Introduction to telecommunications

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Introduction[edit | edit source]

Information has a variety of meanings, from everyday talks to High Tech settings. Generally, the concept of information is closely relavant to issues of communications, control, data, instruction, knowledge, meanining, pattern, perception, and representation.

Voice, Video, and Data[edit | edit source]

  • Voice is practically the sound, that comes from our mouths and carried by sound waves. Sound waves can't carry it too far, so with a help of a microphone voice singals are converted to their electical equivalents, then carried by the electric wires. When the electric signal reaches destination, it is converted back to audio signal by a speaker.
  • Video is a motion picture which is a quickly-changing image.. It works the same principle as an audio transmission, yet with a different information. Video camera converts the image to an electrical signal. The electrical signal travels through the electric wires, and reaches the destination. There it is converted back to visual by a TV.

Elements of the communication systems[edit | edit source]

  • For humans, signal is a piece of meaningful information, yet the electrical/electronic definition of signal would be
  • A signal is a physical, and time-dependant energy used to convey information through the transmission line.
  • Source is the originator of message, also known as Transmitting End
  • Transmitting equipment
  • Receiving End
  • Receiving equipment

Signals Carry[edit | edit source]

  • Message - the information itself
  • Meta data - the information the electronic transmitting media can require, which is
    • messages' order
    • message's length
    • coding techniques

Signaling is a process of exchanging information on matter of the connection establishment, and managing telecom networks.

  • Signals can be analog and digital.

Block Diagram Approach[edit | edit source]

Fundamental Laws[edit | edit source]

Social Aspects[edit | edit source]

Signals: Analog and Digital[edit | edit source]

Analogue Signals[edit | edit source]

By definition, an analogue signal is a signal which is continuous in both time and amplitude. Sine and Cosine functions may be considered as basis of analogue signals with the variable parameters of Amplitude, Frequency, and Phase.

Discrete Time Signals[edit | edit source]

Digital signals[edit | edit source]

Gain Loss and Decibels[edit | edit source]

Analog Transmission[edit | edit source]

Baseband vs Bandpass[edit | edit source]

Modulation[edit | edit source]

Amplitude Modulation[edit | edit source]

Frequency Modulation[edit | edit source]

Bandwidth[edit | edit source]

Analog to Digital Transmission[edit | edit source]

Filtering and Spectral Analysis[edit | edit source]

Signals and channels[edit | edit source]

Digital transmission[edit | edit source]

Digital Data and Transmission[edit | edit source]

Baud Rate[edit | edit source]

Techniques of Transmission[edit | edit source]

Encoding[edit | edit source]

Modems[edit | edit source]

Digital to Analog modulation[edit | edit source]

Multiplexing[edit | edit source]

Mechanics of Digital Transission[edit | edit source]

Transmission Media[edit | edit source]


Copper-Twisted( (UTP/STP)) = (E/T Electrical Energy)

Coaxial Cable = (E/T Electrical Energy)

Optical Fiber = (E/T Light / Laser)

Air = (E/T Sound)

Free Space = (E/T Elecotro Magnatice Waves)

Networks[edit | edit source]

Topologies[edit | edit source]

Physical Layout[edit | edit source]

Layers[edit | edit source]

Physical And Logical[edit | edit source]

Archtecture and Characteristics[edit | edit source]

Network Management[edit | edit source]

Bibliography and Credits[edit | edit source]

  • NYC Collete of Technology, Introduction to Telecommunication course notes by professor D.K.Mynbaev, PhD
  • ASA Institute course notes to the Intro to Telecom course by Eleonora Beniaminova.