Maritime Health Research and Education-NET/EDUCATION/Education module links/MSc Global Occupational Medical Research Methods Education

From Wikiversity
Jump to navigation Jump to search

-> Spanish

Diploma 1-3: Education in Scientific Health Research Methodology[edit | edit source]

Background [edit | edit source]

Prevention and promoting of well-being for all ages while supporting the relevant SDGs is the core issue. Our education programs aim to integrate the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development with the 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Our research education programs in Occupational-, Maritime- and Public Health are especially related to SDG3: Good health and well-being for all and strongly related to several other goals[1]. [2] 3:_Education_in_Health_Research_Methodology/Contribution_to_UNs_17_Sustainable_Development_Goals Diploma of Science in Health Research Methodology is divided into three phases and each phase is based on satisfactory completion of the previous phase. The condition for going through all three steps is that the students have passed steps 1,2 in that order and the students can choose only to graduate in Module 1.

The skills you gain in this Diploma will enable you to pursue a career in research through the university or a combination of research in the clinical healthcare practice. You'll graduate with a multifaceted understanding of health research that is increasingly sought after in healthcare and research environments. The course calendar is flexible and can be delivered on a full or part-time basis, attracting people who might also be working alongside their studies.

The main emphasis of this Diploma is to learn how to conduct independent research and to use the international research outcome for teaching and prevention of health risks. This program is unique in developing countries, as it is based on research methodologic training which is not the case in the other postgraduate courses in health offered in Latin America for an example.

The MSc is open to graduates with relevant degrees and those with appropriate work experience including health students, educators, doctors, nurses, hygienists, and other types of health and safety personnel.

Diplomas 1-3[edit | edit source]

  • Diploma 1: Education in Health research methodology
  • Diploma 2: Education in Occupational Health research methodology
  • Diploma 3: Education in writing a scientific article in occupational health

Diploma 1: Education in Health research methodology - 3-6 months 150-300 hours[edit | edit source]

Purpose[edit | edit source]

The purpose of Diploma 1 is to provide the students with the necessary tools to understand and apply health research results in daily life to maintain a high professional level and ensure an updated and evidence-based prevention and treatment. The is also the basis for learning evidence-based in the next step and for their thesis.

The Diploma is intended to prepare the students for scientific-based university thesis work with data collection in school classes or by other methods, analyze the data, and do a literature review as the main part of the thesis. Further, the aim is to train the students to carry out independent research projects to be internationally published and inspire them to actively engage in health research and teaching. The Diploma is focused on epidemiological occupational health research, but as the same research method is used in other health specialties, the course is useful for all other students and professionals in health. As the literature background in health research is quite voluminous, the participants have to select the reading after their own personal interest. In the end, The Diploma of well-done in health research methodology is handed out after having passed the Midterm and final test exams (see below midterm and final test)

Location[edit | edit source]

Zoom meetings

Time[edit | edit source]

To be adapted according to wishes

Languages[edit | edit source]

Most of the study materials are bilingual, English and Spanish.

Study Hours[edit | edit source]

45 min Zoom meeting every week /Friday and 5 hours self-study per week, in total 100 hours study time over 3 months or more months if needed.

Midterm exams[edit | edit source]

In the middle of both courses, you will have a test you get a research question and have to search and keep five references in your reference system, where are you orienting yourself in abstract and write in Word a small short IMRAD structured summary 100-150 words and make the reference list in Word. Questions of understanding of the course content will also be used.

The final exam in both Diplomas[edit | edit source]

Show online how you use the "Boolean" type of search words maximum of five, online in Google Scholar or PubMed. Show how you store the references in the Zotero reference system or another you have installed. And how you combine writing text in Word in a small about 100-200 words summary while inserting the references and make a reference list. Questions of understanding of the whole course content will also be applied.

