Hepatology/Hepatocellular Carcinoma

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Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) is the most common type of liver cancer, accounting for around 85% of cases. It is a major health problem particularly in areas endemic with hepatitis B viral infection (HBV). It is the second most common leading cause of death due to cancer worldwide.

Epidemiology[edit]

Geographic Distribution[edit]

The rates of HCC are highest at Subsaharan Africa and Far East Asia.

Pathogenesis[edit]

SOCS-1 can be considered a tumour suppressor gene that is epigenetically silenced through methylation of its promotor region. A recent meta-analysis showed the SOCS-1 promotor was found to be methylated in HCC cases around 3 times more frequently than in surrounding normal tissue or in benign tumours.[1]

Treatment[edit]

Evaluation of response to sorafenib[edit]

A study that was done in Japan suggested the use of contrast-based ultrasound to assess the arrival time of the contrast to the liver, and used those measurements as an indicator for response to sorafenib.[2]

References[edit]

  1. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26934227
  2. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26934227