Introductory Ancient Greek Language/Lesson 10

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Future, Active and Middle Indicative

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The Future Indicative is the first of a couple future tenses used to indicate actions to be taken in the future; actions that will be taken. It is a very easy tense to learn once you have memorized the Present Indicative. They are almost identical, with the added distinction of a sigma placed between the stem of the verb and the regular, primary present tense ending. Here you will only be learning the Future Active and Middle as the Future Passive voice has different endings.

[example here]


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Number Person Active Middle
Singular 1st -σω -σομαι
2nd -σεις -σει
3rd -σει -σεται
Plural 1st -σομεν -σομεθα
2nd -σετε -σεσθε
3rd -σουσι(ν) -σονται
Infinitive -σειν -σεσθαι

Mute Stems

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Although the conjugation of the future tense is rather easy to recall, there is a new rule that applies as a result of the added sigma. When paired with certain consonants in verb stems, the sigma and consonant merge to form a new consonant or fall away(as is the case with the Dentals) leaving only the sigma. Verbs with vowels at the end of their stems(λυω for example ) need not undergo this change as we can simply insert the sigma between the stem and ending (λυω -> λυσω).

Certain letters combine with sigma to form different

Verb stem ends
Labials β-, π-, φ- -ψ-
Guttural/Palatals σσ-, γ-, κ-, χ- -ξ-
Dentals ζ-, δ-, τ-, θ- -σ-