Stories[edit | edit source]
- Plot Diagram: Organizational tool used to show events in a story
- Exposition: or... Basic Situation is made up of three different parts. Characters, setting, and conflict.
- Hook: Catches reader's attention and makes him/her want to continue the story.
- Rising Action: Made up of the events that lead to the climax of the story.
- Climax: Highest Point of interest in the story where the conflict begins to be solved.
- Falling Action: Slowing down of the story line leading to the end.
- Resolution: End of the Story where the conflict has been handled and settled.
Characterization[edit | edit source]
A static character is a character in the story who stays the same throughout the story. He or she does not change personality/beliefs despite what happens within the story.
A dynamic character is a character in the story who does change because of the events that have occurred within the story.
Direct characterization is used when an author reveals a character's traits in a straightforward manner by informing the reader through narration or other characters.
- EX: Karen is bright, energetic and helpful.
Indirect characterization is used when an author reveals a character's traits/personality through his or her actions and dialogue.
- EX: As Karen looked over her test, she started to chew her pencil and shake her leg. [the personality: nervousness]
Irony[edit | edit source]
Difference between expectation and reality.
Dramatic Irony - When the reader knows something that the other character's don't know.
Situational Irony - What happens is the opposite of what is expected.
Verbal Irony- When the stated is the opposite of what the speaker means.
Conflict[edit | edit source]
Internal Conflict - Struggle between a character and himself/herself. Usually some type of moral dillema.
External Conflict - Struggle between two opposing forces. This is not the PROBLEM a character faces.
Man vs Man: Struggle between two people
Man vs Supernatural: struggle between a person and a supernatural being like a ghost
Man vs Machine: struggle between a person and technology
Man vs Nature: hurricane, blizzard, tornado
Point of View[edit | edit source]
Vintage point/perspective from which a story is told.
1st person: The narrator is the main character of the story. The story uses pronouns like I, me, my, us.
3rd person: The narrator is a character outside of the story. The narrator is NOT a character in the story.
Omniscient: Knows everything and sees everything in the story.
Limited: Narrator only knows the thoughts/feelings of one character.
Other devices[edit | edit source]
Dialogue - Conversation between 2+ characters in a piece of literature.
Setting - The time/place a story occurs.
Symbol - A person, place, thing, or event used to represent itself and something else including abstract ideas.
Complication: The problem the main character faces while trying to resolve the conflict.