Julius Caesar

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Terminology[edit]

  • Augurers - Fortelling the future/Omen
  • Awl - Instrument used in shoemaking
  • Bondsmen - A slave
  • Commons - Public area
  • Consuls - One of the two chief officers in charge of administrating the law
  • Cobbler - Shoemaker
  • Dictator - Single ruler with too much power
  • Plebians (the vulgar, the rabble, rabblement, mob, rout, blocks, stones, “worse than senseless things,” (sweaty and with stinking breath))- Commoners
  • Praetor - Elected official with judicial duties
  • Rabblement/Rout - Has to do with a mob that makes a disturbance
  • Senator - Member of the Senate, supreme Roman counsel.
  • Tribune - An elected city-official with the responsibility of protecting the commoners.
  • Legion - Foot soldiers with mounted cavalry
  • Parley - A conference between enemies under a truce to discuss terms
  • Tributaries - Subjects brought from other countries to Rome for ransom
  • Withal - Nevertheless
  • Vexed - Anger/Provoked
  • Cogitations - Thoughts/analysis
  • Yoke - Fasciner to hold animals in control (huge; a big piece of wood); Yoke of Tyranny - When a tyrant controls you.
  • Tyranny - Cruel, unjust use of power.
  • Tempest - Storm
  • Portentous - Warning/Threatining
  • Construe - Interpret
  • Taper - Candle
  • Adder - Snake
  • Remorse - Feeling sorry for what you've done
  • Insurrection - Civil War
  • Visage - Face
  • Carrion - Dead animal
  • Musing - Meditate
  • Mortified - Death/Embarrased
  • Augers - People who interpert omens
  • Whelped - Animal birth
  • Ague - Fever with chills
  • Security - Overconfident
  • Prithee - I pray thee/I wish that you would do this
  • Sooth - Truth
  • Redress - To correct wrongs
  • Puissant - Powerful/Mighty
  • Fawning - Flattering someone to the extreme to get favor
  • Firmament - Vast expanse of heavens
  • Enfranchisement - Your rights as a citizen
  • Vouchsafe - Allow
  • Hart - Deer
  • General coffers - Public treasury
  • Mantle - Cape
  • Drachma - Greek silver coin
  • Issue - Children/Heirs
  • Choler - Anger
  • Exigent - Critical moment
  • Entrails - Insides/Intestines
  • The elements (last page) - Four Humours (melancholy, phlegmatic, choleric, sanguise)
  • Usurp - To seize power without the right to do so

Act I[edit]

Intro to Explication, Act I[edit]

Act I--know plot, characterization, themes, literary devices; mostly, if I give you a line, know what the poetry is saying, both literally and on a deeper level, as in this example:

“Why dost thou with thy best apparel on?”
--literal meaning? Why do you have your best clothes on?
--deeper significance? They don’t want the commoners dressed up for Caesar because they don’t like him and don’t want Caesar to be honored.

Literary devices:

Puns: soles/souls surgeon to old shoes…when in great danger I re-cover them with awl/withal

“chimney tops” = anachronism

2 examples of personification regarding the Tiber River
1) Cassius and Caesar jumping into the “troubled” Tiber.
2) “Angry” river

The metaphor of Caesar at end of scene 1: A bird raising above the skies of Rome—growing feathers plucked from his wings… if we pluck his feathers from his wing, he would fall down and be on our level again.

also “I your glass” in scene 2 Style of language: note blank verse in Marullus’s speech vs. commoners’ prose

Pronunciation of poetry: * note manipulation of accent for rhythm and meter accented last syllables increase the number of syllables pronounced, ex.: “barren touched, vexed” eliminated letters to decrease syllables, ex. o’er, ta’en

Themes--1) Shakespeare’s portrayal of the lower classes throughout the play They pun “You blocks, you stones, you worse than senseless things!” also “Idle creatures” Significance

2) Superstition “The barren, touched in this holy chase,/shake off their sterile curse.”

vs. Caesar’s reaction to Soothsayer:

Literary device: foreshadowing:

Characterization: see Cassius and Brutus’ first exchange Important stuff going on here lays the ground work for important characteristics, motivations:

Brutus’s line “chew upon this.”


