Introduction to psychology/Key words for chapter three

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This is a list of jargon for psychology. There is a short statement about what the term is and possibly a link to wipedia or wiktionary.

Action Potential[edit | edit source]

A signal passing through a neuron is considered an action potential.

Afferent[edit | edit source]

In the nervous system, afferent neurons--otherwise known as sensory or receptor neurons--carry nerve impulses from receptors or sense organs toward the central nervous system.

All-or-none principle[edit | edit source]

Theory that once a signal is started that it will always travel the length of a neuron at a fixed intensity, not getting stronger or weaker.

Amygdala[edit | edit source]

The part of the limbic with a primary role in the processing and memory of emotional reactions.

Autonomic nervous system[edit | edit source]

The part of the peripheral nervous system that controls the function of many glands and smooth-muscle organs.
It is divided into the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems.

Axon[edit | edit source]

The single long fiber extending from the cell body of a neuron; carries the signal to the synapse

Saltatory conduction[edit | edit source]

cell body aka Soma

Central nervous system (CNS)[edit | edit source]

The brain and the spinal cord.

Cerebellum[edit | edit source]

Region of the brain that plays an important role in the integration of sensory perception and motor output.

Cerebrum[edit | edit source]

The cerebrum deals with language and communication, movement, olfaction (smelling), memory formation, and emotion.

Computed tomography[edit | edit source]

A medical imaging method employing tomography where digital geometry processing is used to generate a three-dimensional image of the internals of an object from a large series of two-dimensional X-ray images taken around a single axis of rotation.
Helps reveal structural abnormalities.

Corpus callosum[edit | edit source]

The corpus callosum connects the left and right cerebral hemispheres.
Most (but certainly not all) communication between regions in different halves of the brain are carried over the corpus callosum.

Cortex[edit | edit source]

The outer layer of the cerebral hemispheres; controls complex cognitive processes.

Cortical lobes[edit | edit source]

Four arbitirarily deignated divisions of the cortex.

Dendrite[edit | edit source]

The recieving portion of a neuron

Depolarization[edit | edit source]

A process that the nueron goes through after the passage of an action potential.
Depolarization is when a cell is moving farther away from 0mV while hyperpolarization is when the cell is moving closer to 0mV.

Efferent[edit | edit source]

In the nervous system, efferent nerves – otherwise known as motor or effector neurons – carry nerve impulses away from the central nervous system to effectors such as muscles or glands.

Grade potential[edit | edit source]

Neurotransmitter[edit | edit source]

Neurotransmitters are used to relay, amplify and modulate electrical signals between a neuron and another cell.
Amino acids are an example of a neurotransmitter.

Neuron[edit | edit source]

The basic unit of the nervous system. It is composed of a soma, dendrite, and axon.

Nodes of Ranvier[edit | edit source]

Nodes of Ranvier are regularly spaced gaps in the myelin sheath around an axon or nerve fiber.

Organelle[edit | edit source]

An organelle is a discrete structure of a cell having specialized functions.

Refractory phase[edit | edit source]

After the action potential the refractory phase marks a period where the neuron is less excitable.

Synapse[edit | edit source]

Synapses, or chemical synapses, are specialized junctions through which cells of the nervous system signal to one another and to non-neuronal cells such as muscles or glands.

Synaptic vesicle[edit | edit source]

In a neuron, synaptic vesicles, also called neurotransmitter vesicles, store the various neurotransmitters that are released during calcium-regulated exocytosis at the presynaptic terminal into the synaptic cleft of a synapse.