Open --> DIPLOMA 1

Diploma 2: Education in Occupational Health Research Methodology[edit | edit source]

6-9 months 600 hours[edit | edit source]

6-9 months 600 hours work the students have to work with on a scientific basis, with the method the students have learned to do in Diploma part 1. The program includes the scientific study of the four main topics of the EU-Occupational Health strategy: Mental health, Ergonomics, Safety climate, and Exposure to chemicals besides The students will pick up their new knowledge from the scientific articles so the students must seek knowledge in the specific areas in the articles and write the sections in their own evidence-based textbook in occupational medicine. The students will make minor systematic literature reviews (PRISMA), search phrases of each of the 28 items in the (their) occupational medicine area, and write their own textbook based on scientific literature by using the learnings in Diploma 1. The students describe the results from the abstracts and the full text of the articles so that it is understandable to other actors in occupational health. The final product will be a digital book in 3000-6000 words and pictures the students have made themselves and Pptx presentation. In the end, a Diploma of well-done Health research is handed out after going through 45 min. oral exam where they present a 10 minutes PowerPoint of their results and discussion. You get a research question and have to search for five references, Where are you orienting yourself in abstract and write in Word a small short IMRAD structured summary max 150 words. The same way of learning can be used in occupational medicine, maritime medicine, and other medical specialties after having made test to see the interest for such learning.

Open-> DIPLOMA 2

Diploma 3: Education in Writing a Scientific Article /Thesis[edit | edit source]

6-12 months 300-600 hours[edit | edit source]

Writing scientific Article/ Thesis education in health research[edit | edit source]

Writing a thesis is the compulsory final part of all postgraduate educations for candidates or postgraduate master's degrees. Diploma 3 is relevant also for those who want to start health research independent of postgraduate education. This step runs over 6-12 months and having completed Diploma 1-2, the students are well trained in using the literature and writing a thesis that can be structured like a scientific article and published. It is based on your own data from your research project or secondary data from another side. The thesis can be either structured as a scientific article or as the traditional thesis structure. By using the traditional thesis structure a lot of scientific work is wasted because a thesis cannot normally be used as a scientific reference like peer-reviewed articles. There must, of course, be permission from the institution that the finished work can consist of a scientific article. Now the students can benefit from the possibilities to get data from The Maritime Health Research and Education-NET (MAHRE-Net) or other sources. Projects with pooling of data from many countries and trends analysis and combining of different questionnaires will require experienced researchers and fundings. In the end, a Certificate of well-done article/thesis in Health research is handed out after going through a final exam, with the presentation of your article/thesis. The guide here is for your research project that ends with the publication of an article or presented in a thesis.

Open --> DIPLOMA 3


The list below sets out the competencies the occupational medical specialist should possess on completion of education, with the emphasis on the skills and the required compulsory assessment methods. Competences and the related assessment methods are concretized by using competence cards or other specific guidance.

Competencies to be learned during the occupational medical introduction 18 months[edit | edit source]

1 Diagnostics, etiological assessment and prognosis Should be able to make:
1 Exposure assessment At the basic level perform an exposure assessment and risk assessment in the clinical work regarding ergonomic, physical chemical, biological and psychosocial risk factors
Under supervision carry out and in writing reports of 5-10 workplace visits
2 Basic occupational patient medical assessment Under supervision do asessment of the most common occupational disorders:
  1. Disorders of the neck-shoulder
  2. Low back disease
  3. Shoulder disorders
  4. Elbow and wrist disorders
  5. Hips and knee disorders
  6. Vibration-induced white fingers
  7. Hand eczema
  8. Asthma/rhinitis
  9. COLD (Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease)
  10. Indoor climate-related symptoms
  11. Asbestos-related disorders
  12. Exposure related mental disorders
3 Risk assessment for pregnant women Under supervision: carry out a risk assessment of pregnant women and breastfeeding the working environment and recommend as appropriate preventive measures or absence reports
4 Conclusion and completion of patients In cases of well-known occupational medical issues independently formulate diagnosis, prognosis, etiological assessment, and conclusion
5 Relevant communication
  1. Faced with patients and collaborating partners, establish contact and communicate in a form of trust, empathy, and situational sensation.
  2. Make a clarification and agreement of the patients´ expectations.
  3. Clarify the role of the doctor and the occupational medicine clinic and make sure that the patient understands the purpose of the consultation.
  4. Ensure that the patient has understood the conclusion and
6 Relevant patient consent
  1. Make agreements with the patient, the members of the interdisciplinary teams, and the workplace about the diagnostics and the mapping of exposure conditions.
  2. Ensure that there is relevant consent or legal basis for any collection or disclosure of health and exposure information.
7 Report occupational diseases and injuries Could report occupational diseases and injuries and advise victims in relation to notification to the relevant Authority
8 Basic work retention Have knowledge of social medicine possibilities and provide suggestions for action on job retention
9 Workplace visits Under supervision plan and implement 5-10 workplace visits
10 Health promotion Could advise patients about risk factors and protective factors in work, environment and lifestyle and the interaction between these and indicate options for reducing risks
11 Education Participate in the department's professional activities eg. by the presentation of articles and internal teaching of colleagues.

