History of the Ottoman Empire/16th century: Growth of the Empire, Part 2, Suleiman I ("the Magnificent")

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Janissaries confronting the Knights of St John during the Siege of Rhodes 1522
  • In 1520, Suleiman Magnificent's father Selim I (Yavuz) died. Suleiman I became Emperor of Great Ottoman Empire. In 1520; Balkans, Caucasus, Anatolia, Middle east, Egypt and Crimean Khanate were Ottoman places. Suleiman I wanted to capture new places. For example: Central Europe, Tunisia etc. In 1521, Serbs were disrespectful to Suleiman I. So Ottomans attacked Belgrade and won. Thus Ottomans entered Central Europe. Nevertheless Suleiman I was an equitable emperor. Therefore he had the legal title "Magnificent". Ottomans wanted to capture Rhodes, because it was very strategic. In 1522, Ottomans captured Rhodes. Pope Adrian VI died shortly after this event. Suleiman I was supported by France. France was too poor and they wanted help from the Ottomans. Financial support was given to French. Ottomans declared war on the Holy Roman Empire. In 1526, Mohács Ottomans made war with Germans and Hungarians (Battle of Mohács). Some European states and Papal States supported Hungarians. Ottoman army destroyed Hungarian army after 2.5 hours! Hungary was Ottoman's place. Ottomans spread in Central Europe. Crusaders wanted to retrieve Hungary, Belgrade and Rhodes. Crusaders abandoned retrieve Constantinople. Because Great Ottoman Empire gained more power.
  • Austrians was enemy of the Ottomans in Europe. Because Austrians didn't want to Ottomans gain more power. Suleiman I ordered to the preparation for Vienna. Emperor Suleiman I wanted to capture Vienna and destroy German Empire. Ottomans attacked Vienna in 1529 (Siege of Vienna). Ottomans had over 100.000 soldiers. But, a month later winter came. Ottoman's ammunition was not enough. Thus Ottomans defeated by Germens. But Germans had taken a heavy blow. Ottomans captured some castles. But, three years later happened new problems. Germans wanted to take back a lot of castles and cities. So Suleiman I decided new war. In 1532, thousands Ottoman soldiers went to German places. Ottomans attacked a lot of German cities, castles. War continued for a year. Ottomans captured important cities and castles. For example; Graz, Nagykanizsa etc.) In 1533, treaty was signed with Germans. Thus a lot of important castles and cities became Ottoman places. Also some rebellions started in Anatolia. Suleiman I and Ottoman army returned from central Europe. Later the revolt was suppressed.
Arrangement of Ottoman and Crusader warships in Preveza
  • In earth, was problems. Iranians captured some castles and Baghdad. Ottomans wanted to take back there places. In 1534, Ottomans attacked Iranian Empire. War continued for a year. Ottomans won. Ottomans taken back Baghdad and other castles. Also Ottomans entered Iranian Empire's capital city Tabriz. Ottomans was very strong in Earth and West. Some wars were in Mediterranean. Because German and Spanish warships plundered some Ottoman places. Already Ottomans wants to captured a lot of Mediterranean castles and cities. In 1535, Spanish army captured Tunisia. Ottomans were upset about this event. Hayreddin Barbarossa was Ottoman admiral. He was very successful commander. Crusader and Ottoman navies were very strong. Crusaders wants to destroy Ottoman navy and capture a lot of Ottoman places. In 1538, Enormous Crusader navy attacked Ottoman navy in Preveze (Battle of Preveza (1538)). Enormous Crusader army had over 150 warships and thousands soldier. Hayreddin Barbarossa was commander of Ottoman navy. Ottoman navy had 120 warships and experience soldiers. Commander Barbarossa knew Crusader navy stronger than Ottoman navy. Therefore he wants to attacked Crusader navy wings. Crusader warships were too big and cumbersome. Ottoman warships were medium-sized and faster. Ottoman warships attacked Crusader navy wings. Barbarossa's warships attacked center of Crusader navy. Attack was very hard. And a lot of Crusader warships sank. So Crusader navy defeated by Ottoman navy. Thousands Crusader soldiers and some Crusader commanders died. This war was great victory for Ottoman Empire.
  • There places were very important for Ottoman Empire. Emperor Suleiman wants to capture Aden and near areas. A small Ottoman army attacked there places and Ottomans won (In 1538). Later Ottomans captured some castles in Europe (For example; Estergon Castle, Székesfehérvár city). But ın earth was a lot of problems. Iranians attacked some Ottoman places. Ottomans attacked Iranian armies (1548). This war continued for 7 years. Iranian army defeated by Ottoman army. In time Ottomans captured some areas in North Africa (For example; Tripolitania etc.) In 1554, Ottomans attacked a lot of European islands. Ottomans attacked North Africa kingdoms. In 1557, Ottoman army captured Morocco. Crusaders was worried. Crusader states founded enormous navy. Crusaders had around 100 waships. Ottoman navy went to Djerba. Ottomans had around 100 warships. Piyale Pasha was commander of Ottoman navy. In 1560, Ottoman navy attacked enemy Crusader navy (Battle of Djerba). Ottoman navy won. Half of Crusader navy sank. A lot of Crusader commander and soldiers captured. Thus Ottomans had taken back Tunisia. Ottomans wants to capture Malta. Because Malta was very important in Mediterranean. In 1565, enormous Ottoman navy attacked Malta. Ottoman army had over 30.000 soldier. Knights Hospitaller defended Malta. Ottoman army captured St. Elmo Castle. But commander Turgut Reis died in war. Ottomans attacked other castles. Hospitaller Knights defended Malta successfully. Thousands Ottoman soldiers died. European states were worried for this events. But Ottoman army's arm was not enough. Also Hospitaller Knights attacked Ottoman medical and killed all sores. Ottoman army's morality was very bad. So Ottomans defeated by Malta defence. Suleiman the Magnificent was sad for this defeat. In 1566, enormous Ottoman army attacked central Eurpe. Emperor Süleiman I was commander for Ottoman army. Ottomans made war with Austrians (Battle of Szigetvár). During war, emperor and commander Suleiman the Magnificent died of health problems. After this event, Ottomans won, but thousands Ottoman soldiers died.

Quiz on 16th century: Growth of the Empire, Part 2, Suleiman I ("the Magnificent")

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