Linux server administration

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Linux server administration is one of the server administration learning projects. Linux server administration studies the use of the Linux operating system as an all purpose server.

What is Linux?[edit]

Linux, or GNU/Linux, refers to any Unix-like computer operating system which uses the Linux kernel. It is one of the most prominent examples of open source development and free software as well as user generated software; its underlying source code is available for anyone to use, modify, and redistribute freely. See the Linux article at Wikipedia for much more information

Choosing a distribution[edit]

Linux distributions are available in a very wide variety. Choosing only one is a difficult task. Popular examples that have been around for a while are

Others like Knoppix offers live CD experience. See the Comparison of Linux distributions at Wikipedia for an exhaustive list

NOTE: Wikiversity runs from Wikimedia servers using several distributions including Red Hat Enterprise Linux and Ubuntu.

A curriculum for the first 6 months of using Linux[edit]

This is for future contributers to add to and develop.

Level 1 : Introduction to Linux

  • What is Linux?
  • How Linux Began and Origins of Linux
  • The GNU Project
  • Platforms, Applications & Distributions
  • Linux Resources
  • Minimum System Requirements
  • The Fedora Project
  • Red Hat Linux 7,8,9 vs. Enterprise 3.x
  • Chapter 1 Review

Level 2 : Linux Installation

  • Is Your Hardware Compatible?
  • System Requirements Table
  • Initiating an Installation
  • Hard Disk Management: fdisk, linux/mdadm, disk usage, blkid, lsblk
  • Selecting an Installation Method
  • Virtual Consoles
  • Initiation Installation from Boot Media
  • Welcome Screen and Boot Options
  • Language Selection
  • Keyboard & Mouse Configuration
  • Installation Type Options
  • Disk Partitioning Setup
  • Boot Loader Configuration
  • Network Configuration
  • Firewall Configuration
  • Language Support Selection
  • Time Zone Configuration: NTP services
  • Root Password Configuration
  • Authentication Configuration
  • Desktop Configuration
  • Demo - Fedora Installation
  • Directory structure[1]
  • Chapter 2 Review

Level 3 : Red Hat Package Manager "RPM"

  • What is RPM?
  • Demo - Reflection X
  • Downloading RPM's
  • RPM's 5 Modes of Operation
  • Installing with RPM
  • Installation Errors/Remedies
  • Uninstalling Packages
  • Upgrading RPM's
  • Freshening RPM's
  • Querying RPM's
  • Verifying RPM's
  • Additional RPM Resources
  • Other package management systems: dpkg, apt, yum
  • Chapter 3 Review

Level 4 : Managing Users

  • Linux User Types
  • Adding Users
  • Usernames
  • Passwords
  • User Home Directories
  • UID and GID
  • User Groups
  • User Primary vs. Private Groups
  • Sharing
  • Files Built When Users are Created
  • Files Checked by Bash
  • Activating the User Manager GUI
  • System Created Users & Groups
  • Command Line User Deletion
  • Chapter 4 Review

Level 5 : Partitioning and Filesystems

  • Devices & Device Nodes
  • IDE Devices
  • SCSI Devices
  • IDE Device Naming
  • SCSI Chain
  • Filesystem Management Commands
  • Partition Planning
  • Partition Types
  • Supported Filesystems
  • Creating Filesystems
  • Files: (touch (command))
  • Formatting devices: Floppies / USB
  • More Filesystem Details
  • Link Count
  • Mounting Filesystems
  • Unmounting Filesystems
  • Mount Command Options
  • Mounting Remote Filesystems
  • fstab File
  • Swap Space
  • Special Case: Swap
  • Special Case: Automounter
  • Quotas
  • Maintenance & Repair
  • Adding a New Hard Drive
  • Recovering a Partition
  • LVM and ZFS
  • Demo -fstab File
  • Chapter 5 Review