Competencies to be learned during the main clinical education[edit | edit source]

Lung medicine[edit | edit source]

1 Diagnostics, treatment and prognosis

Conduct diagnostic investigation with focus on relevant differential diagnoses

  1. To prescribe and interpret answers to common paraclinical investigations and make preliminary diagnosis
  2. Indicate overall treatment options
  3. Specify prognosis with focus on function level for the following states:
  4. Pneumonia
  5. Asthma
  6. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COLD)
  7. Restrictive pulmonary diseases, Including silicosis and asbestos
  8. Allergic alveolite #
  9. Lung cancer and mesothelioma
2 Spirometry Perform and interpret spirometry incl. test of reversibility
3 Peak-flow monitoring Make indication and guidance for peak-flow monitoring, as well as read and interpret outcome
4 Bronchial provocation test Make indication of and interpretation results of unspecific bronchial provocation test
5 Investigation of specific allergies Make indication for the investigation of specific allergies (including test and specific IgE)
6 Precipitation antibodies Interpret investigation for precipitation antibodies
7 Pulmonary function study Give indication for pulmonary function study with diffusion capacity
8 COPD and asthma Classify COPD and asthma with regard to function difficulties

Rheumatology[edit | edit source]

1 Diagnostics, treatment and prognosis
  1. Make a diagnostic with a focus on the relevant differential diagnoses and independently prescribe and interpret answers to common paraclinical studies
  2. Make a preliminary diagnosis
  3. Provide ordered treatment options and help initiate treatment
  4. Specify prognosis with focus on function level for the following modes:
  1. hip arthrosis
  2. knee cartilage
  3. palpitations
  4. shoulder disorders, including rotator cuff and
  5. periartrose
  6. neck disorders including osteoarthrosis
  7. Elbow and wrist disorders
  8. diffuse pain conditions in the musculature
  9. inflammatory arthritis
  10. Arthritis urica
  11. sarcoidosis
2 Musculoskeletal Conduct a clinical study for strength, movement, function, and tenderness of the Neck, Back, upper and lower extremities
  1. hip arthrosis
  2. knee cartilage
  3. palpitations
  4. shoulder disorders, including rotator cuff and periartrosis
  5. neck disorders including osteoarthrosis
  6. Elbow and wrist disorders
  7. diffuse pain conditions in the musculature
  8. inflammatory arthritis
  9. Arthritis uric sarcoidosis
3

Investigate for nervous pressure and medulla influence

4 Distinguish between local and systemic, rheumatological disorders

Psychiatry[edit | edit source]

1 Diagnostics, treatment and prognosis
  1. Have knowledge of diagnostics with a focus on relevant differential diagnoses, including independently prescribe and interpret answers to common paraclinical studies.
  2. Could carry out a relevant psychiatric interview, adapted patient condition and they even circumstances so that the patient situation is being illuminated from a biomedical, Psychological and social perspective.
  3. Must have knowledge of the most important diagnostic instruments and knowledge of the content of an objective psychiatric examination and on that background
  4. Could carry out such an investigation
  5. be able to set up and revise diagnostic considerations in connection with the below diagnoses
  6. indicate parent
  7. Treatment options as well as
  8. Psychopharmacological and psychotherapeutic
  9. Treatment, as well as physical exercise and participation
  10. To initiate treatment and specify prognosis with focus on the following states:
2
  1. Depression
  2. Anxiety
  3. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
  4. Prolonged load conditions
  5. Somatoform modes
  6. Personality Disorders
3
  1. Have knowledge about communication principles regarding psychiatry's patient-patient relationship and ability
  2. Apply patient interviews
4 Have knowledge of the use of relevant tools and scales for assessment of the severity of the disease, e.g. Hamilton depression score.

