History of Quebec and Canada/Study Guide/Topic 1: Causes for the French Defeat

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The Death of General Montgomery in the Attack on Quebec, December 31, 1775 by John Trumbull, 1786

The main reason why the French lost to the 13 colonies started from the beginning of New France back in 1608. Due to Mercantilism, the French colony was only over in America to trade with the Native population. Meanwhile, the English had full support from their mother, Britain. Here are the following reasons why the French lost to the English in the year 1760:

Population: The French suffered from a small population (around 3000) in the early stages of New France (1608-1663). While New Britain continued to receive immigration coming from the Mother country. Only around 1665 (95 years before the war) did Jean Talon, Intendant, start to put an increase in New Frances population. Therefore, the English population was a lot bigger than the French population.

Defenses: How do you win a war? With soldiers of course. Again, not until 1663 did France start sending over soldiers to help protect their land. The soldier count looked like this for each colonyː English = 10 000 soldiers French = 3000 soldiers.

Territoryː Due to the fur trade with the Amerindians, the French kept on venturing more towards the South, as well as the west to follow their traders. The Amerindians obviously follow their food source, Deer, Elk, Moose, etc. So the French followed them to wherever they were going to go in order to continue on supporting the fur trade. Therefore, the French's population became very big, and hard to defend. Unlike the English, who remained East of the Appalachians, kept to their small and well guarded 13 colonies, which received help from Britain, with immigration of women, soldiers and workers.

This war was dominated by the English due to a higher population, and a well planned attack against the French.