Indigenous and Intercultural Health/Applying Indigenous Health Communication Competency

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Key learning outcome 2 – Applying Indigenous health competency in communication

Develop and apply Indigenous healthcare related communication skills

Enabling outcomes – focusing on Indigenous case material

a. Describe culturally-based communication styles

b. Self-analyse communication style strengths and weaknesses

c. Identify potential effective and ineffective communication styles

d. Analyse self adjustments required to provide communication and care


E-learning[edit | edit source]

The two hour E-learning component of this key learning objective requires you to read an article that describes some examples of ways we Indigenous Australians commonly communicate. You will be asked how and if this differs from your own communication style. The second part of the E-learning is to watch a choice of three videos and reflect on culturally unsafe and safe ways of communicating. You will be asked to analyse what is it that the health providers do that is culturally safe or unsafe.

Resources[edit | edit source]

Foundation reading

a) Eades, Diana. They Don't Speak an Aboriginal Language, Or Do They? [online]. In: Keen, Ian (Editor). Being Black: Aboriginal Cultures in 'Settled' Australia. Canberra: Aboriginal Studies Press, 1988: 97-115. http://search.informit.com.au/documentSummary;dn=393266898588734;res=IELIND

b) Silvia, A. Politeness in interaction and indirect speech acts http://www.academia.edu/2344547/Politeness_and_Indirect_Speech_Act

c) South Eastern Aboriginal values (to be uploaded to VACCHO website and Wikipedia)

A choice of one of the following case studies and related questions

i. Communication in a hospital videos

ii. A young person visits a sexual health clinic video

iii. Diabetes management in the community videos

iv. Pregnancy and health promotion videos

Workshop[edit | edit source]

Sorry business at the Victorian Aboriginal Health Service

The two hour face to face workshop component for this key learning objective will include an overview of what has been covered to date, followed by a group activity where you will be asked to contribute your answers to the second online lab activity. You will also be asked to participate in an experiential communication activity. A review-and regroup-next steps will conclude this workshop.

Resources[edit | edit source]

Your answers from the online activity will be utilized in a group discussion.

Your participation in an experiential intercultural communication activity will be required.


3. Graphic to support learning outcome

Image about indirect questioning http://www.flickr.com/photos/76529972@N08/10881530254/


Key Learning Participant Guide[edit | edit source]

E-learning[edit | edit source]

Time 2 hours

a) Read the following article ‘They Don't Speak an Aboriginal Language, Or Do They?’ and answer the following questions. In: Keen, Ian (Editor). Being Black: Aboriginal Cultures in 'Settled' Australia. Canberra: Aboriginal Studies Press, 1988: 97-115. http://search.informit.com.au/documentSummary;dn=393266898588734;res=IELIND

Q1. What styles of communication are described in this article?

Q2. Are any of these different to your communication styles?

Q3. Are any of these similar to your communication styles?


b) Choose one of the following case studies and answer the following questions


i. Communication in a hospital videos, watch the two short videos and and answer the related questions for each video.

Video 1 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bZCQZNzJ9-8

Video 2 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Bn6M2jb7sfM

Q1. Describe an example of direct communication that Bronwyn uses?

Q2. Describe an example of indirect communication that Bronwyn uses?

Q3. Describe an example of body language that Bronwyn uses?

Q4. Describe a communication style the health worker uses that engages or disengages Bronwyn?

Q5. Describe body language the health worker uses that engages or disengages Bronwyn?


ii. A young person visits a sexual health clinic video http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hqRHR3s2D2Y

Q1. Describe an example of direct communication that the young person uses?

Q2. Describe an example of indirect communication that the young person use uses?

Q3. Describe an example of the body language the health worker uses to engage the young person?

Q4. What kinds of communication does the health worker use to engage the young person, why is this effective or not effective?

Q5. What sorts of things does the young person notice about the health service that might make them feel welcome?


iii. Diabetes management in the community. Go to the How's Your Sugar website http://www.howsyoursugar.com.au/ and watch either Jim, Ed or Dolly's story about diabetes. You'll need to watch all the short videos that appear as icons above the charcaters head when they are in the kitchen.

Q1. Describe an example of direct communication that the character uses?

Q2. Describe an example of indirect communication that the character uses?

Q3. Describe an example of body language that that the character uses?

Q4. What Aboriginal English does the character use?

Q5. Comparing your communication style with the character what is similar and different?


iv. Pregnancy and health promotion videos. Watch the following short video about Boorai Casts and answer the related questions

Video 1 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yYByoR1-zKY

Video 2 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pNkYsUnBdFc

Q1. Describe an example of direct communication that one of the parents use?

Q2. Describe an example of indirect communication that one of the parents use?

Q3. Describe an example of body language that that one of the parents use?

Q4. What Aboriginal English is used in the video?

Q5. Comparing your communication style with the character what is similar and different?.