Literary device: similes
1)The fault, dear Brutus, is not in our stars but in ourselves - It is not fate, but it is more of what we do.
2)
3)

Allusion

Important Quotations--know both literal meanings and deeper meanings.

“he doth bestride the narrow world/Like a Colossus, and we petty men/Walk under his huge legs and peep about/To find ourselves dishonorable graves./Men at some time are masters of their fates./The fault, dear Brutus, is not in our stars/But in ourselves, that we are underlings.”


“Let me have men about me that are fat.”


“It was Greek to me.”


Connotative language:

    • When I ask you a question about the play, answer it with a quotation; do not summarize it “modern-speak.” The LANGUAGE is the most important reason we study the play!

Figurative language: This is harder to explain than any mere classification of a literary device. It is beautiful, poetic imagery that elevates a mood to something higher.

A 20th century example: President Reagan’s speech to families of astronauts who died in the Challenger explosion:

“They slipped the surly bonds of earth to touch the face of God.”

Analysis of the End of Act I[edit]

Very emotional Casca and a calm Cicero. Cicero and Brutus are Stoics. They ascribe to the philosophy of Stoicism which suggests that logic and reason should govern human, not emotion. Brutus is being extremely rational and unemotional, he will not communicate with his wife and he feels that he can't act ruffled, but calm and reasonable.

A lot of the lower classes aren't as intelligent, so they respond to emotion (Antony's speech) rather than logic (Brutus' speech).

Emotion and Imagination vs. Logic and reason

Take note that the Romans value moderation.

Characteristics shown during the Play
  • Leadership/Ambition; Constant, strong, pragmatic (Julius Ceasar is proud of this; see of his reaction to the soothsayer warning him about the Idles of March)
  • Persuasion/Manipulation
  • Interpretation/Misinterpretation (the augurers with Ceasar, warning him about the day of Idles of March after cutting open a beast and finding no heart)
  • Confidence/Overconfidence [security]
  • Deception (Cassius is deceiving Brutus)
  • Order vs. Disorder (Romans love things to be in order, look at the military and their buildings; Disorder leads to chaos)
Political Dangers in 44BC Romes
    • Instability of the State vs. Danger of Tyranny of the Leader
    • Reasons for the conspiracy: Caesar is because they believe he has gotten too much power, but opposers to this believe that murder is not the answer.
    • Propaganda ("spin" on the issue for public view; how communication is displayed in this play and how miscommunication is displayed in this play)
    • 2 words: "fear" and "why?" appears very often about the murder of Caesar by his friends.

Plutarch’s The Life of Caesar[edit]

Plutarch was the first modern biographer, born in central Greece about a 100 years after the death of Julius Caesar. Particularly interested in the characteristics of famous people, he wrote biographies of ten important Romans, among them, Pompey, Caesar, Cicero, Brutus, and Antony.

His major work was his Parallel Lives, a work of 46 biographies written in Greek in a format of pairs, comparing an important figure from ancient Greece with one from ancient Rome. For example, Julius Caesar is compared to Alexander the Great. An English translation of this important work was published in England in 1579 and was Shakespeare’s source for his play, Julius Caesar.

Read the excerpt in your book and answer the following questions. Be looking for this information and compare this “history” with Shakespeare’s dramatic interpretation.

1. What made Caesar most hated?

His passion to be a king

2. Summarize the incident in the senate where Caesar uncovered his throat saying he was ready to receive the blow from anyone.