Dermatology[edit | edit source]

1 Diagnostics, treatment and prognosis

Have knowledge of:

  1. diagnostic investigation focusing on relevant differential diagnoses
  2. common para clinical studies
  3. overall treatment
  4. of prophylactic measures
  5. prognosis with focus on functioning for the following disorders:
  1. contact eczema
  2. urticaria
  3. The skin's benign and malignant tumors
  4. atopic skin disorders
  5. Other skin disorders that may illuminate Work-related skin disorders: eg. Seborrhoeic dermatitis, rosacea, psoriasis, dermatomycosis
2 Explain the theoretical background for Mechanisms of the occurrence of contact eczema
3 Know tools to differentiate between professional and non-business-related contact cases
4 Make indication for and interpreting patch samples

Neurology[edit | edit source]

1 Diagnostics, treatment and prognosis
  1. Have knowledge of diagnostic investigation focusing on relevant differential diagnoses
  2. Have knowledge of common paraclinical investigations
  3. Have knowledge of the superior treatment
  4. Knowledge of prognosis with focus on functioning for the following disorders:
  1. dementia
  2. headache
  3. peripheral neuropathies
  4. cerebrovascular diseases
2 Perform a clinical neurological examination
3 Make indication for and interpreting neuropsychological examination
4 Make indication for and interpreting neurophysiological examination
5 Patientkommunication Establish and manage calls in situations that deals with serious illnesses or crisis situations
6 Coordinate and manage a patient meeting


Communication and teaching[edit | edit source]

Physicians working in the field of occupational and environmental medicine, through patient-related work, business assignments, literature studies, and research, gain significant knowledge about the environment, including the health and safety of the working environment. In order for this knowledge to be used for prevention, the specialist doctor should be able to convey it to colleagues, other professional groups, companies, and communities during teaching, meetings, and writing. The dissemination must be adapted to the target groups' academic and linguistic requirements.

After completion of specialist medical training, the specialist must be able to:

1 Education
  1. Schedule and complete teaching medical students, doctors in other specialties, and students on occupational health
2 Communication
  1. Write articles and comments to trade magazines, staff magazines, daily press or similar in electronic media
  2. Handle inquiries from the press about occupational and environmental medicine issues


Clinical occupational medicine competencies – main education[edit | edit source]

1 Diagnostics, etiological assessment and prognosis Should be able to make:
  1. Diagnostic investigation and differential diagnostics in collaboration with relevant specialties
  2. Business history
  3. Exposure assessment
  4. Etiological of assessment
  5. Assessment of work ability and prognosis In the following conditions:
2 Lung Medicine and allergy:
  1. asthma
  2. rhinitis/rhinoconjunctivitis
  3. allergic alveolitis
  4. Chronic Obstructive Lung Diseases
  5. Restrictive pulmonary disease, including Asbestos and silicosis
  6. pleural plaques
  7. Instruct and interpret Peak flow monitoring to assess working relationship
3 Neurology:
  1. toxic encephalopathy
  2. Carpal tunnel syndrome
  3. Morbus Raynaud, Vibration including:
  4. Establish indication for and able to interpret The answer to one cold provocation study
  5. Establish indication for and able to interpret Neuropsychological examination at Investigation of toxic encephalopathy
4 Rheumatology:
  1. Disorders of the neck-shoulder
  2. Shoulder disorders
  3. elbow and hand disorders
  4. hip and knee disorders
  5. diffuse pain conditions in musculoskeletal
5 Psychiatry:
  1. mental stress conditions
  2. Depression and anxiety
  3. post-traumatic stress condition(PTSD)
  4. somatizing states
6 Dermatology:
  1. mumps (irritant / allergic)
  2. urticaria
7 Other disorders:
  1. indoor climate-related symptoms
  2. "multiple chemical sensitivity" / odor hypersensitivity
  3. cancerous diseases #
  4. infectious diseases #
  5. hearing damage #
  6. following chemical poisoning #
  7. For these modes, diagnostic is not performed but only an assessment of exposure and asessment of Work-related causation
8 Work-retaining and social medicine
  1. Provide social medicine guidance for the patient, workplace, job center
  2. Give advice in relation to retirement, flex job, etc., cooperate with and refer to relevant public bodies
9 Assessment and advice to pregnant

