Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) is the most common type of liver cancer, accounting for around 85% of cases. It is a major health problem particularly in areas endemic with hepatitis B viral infection (HBV). It is the second most common leading cause of death due to cancer worldwide.
The rates of HCC are highest at Subsaharan Africa and Far East Asia.
SOCS-1 can be considered a tumour suppressor gene that is epigenetically silenced through methylation of its promotor region. A recent meta-analysis showed the SOCS-1 promotor was found to be methylated in HCC cases around 3 times more frequently than in surrounding normal tissue or in benign tumours.
Evaluation of response to sorafenib
A study that was done in Japan suggested the use of contrast-based ultrasound to assess the arrival time of the contrast to the liver, and used those measurements as an indicator for response to sorafenib.