2. Workshop, time 2 hours


a) Introduction (5 minutes)

b) Group activity (30 minutes) Review of E-learning: compare answers generated, what are the same what are different (30 minutes)

c) Experiential activity (60 minutes) Participants experienec and identify cultural blindness in communication

d) Conclusion (5 minutes) A recap of the day and an overview of the next key learning objective

Key Learning Outcome Teaching Guide[edit | edit source]

E-learning[edit | edit source]

Time:: 2 hours

a) Read the following article ‘They Don't Speak an Aboriginal Language, Or Do They?’ and anser the following questions. In: Keen, Ian (Editor). Being Black: Aboriginal Cultures in 'Settled' Australia. Canberra: Aboriginal Studies Press, 1988: 97-115. http://search.informit.com.au/documentSummary;dn=393266898588734;res=IELIND

Q1. What styles of communication are described in this article?

Q2. Are any of these different to your communication styles?

Q3. Are any of these similar to your communication styles?


b) Choose one of the following case studies and answer the following questions


i. Communication in a hospital videos, watch the two short videos and and answer the related questions for each video.

Video 1 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bZCQZNzJ9-8

Video 2 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Bn6M2jb7sfM

Q1. Describe an example of direct communication that Bronwyn uses?

Q2. Describe an example of indirect communication that Bronwyn uses?

Q3. Describe an example of body language that Bronwyn uses?

Q4. Describe a communication style the health worker uses that engages or disengages Bronwyn?

Q5. Describe body language the health worker that engages or disenagages Bronwyn?


ii. A young person visits a sexual health clinic video http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hqRHR3s2D2Y

Q1. Describe an example of direct communication that the young person uses?

Q2. Describe an example of indirect communication that the young person use uses?

Q3. Describe an example of the body language the health worker uses to engage the young person?

Q4. What kinds of communication does the health worker use to engage the young person, why is this effective or not effective?

Q5. What sorts of things does the young person notice about the health service that might make them feel welcome?


iii. Diabetes management in the community. Go to the How's Your Sugar website http://www.howsyoursugar.com.au/ and watch either Jim, Ed or Dolly's story about diabetes. You'll need to watch all the short videos that appear as icons above the charcaters head when they are in the kitchen.

Q1. Describe an example of direct communication that the character uses?

Q2. Describe an example of indirect communication that the character uses?

Q3. Describe an example of body language that that the character uses?

Q4. What Aboriginal English does the character use?

Q5. Comparing your communication style with the character what is similar and different?


iv. Pregnancy and health promotion videos. Watch the following short video about Boorai Casts and answer the related questions

Video 1 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yYByoR1-zKY

Video 2 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pNkYsUnBdFc

Q1. Describe an example of direct communication that one of the parents use?

Q2. Describe an example of indirect communication that one of the parents use?

Q3. Describe an example of body language that that one of the parents use?

Q4. What Aboriginal English is used in the video?

Q5. Comparing your communication style with the character what is similar and different?.

Workshop[edit | edit source]

time 2 hours


a) Introduction (5 minutes)

What will be covered today review of e-learning 3 and an experiential activity.


b) Group activity (30 minutes)

Review of E-learning: compare answers generated from question 2, what are the same what are different (30 minutes)


c) Experiential activity (60 minutes)

i. Purpose For participants to identify cultural blindness in communication; no matter how well a culture is described or how well you listen or it is impossible to fully understand it unless you live it. Participants also develop self aware methods to assist navigate this space.

ii. Materials Each participant has pen and paper

iii. Set up (10 minutes) Explain the purpose of the activity. Ask one participant to come to the front of the room and sit with their back to the rest of the people in the room. The other participants turn their back to the person at the front so they cannot see the person at the front of the room. The person at the front of the room is given an object, (the others are not to see the object) by the facilitator (this could be a bag, a toy, a kitchen object etc. The more complicated the shape of the object the better).

iv. Activity (15 minutes) The person at the front is asked to describe the object to the rest of the group, without using nouns, such as naming what the object is or saying nose, mouth, leg etc. The group are asked to draw the object. Usually people say they ‘can’t draw’ and the facilitator should reassure people that the object of the exercise is not about drawing and to just give it a go or their best shot. Let the person describe the object. Ask participants to write down what they are feeling or thinking 3 or 4 times during the activity.

v. Debrief (30 minutes) Ask participants

- If they would like to hold up their drawing and compare this to the object?

- What do the participants think the activity is about?

- What did it feel like doing the activity (make sure you include the describer who essentially represents another culture)?

- What sort of things did people notice happen while they were drawing?

- What relevance does the activity have to real life?

- What relevance does the activity have to health care?

vi. Common participant responses

- Some people say the experience was frustrating and confusing (relate this back to intercultural communication and the frustration and confusion of unintentional miscomunication)

- Some people say they really wanted to get it right and were stressed when they didn’t (reassure that it is impossible to get it right and this also happens in real life, ask participants what they could do instead eg ask questions acknowledge differences)

- Some people give up

- Some people suggest positives that made the exercise easier to do

- Some people comment on a genuine intent to communicate well


d) Conclusion (5 minutes)

A recap of the day and an overview of the next key learning objective