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"Law[1] is a system of rules and guidelines which are enforced through social institutions to govern behavior, wherever possible.[2] It shapes politics, economics and society in numerous ways and serves as a social mediator of relations between people."[3]

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Scale of justice 2 new.jpeg Subject classification: this is a law resource .


Notation: let the symbol Def. indicate that a definition is following.

Notation: let the symbols between [ and ] be replacement for that portion of a quoted text.

Notation: let the symbol ... indicate unneeded portion of a quoted text.

Sometimes these are combined as [...] to indicate that text has been replaced by ....


Def. a "characteristic or property that particular things have in common"[4] is called a universal.

"When we examine common words, we find that, broadly speaking, proper names stand for particulars, while other substantives, adjectives, prepositions, and verbs stand for universals."[5]

Such words as "entity", "object", "thing", and perhaps "body", words "connoting universal properties, ... constitute the very highest genus or "summum genus"" of a classification of universals.[6] To propose a definition for say a plant whose flowers open at dawn on a warm day to be pollinated during the day time using the word "thing", "entity", "object", or "body" seems too general and is.

To help with definitions, their meanings and intents, there is the learning resource theory of definition.

Control groups[edit]

This is an image of a Lewis rat. Credit: Charles River Laboratories.

The findings demonstrate a statistically systematic change from the status quo or the control group.

“In the design of experiments, treatments [or special properties or characteristics] are applied to [or observed in] experimental units in the treatment group(s).[7] In comparative experiments, members of the complementary group, the control group, receive either no treatment or a standard treatment.[8]"[9]

Proof of concept[edit]

Def. a “short and/or incomplete realization of a certain method or idea to demonstrate its feasibility"[10] is called a proof of concept.

Def. evidence that demonstrates that a concept is possible is called proof of concept.

The proof-of-concept structure consists of

  1. background,
  2. procedures,
  3. findings, and
  4. interpretation.[11]

Proof of technology[edit]

"[T]he objective of a proof of technology is to determine the solution to some technical problem, such as how two systems might be integrated or that a certain throughput can be achieved with a given configuration."[12]

Def. "[a]n original object or form which is a basis for other objects, forms, or for its models and generalizations"[13] is called a prototype.

Def. "[a]n early sample or model built to test a concept or process"[13] is called a prototype.

Def. "[a]n instance of a category or a concept that combines its most representative attributes"[13] is called a prototype.

Def. "[t]o test something using the conditions that it was designed to operate under, especially out in the real world instead of in a laboratory or workshop"[14] is called "field-test", or a field test.

A "proof-of-technology prototype ... typically implements one critical scenario to exercise or stress the highest-priority requirements."[15]

"[A] proof-of-technology test demonstrates the system can be used"[16].

"The strongest proof of technology performance is based on consistency among multiple lines of evidence, all pointing to similar levels of risk reduction."[17]


"The dominant group whose values are expressed in the law is only one of many groups which are integrated in the moral and political fabric of the community."[18]

Theoretical law[edit]

"It is the feeling on the part of the dominant group of being entitled to either exclusive or prior rights in many important areas of life."[19]


  1. the "body of rules and standards issued by a government, or to be applied by courts and similar authorities",[20]
  2. a "written or understood rule that concerns behaviours and their consequences",[20]
  3. a "well-established, observed characteristic or behavior",[20] or
  4. a "statement that is true under specified conditions"[20]

is called a law.

Law is a "system of rules".[21]

Law was "the command of a sovereign, backed by the threat of a sanction".[22]

Law as an "interpretive concept" to achieve justice.[23]

Law is an "authority" to mediate people's interests.[24]






See also[edit]


  1. From Old English lagu; legal comes from Latin legalis, from lex "law", "statute" (Law, Online Etymology Dictionary; Legal, Merriam-Webster's Online Dictionary)
  2. Robertson, Crimes against humanity, 90; see "analytical jurisprudence" for extensive debate on what law is; in The Concept of Law.
  3. "Law, In: Wikipedia". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. January 14, 2013. Retrieved 2013-01-14. 
  4. "universal, In: Wiktionary". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. May 28, 2014. Retrieved 2014-06-04. 
  5. Bertrand Russel (1912). Chapter 9, In: The Problems of Philosophy. 
  6. Irving M. Copi (1955). Introduction to Logic. New York: The MacMillan Company. pp. 472. 
  7. Klaus Hinkelmann, Oscar Kempthorne (2008). Design and Analysis of Experiments, Volume I: Introduction to Experimental Design (2nd ed.). Wiley. ISBN 978-0-471-72756-9. 
  8. R. A. Bailey (2008). Design of comparative experiments. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-68357-9. 
  9. "Treatment and control groups, In: Wikipedia". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. May 18, 2012. Retrieved 2012-05-31. 
  10. "proof of concept, In: Wiktionary". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. November 10, 2012. Retrieved 2013-01-13. 
  11. Ginger Lehrman and Ian B Hogue, Sarah Palmer, Cheryl Jennings, Celsa A Spina, Ann Wiegand, Alan L Landay, Robert W Coombs, Douglas D Richman, John W Mellors, John M Coffin, Ronald J Bosch, David M Margolis (August 13, 2005). "Depletion of latent HIV-1 infection in vivo: a proof-of-concept study". Lancet 366 (9485): 549-55. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(05)67098-5. Retrieved 2012-05-09. 
  12. "Proof of concept, In: Wikipedia". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. December 27, 2012. Retrieved 2013-01-13. 
  13. 13.0 13.1 13.2 "prototype, In: Wiktionary". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. December 8, 2013. Retrieved 2014-01-03. 
  14. "field-test, In: Wiktionary". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. August 5, 2012. Retrieved 2014-01-03. 
  15. A. Liu; I. Gorton (March/April 2003). "Accelerating COTS middleware acquisition: the i-Mate process". Software, IEEE 20 (2): 72-9. doi:10.1109/MS.2003.1184171. Retrieved 2012-02-15. 
  16. Rhea Wessel (January 25, 2008). "Cargo-Tracking System Combines RFID, Sensors, GSM and Satellite". RFID Journal: 1-2. Retrieved 2012-02-15. 
  17. P. Suresh, C. Rao, M.D. Annable and J.W. Jawitz (August 2000). E. Timothy Oppelt. ed. In Situ Flushing for Enhanced NAPL Site Remediation: Metrics for Performance Assessment, In: Abiotic In Situ Technologies for Groundwater Remediation Conference. Cincinnati, Ohio: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. pp. 105. 
  18. RC Fuller (1942). "Morals and the criminal law". Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology. Retrieved 2012-04-26. 
  19. Herbert Blumer (Spring 1958). "Race Prejudice as a Sense of Group Position". Pacific Sociological Review 1 (1): 3-7. doi:10.2307/1388607. Retrieved 2012-12-17. 
  20. 20.0 20.1 20.2 20.3 "law, In: Wiktionary". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. June 19, 2014. Retrieved 2014-06-27. 
  21. Hart & Campbell. The Contribution of Legal Studies. pp. 184. 
  22. John Austin. "Bix". Palo Alto, California USA: Stanford University. Retrieved 2014-06-27. 
  23. Dworkin. Law's Empire. pp. 410. 
  24. Raz. The Authority of Law. pp. 3-36. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]