triangle of Velocities

Identify and label the three vectors of the triangle of velocities

Using a navigation computer, solve triangle of velocity problems (given four of the six variables):

• heading and track (+-2 degrees)
• TAS and GS (+-2kts)
• wind velocity (+- 3 degrees +- 3 kts)
• drift (+-1 degree)

aeronautical Maps and Charts

## Properties and Principles

Explain the difficulties associated with representating a spherical shape on a flat surface

Define scale

List the uses of

• a NZ Aeronautical Chart
• the Aerodrome Chart

Interpret the features and symbols of a NZ Aeronautical Chart

Describe the method of indicating relief on a NZ Aeronautical Chart

Interpret information from Aerodrome Charts and Operational Data pages in the AIPNZ Volume 4

Circular Slide Rule

## Computations

Derive TAS, given IAS, pressure altitude and air temperature in degrees Celcius.

Solve mathematical equations:

• multiplication (+-2%)
• division (+-2%)
• proportion (+-2%)

Derive time, speed, or distance, given two factors

Calculate time and distance to climb, given groundspeed, rate of climb and height to climb

Calculate rate of descent required to achieve a given heaight loss over time

Calculate fuel consumption, given the burn rate and time

Calculate fuel burn rate given the consumption and time

Calculate fuel endurance, given the fuel quantity and burn rate

Convert between:

• degrees Fahernheit and Celsius
• nautical miles (nm), statute miles and kilometres (+-1%)
• metres and feet (+-2%)
• pounds and kilograms
• litres, imperial and US gallons
• volume of fuel (in litres, imperial or US gallons) and a volume of fuel (in pounds or kilograms)

## In-flight Revisions

Mentally estimate:

• a heading change, using the 1:60 rule (+-2%)
• a heading change, using driftlines (+-2%)
• a heading to make good a reciprocal track
• an ETA change, using proportional division
• the effect of inaccuracies in heading speed and height
• navigation in conditions of limited visiblity

Flight Planning

## Route Selection

List the factors to be considered when selecting a VFR cross-country navigation route

List the factors to be considered when selecting altitudes at which to fly in the cruise

List the factors to be considered when selecting alternate routes and destination alternates

## Map Preparation

Mark the following on a map:

• departure aerodrome, turning points, and destination aerodrome
• tracks
• heading change markings, either 1:60 or driftlines
• ETA amendment markings

Fold a map in a manner appropriate for a VFR cross-country flight

## Plan Preparation

Cmplete a navigation log / flight plan for a VFR cross-country, including calculating the following values:

• TAS's
• tracks
• estimated wind velocities
• grounspeeds
• distances
• EETs
• ETAs

## Fuel Planning

Derive, from an Aircraft Flight Manual, the fuel consumption rate for a given leg

Calculate the expected fuel burn on a given leg

Calculate the minimum fuel required on a given VFR cross-country flight

Calculate the legal minimum fuel reserves required on a VFR cross-country flight

Calculate the maximum holding time available for a given leg

Calculate the latest time of departure for a given VFR cross-country flight or a given leg

Calculate the take-off weight of a given aircraft on a VFR flight

Calculate the landing weight of a given aircraft on a VFR fight

Calculate the position of the Centre of Gravity of a given aircraft on a VFR flight

Calculate the available payload of a given aircraft on a VFR flight

## Flight Management

Describe the techniques and procedures for:

• cruise routine / activity cycle
• maintaining a flight log
• turning points
• approaching / rejoining at a destination aerodrome

Describe the techniques for map reading in flight

Describe techniques for:

• pinpointing
• changing heading to make good the desired track
• changing heading to make good next turning point or destination
• amending ETA

Estimate and calculate a heading to make good a reciprocal track

Estimate and calculate and aircraft's position given bearing and distance from an identified ground position

## Special Procedures

Describe the techniques and procedures for:

• re-establishing position if lost
• diverting from the pre-planned route
• navigating at low level when forced to do so by bad weather