He was voted for a huge amount of honors. The consuls and the praetors came up to him to give him his honors. Instead of taking the honors, he disrespected them [including the Senate behind them] and stated that they ought to cut down his honors. This offended the Senate and the people, and so they left. He, Caesar, realized what he did and told his friends that they may kill him if they wish. He later said that he acted this way because of a mental illness, which played a role in his way of thinking.

3. Later, he excused this behavior on account of his illness, epilepsy, saying those afflicted are subject to fits of giddiness and may fall into convulsions; however, this excuse was not true.

4. What events take place at the feast of Lupercalia?

Caesar was sitting on a golden throne, watching the Lupercalia, when Antony (a consul who was taking part in the races) held out his diadem to him. Many people clapped when Caesar rejected the diadem as opposed to when Antony offered the diadem to him.

The consul at the time was Antony, who was running in the race.

5. Of what is the laurel or diadem a symbol? Royalty
How did Caesar test the waters of his popularity? By rejecting the diadem
When they were lukewarm, what was the laurel used to decorate? Royal Diadems
What positions do Flavius and Marullus hold? Tribunes
What does that job entail? Gaurding the interests of the people
What did Flavius and Marullus do to the men who had been the first to salute Caesar as King? Took them to prison
To what crowd reaction? Applauses
The people called them Brutuses meaning putting an end to placing power in one man
Angry, Caesar retaliated how? He deprived Flavius and Marullus of tribuneship

6. The people at this time began thinking a lot of what political figure? Marcus Brutus However, he had been shown a special favor by Caesar and trust. What position did he hold? Preator --> Consul who had been the rival candidate? Cassius

7. What is the deal with the notes left for Brutus? They were negative to Cassius and positive and pride-enrichening for Brutus
Once Cassius saw they were having an effect on Brutus’ pride, what did he do? He redoubled his efforts to incite Brutus more

8. Caesar was suspicious of Cassius. Why would he say he is not afraid of fat, long-haired people, but of the pale thin ones? Fat = Satisfied, enjoying life, partying, eating; Thin, pale = Not outside, inside, plotting and scheming

Who are the pale thin ones? Brutus and Cassius

9. What does Plutarch call Fate? The unexpected and unavoidable

Give examples of the “strange signs” seen.
in Nature: Crashing sounds were heard from everywhere in the night, individual birds came down in groups
with Fire: A crowd of men was seen all in flame; A soldier's slave's hand sprung into a flame, but when the flame went out, the man was seen uninjured
in making a sacrifice to the gods: When Ceasar was making a sacrifice, he found his animal for sacrificing was missing its heart
with a soothsayer: A truth-sayer warned Caesar to be on guard on the Ides of March
with Caesar’s wife, Calpurnia: She was dreaming about the gable ornament of the house being torn down and that she was holding his [Ceasar] murdered body in her arms and was crying over it.
How did Decious Brutus counteract her influence? He told Caesar not to disrespect the Senate and to show up on that day so he can be elected king
Who was Artemidorus and why did he have knowledge of the conspiracy?
A Cnidian by birth, a teacher of Greek philosophy; He became friends with Brutus and his friends

10. Just before the attack, Caesar turned his eyes where? The statue of Pompey Contrary to his usual rationalistic views, what happened? Prayed for the statue's goodwill

11. Antony was purposely delayed while Cimber petitioned Caesar about what? His brother in exile


12. Who struck the first blow? Casca Note the simultaneous cries out in Latin and in Greek.

13. What had the conspirators all agreed to beforehand about the killing? They must all take part in the killing


14. What did Ceasar do when he saw Brutus participating? He covered his head with his toga and sank down to the ground Where does Caesar fall? Against the pedestal on which the statue of Pompey stood

16. Brutus intended to make a speech, but why could he not? The senators rushed out of the building and fled to their homes, confused as to what has happened


17. The conspirators marched together to the Senate and called out: The liberty had been restored

The next day at the speech Brutus makes, silence indicated they both had pity for Caesar but they respect Brutus.

