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The conditions in the jails in Pakistan are deplorable; most of the prisons are more than 100 years old. Credit: Anees Jillani.

"Law's [1] are systems of rules and guidelines, which are enforced through social institutions to govern behavior, wherever possible.[2] It shapes politics, economics and society in numerous ways and serves as a social mediator of relations between people."[3]


Main source: Notations

Notation: Let the symbol © indicate that entity to which it is affixed is copyrighted.

Notation: Let the following symbols © 2011 John Doe indicate a notice of copyright. The year the copyright occurred (the author or creator composed the work) was 2011, the apparent author's name was John Doe (a generic used only as an example, Jane Doe is also used).


Main source: Radiation

"The dominant group whose values are expressed in the law is only one of many groups which are integrated in the moral and political fabric of the community."[4]

Theoretical law[edit]

"It is the feeling on the part of the dominant group of being entitled to either exclusive or prior rights in many important areas of life."[5]


  1. the "body of rules and standards issued by a government, or to be applied by courts and similar authorities",[6]
  2. a "written or understood rule that concerns behaviours and their consequences",[6]
  3. a "well-established, observed characteristic or behavior",[6] or
  4. a "statement that is true under specified conditions"[6]

is called a law.

Law is a "system of rules".[7]

Law was "the command of a sovereign, backed by the threat of a sanction".[8]

Law as an "interpretive concept" to achieve justice.[9]

Law is an "authority" to mediate people's interests.[10]



written "law, as laid down by the legislature"[11] or legislated "rule of society which has been given the force of law by those it governs"[12] is called a statute.

Law professors[edit]

"Unfortunately, performance is often hampered by negative feelings, which would be true for any group that had been saddled with centuries of oppression by the dominant group."[13]

"Because the token is highly visible, she bears more performance pressure than members of the dominant group.8 The dynamics created by a skewed group context are exacerbated in the case of the African American female law professor."[14]


Main source: Hypotheses
  1. Eventually laws are passed by free people.

See also[edit]


  1. From Old English lagu; legal comes from Latin legalis, from lex "law", "statute" (Law, Online Etymology Dictionary; Legal, Merriam-Webster's Online Dictionary)
  2. Robertson, Crimes against humanity, 90; see "analytical jurisprudence" for extensive debate on what law is; in The Concept of Law.
  3. Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1 at line 3505: bad argument #1 to 'pairs' (table expected, got nil).
  4. RC Fuller (1942). "Morals and the criminal law". Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology. Retrieved 2012-04-26. 
  5. Herbert Blumer (Spring 1958). "Race Prejudice as a Sense of Group Position". Pacific Sociological Review 1 (1): 3-7. doi:10.2307/1388607. Retrieved 2012-12-17. 
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1 at line 3505: bad argument #1 to 'pairs' (table expected, got nil).
  7. Hart & Campbell. The Contribution of Legal Studies. pp. 184. 
  8. John Austin. "Bix". Palo Alto, California USA: Stanford University. Retrieved 2014-06-27. 
  9. Dworkin. Law's Empire. pp. 410. 
  10. Raz. The Authority of Law. pp. 3-36. 
  11. Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1 at line 3505: bad argument #1 to 'pairs' (table expected, got nil).
  12. Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1 at line 3505: bad argument #1 to 'pairs' (table expected, got nil).
  13. Roy L. Brooks (1985). "Life after tenure: Can minority law professors avoid the Clyde Ferguson syndrome". USF Law Review 20 (28): 419. Retrieved 2012-04-26. 
  14. Linda S. Greene (1990). "Tokens, Role Models, and Pedagogical Politics: Lamentations of an African American Female Law Professor". Berkeley Women's Law Journal 6: 81. Retrieved 2012-12-17. 

External links[edit]

{{Humanities resources}}