Make pregnancy risk assessment for maternal injuries in the working environment

10 Health examinations according to regulations Have knowledge of directives, announcements, etc. about night work, work with lead, etc. and handling of health surveys in this context
11 Group Study Independent planning and implementation of group survey
12 Advice on risk reduction Advise patients about risk factors and protective factors in work and environment, lifestyle and the interaction between these, and set options to change these
13 Initiate prevention at work Propose relevant prevention measures for the patient Identified risk factors in working environment. Including suggesting relevant actions and guide the
patient by the involvement of a safety representative, Security leader, security committee / If necessary contact the CSS in agreement with the patient.
14 Dissemination of knowledge Communicate knowledge to both patients and relatives as well as non-medical professional instances in an easily understandable and useful manner
15 Complete certificates Complete certificates and declarations to the Social Services, insurance companies
16 Clinical instructions Eleborate clinical instructions
17 Project management Have knowledge of project management, lead and organize a group-investigation or other research project
18 Ethics and confidentiality Apply relevant administrative rules and laws in the healthcare system guidelines for clinical practice, including collection and disclosure of

Information, information gathered consent, compliance with confidentiality, handling of conflicts of interest

19 Resource management Manage your own resources and your own clinical work in relation to dissemination tasks, prevention as well research and development
20 Internationaloccupational medicine

Knowledge of international occupational medicine and developing countries including Regulation and organization of occupational health and safety
conditions under different conditions and the social importance of globalization

Exposure description and assessment[edit | edit source]

The basis for making reason and risk assessments is a detailed knowledge of exposure in the relevant environment. The exposure description and assessment may include chemical, physical, biological, ergonomic, and psychosocial influences. Therefore, very different methods of collection and assessment of exposure information are used. The work history Is the most commonly used method of clinical work medicine to map out the effects of the working environment. The work history describes chronologically the various employment conditions, tasks, and related exposures.

1 Diagnostics, etiological assessment and prognosis Should be able to make:
1 Chemical
  1. Gases and aerosols
  2. Dust and fibers
  3. Process assessment (chemical conversion)
2 Routes of exposure
  1. Absorption,
  2. inhalation,
  3. oral intake
  4. passage of placenta barrier
3 Physical
  1. The hand / arm vibration
  2. whole-body vibration
  3. Noise
  4. Temperature and draft
  5. ionizing radiation #
  6. Basic knowledge of ventilation
4 Ergonomic
  1. Repetivity
  2. Force
  3. Posture
  4. Static load
5 Biological
  1. Infectious microorganisms
  2. Allergens
6 Psychosocial factors
  1. Working time
  2. Working Volume3) Qualitative requirements
  3. Influence
  4. Support
  5. Effort / reward
  6. Violence and threats
  7. Interpersonal conflicts
7 Combined
  1. Indoor climate
8 apply methods to collect information on Influences
in a work environment
  1. Obtain and evaluate workplace instructions and Datasheets, including recipe- Information on chemical products
  2. Assess options and restrictions using Questionnaire to exposure description
9 Apply relevant databases
  1. Medline (pubmed), Toxnet,
  2. Vibration databases, Reprotox
10 Have knowledge of and understanding of CSS
work control system
  1. Workplace Inspection, Jurisdiction and legal basis,
  2. Relevant announcements, etc.
  3. Organization of workplace inspection
  4. Workplace Inspection Practice, Supervision
11 Do company visits under supervision
  1. Through company visits qualify exposure assessment in connection with patient investigation.
12 Local industrial working conditions
  1. Have knowledge of working conditions within those in the current region largest industries.

Etiological- and Risk Assessment competencies[edit | edit source]

An assessment of the multiple etiologies is defined as an assessment of whether there is a probable correlation between the exposure and the identified disease or symptoms based on exposure and diagnosis. Risk assessment assesses the likelihood that a given exposure may result in a given health injury in the short or long term, or may affect the prognosis

After completion of the specialist medical training, the specialist must be able to[edit | edit source]

