Human vision and function/Perception of objects

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Macro-anatomy of the eye and visual pathways to the brain

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Topic learning outcomes

1. Draw and fill in diagrams, in order to understand:

  • The gross structure of the eye in cross section: including the cornea, aqueous, (pupil), lens, vitreous and retina.
  • The gross structure of the visual pathway from the retinal ganglion cells (in the eye), to V5 (in the brain cortex) and including the optic nerve; chiasm; optic tract; lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN); radiation fibres and connections in V1, V2, V3 and V4.
  • How the structural components describedabove can provide a model to describe the flow of information to the cortical areas where perception occurs.

2. Use experimental evidence to demonstrate location specific retinal sensitivity by:

  • Observing and recording awareness of stimulus position.

3. Use diagrams to describe simply, the steps that occur when light travels from an object being viewed, through the eye, to the brain for perception to occur by:

  • Discussing normal function requirements at specific sites and connections, along the pathway.
  • Using evidence from the pointe above as a basis for discussion of congenital colour vision anomalies.
  • Considering lesion studies (damage), to highlight function by comparing loss of function with normal function, for form; colour and 3D vision (stereopsis).'<br />

Visual illusions that demonstrate normal function of an imperfect system

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Topic learning outcome

1. Describe the experience of visual illusions that demonstrate normal function in an imperfect system by demonstrating effects of:

  • Motion (“L” effect with Leviant Illusory motion), and Time in “Stepping Feet” and “Motion Induced blindness” (Troxler effect)
  • Luminance and Contrast with the Hermann Grid
  • Geometric and angle illusions in the Poggendorf illusion
  • Space, 3D and size constancy in the moon illusion
  • Cognitive/Gestalt in Kanizsa triangles