18. What decree did the Senate pass so that they thought all matters were well-settled? A decree of amnesty (general pardon); Caesar to be worshipped as a God; Appropriate honors were given to Brutus and his friends

What was discovered when the will of Caesar was read? He left a considerable legacy to every Roman citizen What was the reaction when the people actually saw the wounds in his body? They broke the discipline boundaries set in place

What happened to the man named Cinna who was a friend of Caesar? He had a strange dream and went and payed respects to Caesar; Everyone knew about a man named "Cinna", but eventually, there was another man named "Cinna" and he was killed

What effect did this act have on Brutus and Cassius? It frightened them, so they withdrew from the city.

19. How old was Caesar when he died? 56 How long had he outlived Pompey? 4 years For supreme power, he had pursued such a dangerous life, but the only fruit he reaped was an empty name and a glory which made him hated by his citizens, but that devine power remained active as an avenger of his assassination.

20. What was remarkable about Cassius’s death? He killed himself with the same dagger he killed Ceasar with What 3 supernatural events followed? Firstly, the great comet which shined for 7 nights after Caesar's murder dissapeared. Secondly, the sun dimmed and vegetation was not lucious and beautiful. Thirdly, Brutus was about to take his army across from Abydos when he saw a frightening man with a severe expression sitting silently by his bed. He turned out to be his evil genius and he, Brutus, should be prepared near Philippi. Brutus accepted it and battled at Philippi. In the first battle, Brutus conquered his enemies, but in the night before the second battle, the same phantom visitred him again. He did not say anything, but Brutus knew his terrible fate. After surviving his fightings, he put his sword to his chest and killed himself ontop of a steep, rocky place.

Act III[edit]

Classical rhetoric analysis.
  • Logos-Pothos-Ethos
    • logical argumentation to prove your point; the emotional argument to prove your point; ethical credibility (what is credible about you?)
  • Counterargument: An argument to oppose a set of ideas. You would do this to show that you're open-minded.
  • Verbal Irony: When someone says one thing but means something that is completely different. When Antony is calling Brutus an honorable man in his speech, this is an example.
  • Personification: Apostrophe--Direct address to an abstract quality. Example: "Death, be not proud".
  • Parallel Structure
  • Refutation of an argument: Disproving an argument with examples.
  • Anecdote: A personal story to agree with something.
  • Deductive Reasoning/Syllogism: If it rains, the picnic will be canceled. It is a form of rational and logical reasoning. Brutus uses deductive reasoning.
  • Plain Folks Device: Make yourself plain and simple to the crowd (that he is equal/on their side) so that they can listen.
  • Punctuation
  • Vivid Imagery
  • Call To Action: Native Son with Bigger: call to action to do something about the racism towards the blacks.
  • Charged Words: Words that are inflammatory.
  • Redundancy: Grammatical mistakes for effect.
  • Alliteration: Repeating consonants.
  • Comparitive and superlative degrees: If you are comparing three, you use -est, if you are comparing two, you use -er. "More" is comparative while "Most" is superlative.
  • Appeal to greed: "I do not want to tell you what's in the will"--trigger the greediness in someone.

Act IV[edit]

Julius Caesar, Act 4, Brown

Scene 1[edit]

List the Second Triumvirate: Antony, Octavius, and Lepidus
Evidence that they are ruthless: Drawing up a hitlist of their political rivals. This list even includes family members.

Antony’s opinion of him: He is useless and only good for running errands
Octavius’s opinion of Lepidus: He is an honorable soldier

Scenes 2-3[edit]

Cassius and Brutus now bicker—why? Money (gold) needed to fund the war

Brutus accuses Cassius of what? He accuses him of giving his position (offices) to unworthy people (undeservers) for gold
What is the famous figure of speech to connote this accusation? "An itching palm"

Cassius’s answer to the charge? He denies it and states that if he was anyone other than himself (Brutus), he would've killed him for saying that

Cassius says he is better to make the decisions because he is older and more experienced.

