Instructional design/Psychomotor behaviors/Psychomotor Behaviors in Practice
Examining Psychomotor Behaviors
Psychomotor behaviors are a vital part of many professions, including the medical profession. In this lesson you will learn about psychomotor behaviors by investigating the work and practice of Respiratory Therapists. The medical profession, in its many facets, makes extensive use of the three major learning domains; cognitive, affective and psychomotor. The education of doctors, the practice of medicine, its corollary disciplines of nursing, out-patient care, therapists, clinicians (such as respiratory), and others, engage all aspects of the learners’ and practitioners’ capabilities.
In summary, medical professionals draw upon the three domains in the following ways:
- Cognitive (knowing) domain: Focusing on knowledge acquisition and intellectual skills and abilities (e.g. the diagnosis of disease, strategizing treatment options).
- Psychomotor (doing) domain: Relating to skills that require varying levels of well-coordinated physical activity and precise manipulative procedures (e.g. simple suturing of an open wound, performing an endoscopic examination, performing sophisticated surgical procedures).
- Affective (feeling) domain: Dealing with feelings, emotions, mindsets and values, including the nurturing of desirable attitudes for personal and professional development (e.g. allaying the concerns and fears of patients, displaying empathy for the relatives of a patient who has just died, displaying mutual trust and respect in working with members of the healthcare team, upholding high ethical standards in practice). 
The importance of proficiency in the learning domains is reflected in the accreditation requirement for respiratory clinicians educated by the University of Texas Medical Branch (MTMB). The accreditation statement of standards and objectives includes the following expectations of graduates in each learning domain:
- Objective #1: Affective domain: Upon completion of the program, graduates will demonstrate professional behavior consistent with employer expectations as advanced-level respiratory therapists
- Objective #2: Cognitive domain: Upon completion of the program, students will demonstrate the ability to comprehend, apply, and evaluate clinical information relevant to their role as advanced-level respiratory therapists.
- Objective #3: Psychomotor Domain: Upon completion of the program, students will demonstrate technical proficiency in all the skills necessary to fulfill their roles as advanced-level respiratory therapists.(http://sahs.utmb.edu/respiratory_care/)
Lesson Objectives and Learning Task
In order to help you identify and classify psychomotor behaviors, an overview of the work of respiratory therapists will be provided. As a profession that focuses on the implementation of medical treatments more than making medical decisions, a respiratory clinician draws greatly upon psychomotor skill sets from a cognitive framework. This framework arises from both the clinician’s medical knowledge within his/her field as well as the expertise of doctors that prescribe treatment. You will use a taxonomy as a guide to classifying recognized psychomotor behaviors.
A taxonomy is the science of classification according to a pre-determined system, with the resulting catalog used to provide a conceptual framework for discussion, analysis, or information retrieval. A taxonomy, or classification, provides a process-oriented method for understanding a learning or training process. Benjamin Bloom, an Educational Psychologist, pioneered the use of taxonomies in understanding how people learn.
Upon completion of this lesson:
- Learners will be able to describe the appropriate taxonomy that supports the development of instruction for respiratory therapists.
- Using the appropriate psychomotor taxonomy, learners will be able to identify basic motor actions that become components for skilled actions.
- Provided with a description of respiratory therapists tasks, the learner will be able to match tasks with corresponding psychomotor behaviors.
Classifying the Psychomotor Behaviors of Respiratory Therapists
Since psychomotor behaviors are physical activities, it is necessary to examine the work of respiratory therapists in order to discover those tasks that are peculiar to the profession. Review Part One and Part Two of the learning task below.
Visit the web links below that describe the work of respiratory therapists. From your reading of the descriptions, identify and classify three actions that you can identify as psychomotor items specific to the work of respiratory therapists.
- Inserting a ventilation tube into a patient's windpipe (P). Use testing instruments to measure lung capacity (A). Connect patients to ventilators that deliver pressurized oxygen into the lungs (A). Markanna (discuss • contribs) 04:09, 20 February 2014 (UTC)
- "Use ventilators and various oxygen devices and aerosol and breathing treatments in the provision of respiratory therapy (M), Set equipment controls to regulate the flow of oxygen, gases, mists, or aerosols (P), Provide respiratory care involving the application of well-defined therapeutic techniques under the supervision of a respiratory therapist and a physician. (N)"gdysard 21:08 (EST), 14 February 2014
- I cannot get the first link to work. Three psychomotor items from the job description for respiratory therapists are: (1) Read physicians' orders and patients' chart information: I; (2) evaluate physicians' orders and patients' chart information: P; and (3) determine patients' treatment protocols: A. Cahonen (discuss • contribs) 01:10, 19 February 2014 (UTC)
- 1. Set equipment controls to regulate the flow of oxygen, gases, mists, or aerosols. (P) 2. Provide respiratory care involving the application of well-defined therapeutic techniques under the supervision of a respiratory therapist and a physician. (M) 3. Use ventilators and various oxygen devices and aerosol and breathing treatments in the provision of respiratory therapy. (A) Jpankin (discuss • contribs) 01:21, 19 February 2014 (UTC)
- (1)Set equipment controls to regulate the flow of oxygen, gases, mists, or aerosols. (2) Use ventilators and various oxygen devices and aerosol and breathing treatments in the provision of respiratory therapy. I believe these professionals should have achieved a level of "N" for these skills. Megablev (discuss • contribs) 06:38, 23 February 2014 (UTC)
- 1. Clean and Sterilize respiratory therapy equipment. 2. Administer breathing and oxygen procedures. 3. Set equipment controls to regulate the flow of oxygen. Elbow8703 00:01, 25 February 2014 (UTC)
After entering three actions, classify those psychomotor behaviors by using the first letter of the classifications shown below.
|I||Imitation||Early stages in learning a complex skill|
|M||Manipulation||Individual continues to practice a particular skill|
|P||Precision||Skill has been attained|
|A||Articulation||Involved an even higher level of precision|
|N||Naturalization||Response is automatic|
For respiratory therapists, psychomotor behaviors range from simple (imitation) to complex (articulation). Think about how these psychomotor behaviors might differ or be similar to those of surgeons. Also consider other, less skilled, behaviors such as providing first aid. In what ways is the above taxonomy applicable to medical actions of greater or lesser skill? In what ways are the cognitive and psychomotor domains applied to the work of giving first aid, doing respiratory therapy, and performing surgery?
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- Bloom’s Taxonomy – Learning Domains retrieved from http://www.olemiss.edu on March 4, 2007
- Romiszowski, A (1999) The Development of Physical Skills: Instruction in the Psychomotor Domain, Chapter 19, Instructional Design Theories and Models: A New Paradigm of Instructional Theory, Volume II, C. M. Reigeluth, Mahwah, NJ, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
- Respiratory therapist graduation standards retrieved from http://sahs.utmb.edu/respiratory_care/ March 4, 2007
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