Level 6 : Backup and Restore

  • Types of Backups
  • Device Naming Conventions
  • Chapter 6 Review

Level 7 : Startup and Shutdown

  • The Boot Process
  • Run Levels
  • Configuring Process Fields
  • Inittab Example
  • In The Beginning.Init
  • The /etc/rc.d Directory
  • /etc/rcX.d Script Sequencing
  • Processes: ps and pstree utils
  • Stop & Stop Services: systemd
  • The /etc/rc.d/rc.local File
  • Shutting Down Properly
  • Methods of Rebooting
  • Booting into Single-User Mode
  • Creating a Boot Diskette
  • Demo - Startup & Shutdown Procedures
  • Chapter 7 Review

Level 8 : Compiling the Kernel

  • What is the Linux Kernel?
  • Why Compile the Kernel?
  • Before You Get Started
  • Four Kernel Upgrade Paths
  • Check Your Tool Kit
  • 4 Stages to Compile the Kernel
  • Patching the Kernel
  • Demo - Manually Compile the Kernel
  • Chapter 8 Review

Level 9 : Scheduling

  • 2 Major Scheduling Daemons
  • The /etc/crontab File
  • Simple /etc/crontab Example
  • Complex /etc/crontab Example
  • An actual /etc/crontab file
  • Sample /etc/cron.daily/ directory
  • Use /etc/cron.allow or /etc/cron.deny
  • Starting & Stopping cron
  • The at Command
  • Anacron
  • Starting & Stopping Anacron
  • Sample /etc/anacrontab File
  • Demo - Scheduling
  • Chapter 9 Review

Level 10 : Basic Networking Concepts

  • Platform Compatibility
  • Physical Network Support
  • Protocol Suite Support
  • Network Device Names
  • Network Kernel Modules
  • ifconfig Command
  • ifup & ifdown Scripts
  • Interface Configuration
  • Non-root User Control
  • Multiple IP's on a Single Interface
  • Client DHCP/BOOTP
  • Global Parameters
  • Configuration Utilities
  • Network Tools
  • Demo - Reconfigure Network Information
  • Demo - Sysconfig Directory
  • Chapter 10 Review

Level 11 : Printing

  • Linux Printing over the Last 2 Years
  • Setup Printing
  • Common Unix Printing System "CUPS"
  • Printing Flow in a CUPS Environment
  • CUPS Browser Interface
  • Linux-Supported Printers
  • Printer Configuration Tools
  • User Command Interface
  • Starting & Stopping Printing Services
  • lpr Examples
  • lpq Examples
  • lprm Examples
  • lpc Usage
  • Printing from Linux Applications
  • redhat-config-printer
  • Availability
  • Troubleshooting Printing
  • Chapter 11 Review

Level 12 : Linux Security

  • Basic Levels of Security
  • Physical Security
  • Grub Security
  • User-based Security
  • User Accounts & Patterns
  • Typical User No-No's
  • Delegating Root Authority
  • Password Security
  • Pluggable Authentication Modules "PAM"
  • Permissions
  • File and directory permissions
  • Controlling Permissions
  • Files & Filesystem Security
  • Filesystem Monitoring
  • Avoiding Trojan Horses
  • Encryption
  • Introduction to iptables
  • iptables Examples: Filters
  • iptables Examples: SNAT/DNAT
  • hardening[2]
  • Response Strategies
  • Demo - Base Permissions
  • Chapter 12 Review

Level 13 : Popular Linux Services

  • SAMBA Naming
  • SAMBA Overview
  • SAMBA Components
  • Exploring/Browsing Directories
  • Browsing Resources with Linux Commands
  • Letting Linux Use a Windows Printer
  • Official SAMBA Website
  • Apache Web Server
  • Apache Naming Confusion
  • Apache Configuration Files
  • Official Apache Website
  • What is Squid?
  • Demo - Connecting to a Linux Machine
  • Demo - Getting a list of Running Services

Level 14 : Operation and Monitoring

Level 15 : Performance and Troubleshooting

See also[edit]

  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Filesystem_Hierarchy_Standard
  • https://dev-sec.io/baselines/linux/