Brutus attacks Cassius’s “humour” which is dishonor.

What does “durst not mean”? "Dared to"

A poet goes in—what does poetry represent here, in the midst of war? Peace and consolation

Brutus says he is sick of many griefs and FINALLY (3 scenes and 147 lines into the 3rd scene) announces to his friend that his wife is dead. How? She committed suicide by swallowing burning coals when Brutus was gone and Octavius and Antony were growing stronger (Rome was falling apart).

What does his waiting this long say about his bickering? He's been suppressing his emotions
Why did he not tell Cassius immediately? It is hard for him to convey his emotions

Act 4 reveals the big conflict we saw in act 3 which is Brutus vs. Antony (the first triumvirate vs. the second triumvirate)

Is Brutus ready to talk about his emotions now? No

How many senators have been killed by the Second Triumvirate? 70-100 (one of whom, very respected is Cicero).

What is Cassius’s advice on them marching to Philippi? We should wait for the enemies to come to our camp Why? It will tire them out

Do Cassius and Brutus make up? Yes

Music is played and all fall asleep except Brutus. He sees a ghost. Think of what function music might play here. It attempts to make Brutus fall asleep as it is a sleepy tone

  • Who does the ghost say he is? Brutus' evil spirit

What else does he say? He will be seen by Brutus at Philippi

Act V[edit]

Scene 1: The armies meet on the plains of Philippi
They “would have parley” means: talk terms of peace

The 4 preceding acts have all been about persuasion, words and the power of language.

List 2 more famous lines that show all the talk about words now.
1) "Words before blows"
2) "Good words are better than bad strokes"

Before they actually battle, there is a War of Words between Antony/Octavius and Brutus/Cassius. What are some of the accusations, name-calling? Peevish schoolboy; Curr; Ape and a hound; Reveller


In Shakespeare’s time, Elizabethans considered language and its power an important issue. John’s gospel refers to “The Word” made flesh. In whom is that done? Jesus Christ (note the first use of the word “birthday” in line 72—Shakespeare coined the word) Cassius notes a very bad omen. What was it? Travelling from Sardis, he encountered two eagles who fell on their front flag and perched on it. The next morning, they've flown away and ravens and crows came instead, flying over thier heads and looking down upon them.

Brutus tells Cassius he will never return to Rome in what condition? In chains (defeat)

The scene ends with the poignant parting of 2 friends, Brutus and Cassius.

Scene 2: Brutus sends Messala the message urging Cassius to engage the enemy at once, suggesting what? The battle is about to start
The scene is very short with quick language. The effect? Frantic effect

Scene 3 is all about miscommunication: “Alas, thou hast misconstrued everything” (3.3.91)

Pindarus misconstrues an action he sees on the battlefield. What does he say about Titinius? He is approached by horsemen and he is taken as a prisoner

Why is are 2 syllables changed to one in this word? To provide a miscommunication (make the story more interesting)

What action does the incorrect report prompt regarding Cassius? To commit suicide

What are his dying words? Caesar, you have been revenged by the sword that killed you

What does that symbolize? Revenge

Then Titinius returns and says the “sun of Rome has set” meaning: The leading power of Rome is gone

Messala speaks in figurative language addressing several abstract qualities. Define the term “apostrophe.” Direct address to an abstract quality

Explain the symbolism of the metaphor.

When Titinius kills himself, Brutus observes: Caesar's ghost still walks on the Earth, turning his enemies' swords into their stomachs; He points out that they're the best of Romans and Rome will never produce a Cassius and a Titinius like them ever.

Scene 4: What does Lucilius attempt to do? Pretend that he is Brutus

Scene 5: Brutus tells Volumnius “I know my hour is come.” Why? The ghost of Caesar appeared twice to him at night--once at Sardis and last night in the Philippi fields

Who does Brutus rely on to assist in his suicide? Volumnius to hold the sword handle while he runs into it

In telling his servant goodbye, he says he feels joy that no men were untrue to him

His dying words are: Caesar, now be still. I killed not thee with half so good a will.

