Introductory Ancient Greek Language/Lesson 5

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Present Indicative, Active, Middle-Passive[edit | edit source]

Active, Middle, and Passive Voice[edit | edit source]

Indicative Mood[edit | edit source]

Present Indicative tense[edit | edit source]

The suffixes are:

Active Middle-Passive
Singular 1st Person -ομαι
2nd Person -εις -ει
3rd Person -ει -εται
Plural 1st Person -ομεν -ομεθα
2nd Person -ετε -εσθε
3rd Person -ουσι(ν) -ονται
Infinitive -ειν -εσθαι

One of the simplest verbs in Ancient Greek, and maybe the simplest, will be used in charts for almost all tenses: the verb λύω, which means free, release in the active, and having a specific meaning of ransom in the middle.

Greek Pronunciation
λύω lew-oh
λύεις lew-eys
λύει lew-ey
λύομεν lew-omen
λύετε lew-ete
λύουσι(ν) lew-oosee(n)

The syllabs in bold indicate that, when speaking, the voice is raised and in A.Greek this voice raise is expressed with a mark above the vowel, the tone. You may notice that at the third person plural the letter "ν" is added in parentheses. You say λύουσιν, etc when the verb is followed by a word that begins with a vowel or when it is the last word of a sentence.


In English we have a number of ways that we express actions in the present. Eg. I run, I am running. Greek does not make that distinction, so a perfectly acceptable translation for λύω can be either "I release" or "I am releasing"

Another simple verb is γράφω (=write)