1 Diagnostics, etiological assessment and prognosis Should be able to make:
1 Know how to use the general principles for etiological risk assessment
  1. Assess risk objectives: Relative risk, Absolute risk, aetiological fraction
  2. Explain the fundamental mechanisms of action.
  3. Interpret and summarize results of in vitro experiments, animal experiments and human data in relation to the particular one issue
  4. Apply different acceptance criteria depending on the context, eg. for the following areas:
  1. Chemical influences
  2. Physical effects
  3. Ergonomic influences
  4. Biological influences
  5. Psychological Impact
2 Chemical Etiologicals and risk assessments
  1. Explain fundamentally toxicology
3 Physical, risk assessment
  1. From naturally occurring influences, eg. background radiation
4 Ergonomic etiological and risk assessment
  1. Explain the mechanism of action, including the importance of work position, speed and power consumption at movements, and the significance of inactivity
5 Biological etiologies´ risk assessment
  1. Know the mechanism of action incl. Infections, toxic and allergic influence
  2. Interpreting controlled biological experiments, eg. climate chamber trials
6 Psychological risk assessment
  1. Explain the importance of known risk factors and interaction with individual resources and coping strategies
7 Cross-etiological risk assessments
  1. Evaluate multiple effects of for example shift work
  2. Evaluate multiple influences, eg. In the indoor climate or in pregnant women
8 Individual vulnerability
  1. Explain Individual Vulnerability: Genetics, including atopy, age, social Inequality, inactivity
9 Risk Communication
  1. Make risk communication under different risk perceptions
10 Risk Management
  1. Be able to make a plan for concrete risk management


Communication and teaching competencies[edit | edit source]

Physicians working in the field of occupational and environmental medicine, through patient-related work, business assignments, literature studies, and research, gain significant knowledge about the environment, including the health and safety of the working environment. In order for this knowledge to be used for prevention, the specialist doctor should be able to convey it to colleagues, other professional groups, companies and communities during teaching, meetings, and writing. The dissemination must be adapted to the target groups' academic and linguistic requirements.

After completion of specialist medical training, the specialist must be able to:

1 Diagnostics, etiological assessment and prognosis Should be able to make:
1 Education
  1. Schedule and complete teaching medical students, doctors in other specialties, and students on occupational health
2 Communication
  1. Write articles and comments to trade magazines, staff magazines, daily press or similar in electronic media
  2. Handle inquiries from the press about occupational and environmental medicine issues


Extended health research education 3-4 years 4000 hours Ph.D. study[edit | edit source]

The requirements are 3-4 published articles and a Doctoral Dissertation 4000 hours in 3-4 years[edit | edit source]

After having obtained the needed skills to study and to produce a scientific published article as first author in Diploma 1-3, the students are very well prepared to enter a Ph.D. study. According to the international requirements for a Ph.D, the students are obliged to publish 3 scientific articles as first author and a written summary of the Doctoral Dissertation articles. The dissertation can be based on independent data collection or secondary data from another side. Now, like in the Thesis work, the students can benefit from the possibilities to get data from The Maritime Health Research and Education-NET (MAHRE-Net). This program includes the permanent monitoring of the four main topics of the EU-Occupational Health strategy: Mental health, Ergonomics, Safety climate, and chemical-related Skin diseases. In the cohort design strategy, we will follow and support the young people from the maritime schools in their careers. The method is that we ask the classes of maritime students to fill out a short questionnaire about their health and wellbeing at the beginning of their studies. When they start their practice times at sea, they answer the same questions to identify the influence on their well-being on board. We measure how many of them leave the sea profession and we ask them how they think the profession can continue to be attractive to young people. It is intended to suggest and assist in the implementation of preventive measures based on the results.  Here, the students will be able to contribute to the overall new knowledge about working conditions in the maritime area or the land sector, in the same way as is practiced in the Mahre-Net program. Data may be from school classes in vocational schools and using the themes used in Mahre-Net or your choice. Projects with pooling of data from many countries and trends analysis and combining of different questionnaires will require experienced researchers and fundings. The skills gained in this course will enable you to pursue a career in research through universities or a combination of clinical healthcare practice research. The course is flexible and can be delivered on a full or part-time basis, attracting people who might also be working alongside their studies. In the end, an examen 45 min oral exam. After the defense of the Dissertation with external evaluators, a Ph.D.diploma in Health Science is handed out.

  1. ‘THE 17 GOALS | Sustainable Development. Accessed 1 May 2021. https://sdgs.un.org/goals
  2. https://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/Maritime_Health_Research_and_Education-NET/EDUCATION/Education_module_links/Diploma_1-