Antony, Brutus’ enemy observes: He was the most noblest of all the Romans, he acted (assassination) from honesty and not from envy as the rest. He was a gentle soul.

Who speaks the last lines of the play? Octavius

How are his words significant? He shows that you have to respect even your enemies

Quotes[edit]

Act I: (Take heed of the plebian's puns at the start of the play) You blocks, you stones, you worse than senseless things! Hence, Home, you idle creatures, get you home! (1.1) These growing feathers plucked from Caesar’s wing Will make him fly an ordinary pitch Who else would soar above the view of men And keep us all in servile fearfulness. (1.1)

Forget not, in your speed, Antonius, To touch Calpurnia, for our elders say The barren, touched in this holy chase, Shake off their sterile curse. (1.2)

Beware the Ides of March. (1.2)

Well, honor is the subject of my story. I cannot tell what you and other men Think of this life, but as for my single self …. (1.2)

…he doth bestride the narrow world Like a Colossus, and we petty men Walk under his huge legs and peep about To find ourselves dishonorable graves. Men at some time are masters of their fates. The fault, dear Brutus, is not in our stars, But in ourselves, that we are underlings.

Let me have men about me that are fat, Sleek-headed men, and such as sleep o’ nights. Yond Cassius has a lean and hungry look. He thinks too much, such men are dangerous.

[ In 1.2. Caesar refused the crown thrice. Then he fell down. Brutus says: “’Tis very like--he hath the falling sickness.” Casca reports (in PROSE) that “when Caesar perceived the common herd was glad he refused the crown, he…offered them his throat to cut.” Cassius asked if the great orator Cicero said anything in response.] Casca answered “Aye, he spoke Greek.” Cassius then asked “To what effect?” Casca said: “those who understood it smiled at one another and shook their heads—but for mine own part, it was Greek to me.”

Act 2:

My ancestors did from the streets of Rome The Tarquin drive, when he was called a king. (2.1)

Is it excepted I should know now secrets That appertain to you? Am I yourself But, as it were, in sort or limitation, To keep with you at meals, Comfort your bed And talk to you sometimes? Dwell I but in the suburbs Of your good pleasure? (2.1)

A lioness hath whelped in the streets. And graves have yawned and yielded up their dead. (2.1)

When beggars dies, there are no comets seen. The heavens themselves blaze forth the death of princes. (2.1)

Cowards die many times before their deaths; The valiant never taste of death but once. (2.1)

Danger knows full well That Caesar is more dangerous than he. We are two lions littered in one day, And I the elder and more terrible, And Caesar shall go forth. (2.1)

If thou beest not immortal, look about you. Security gives way to conspiracy. The mighty gods defend thee! (2.3)

Act 3: Know Caesar doth not wrong, nor without cause Will he be satisfied. (3.1)

But I am constant as the Northern Star Of whose true-fixed and resting quality There is no fellow in the firmament. (3.1)

Et tu, Brute?—Then fall Caesar! (3.1)

…Stoop, Romans, stoop, And let us bathe our hands in Caesars blood Up to the elbows, and besmear our swords. The walk we forth, even to the market place And waving our red weapons o’er or heads, Let’s all cry “Peace, freedom, and liberty!” (3.1) Stoop then, and wash. How many ages hence Shall this our lofty scene be acted over In states unborn and accents yet unknown! (3.1)

O mighty Caesar! Dost thou lie so low? Are all thy conquests, glories, triumphs, spoils, Shrunk to this little measure? (3.1)

O world, thou wast the forest to this hart, And this, ideed, O world, the heart of thee. How like a deer stricken by many princes Dost thou her lie! (3.1)

O pardon me, thou bleeding piece of earth, That I am meek and gentle with these butchers! (3.1)

Cry “Havoc,” and let slip the dog of war… (3.1)

Scene 2:

Romans, countrymen and lovers, hear me for my cause…. (3. 2) [PROSE]

[PROSE] Not that I loved Caesar less, but that I loved Rome more…As Caesar loved me, I weep for him; as he was fortunate, I rejoice at it; as he was valiant, I honor him; But as he was ambitious, I slew him.

Friends, Romans, countrymen, lend my your ears. I come to bury Caesar, not to praise him. The evil that men do lives after them; The good is oft interred with their bones. (3.2)

Ambition should be made of sterner stuff. (3.2)

O judgment, thou hast fled to brutish beasts, And men have lost their reason! (3.2)

It is not meet you know how Caesar loved you. You are not wood, you are not stones, but men; (3.2)

This was the most unkindest cut of all. Ingratitude, more strong than traitors’ arms, Quite vanquished him. Then burst his might heart… (3.2)

I have neither wit nor words, nor worth, Action, nor utterance, nor the power of speech, To stir men’s blood. I only speak right on, I tell you that which you yourselves do know, Show you sweet Caesar’s wounds, poor poordumb mouths, And bid them speak for me. But were I Brutus, And Brutus Antony, there were an Antony Would ruffle up your spirits, and put a tongue In every wound of Caesar that should move The stones of Rome to rise and mutiny. (3. 2) First Citizen: Tear him to pieces. He’s a conspirator. Cinna: I am Cinna the Poet, I am Cinna the poet. Fourth Citizen: Tear him for his bad verses. Tear him for his bad verses. Cinna: I am not Cinna the conspirator. Fourth Citizen: It is not matter, his name’s Cinna. (3.3)

But he’s a tried and valiant soldier. So is my horse, Octavius,… He must be taught, and trained, and bid go forth. (4.1)

“an itching palm” (4.3)

Impatient of my absence, Andgrief that young Octavius with Mark Antony Have made themselves so strong…she fell distrat, And swallowed fire. (4. 3)

To tell thee thou shalt see me at Philippi. (4.3)

They stand and would have parley. (5.1)

Words before blows. Is it so, countrymen? (5.1)

Good words are better than bad strokes, Octavius. (5.1)

This is my birthday… (5.1) [first use of the word “birthday”—Shakespeare coined it!]

Two might eagles fell, and there they perched, Gorging and feeding from our soldiers’ hands, Who to Philippi here consorted us. This morning are they fled away and gone, And in their steads do ravens, crows and kites Fly o’er our heads and downward look on us. As we were sickly prey. Their shadows seem A canopy most fatal, under which Our army lies, ready to give up the ghost. (5.1)

No, Cassius, no. Think not, thou noble Roman, That ever Brutus will go bound to Rome. He bears too great a mind. But this same day Must end that work the ides of March begun, And whether we shall meet again I know not. Therefore our everlasting farewell take. Forever and forever, farewell, Cassius! If we do meet again, why we shall smile; If not, why then this parting was well made. (5.1) Now Titinius! Now some light. Oh, he lights too. And hark! They shout for joy.

Caesar, thou art revenged, Even with the sword that killed thee. (5.3)

O hateful error, melancholy’s child, Why dost thou show to the apt thoughts of me The things that are not? O error soon conceived, Thou never comest unto a happy birth, But kill’st the mother that engendered thee! (5.3)

Alas, thou has misconstrued everything! (5.3)

O Julius Caesar, thou art might yet! Thy spirit walks abroad and turns our swords In our own proper entrails. (5.3)

There is a tide in the affairs of men Which, taken at the flood, leads on to fortune… (5.3)

Caesar, now be still. I killed not thee with half so good a will. (5.5)

This was the noblest Roman of them all. All the conspirators, save only he, Did that they did in envy of great Caesar. He only, in a general honest thought And common good to all, made one of them. His life was gently, and the elements So mixed in him that Nature might stand And say to all the world, “This was a man!”