Helping Give Away Psychological Science/Addressing Systemic Shortcomings in Mental Health Training Programs: Toward an Anti-Racist Model

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Programs[edit | edit source]

Program Goals[edit | edit source]

Clinic Goals[edit | edit source]

1. Incorporate cultural interviews into initial treatment evaluation (and throughout treatment when possible) to understand norms and values for clients (some tools here)

2. Are we able to accommodate requests for POC therapists? If not, at the very least, can we specify therapists who have extensive cultural training?

a. Can we support graduate students looking for their own POC therapists in the area?
b. Do we have a list of POC therapists to provide to clients as referrals if we cannot accommodate their requests?

3. Trainings to think about:

a. What are my own cultural values and biases to other backgrounds?
b. Do I feel competent in my knowledge of my clients' worldviews and experiences
1. How can I get there?
2. Am I using strategies that are inclusive of my clients’ backgrounds?
3. Am I generalizing my knowledge of a culture to how my client interprets their culture, or am I gathering information about how they work within their cultural standards?
4. How much do we know about the psychological impact of white supremacy/racism/oppression?
5. When making safety plans, what are some other numbers and options for clients instead of 911, especially if 911 is not a safe option for them?
a. Example: Duke University will use a Mobile Crisis Unit instead of involving law enforcement. Police will only become involved if the person is armed.
6. How can we discuss related identity/values/opinions with clients?
7. When back in person: cover transportation costs, offer telehealth options

4. Increase diversity among supervisors who can serve as a resource for (diverse) student-therapists who want support navigating therapy in general and/or with various clients within the framework of their identities

a. Perhaps payment for outside supervisors to encourage more POC supervisors who would otherwise be unable to volunteer their time for free

5. Increase emphasis on integrative/collaborative healthcare approaches

a. Outreach to schools and primary care settings
b. Establish relationships with local hospitals/PCPs

6. Increase provision of pro bono services to increase accessibility of mental health resources by our clinic

Goals for Groups/Committees[edit | edit source]

1. Clinical Diversity Committee

a. Funding and support for this committee
b. Faculty and students serve active roles
1. Open ability to join committee/drop-in on meetings/ provide thoughts about change

2. BRIDGE Clinical Psychology Network

a. Building Roads to Inclusion and Diversity in Graduate Education Clinical Psychology Network
b. Seems easy to request to join

3. Faculty ally - someone available to help students navigate these issues and advocate on behalf of students

a. Possible office hours for this person during which time students can drop-in to relate concerns or suggestions

Program Mentality Goals[edit | edit source]

1. Encourage leaders to speak on these issues of diversity, be comfortable with related feedback, and work toward improving

a. Students should feel comfortable providing feedback about departmental improvements surrounding diversity
b. Access to an easy way for students to express (either anonymously or not) their ideas about these changes

2. Encourage PIs to reach out to their students and offer support of non-research-related anti-racism efforts

a. Encourage PIs to reach out broadly about this
1. Not a political issue to be avoided in lab meeting; rather, it needs to be discussed in all spaces, especially all white ones

3. Increase visibility and transparency of steps the department (or the diversity committee etc.) is taking regarding issues of diversity

a. Make results of APA site visits public
1. Specifically results of Domain D

4. Increase recognition that not all identities are visible

Plan Creation by Leaders[edit | edit source]

1. Leaders of departments should establish detailed plans for increasing diversity within clinical psychology departmental faculty and graduate students

a. Plans should be actionable and measurable

2. See Concrete Steps for Recruiting, Supporting, and Advancing Underrepresented Minoritized Scientists for reference 3. Can we hire diversity consultants?

Program Modification Goals[edit | edit source]

1.Required readings prior to start of program AND prior to start of clinical work

a. Can focus on structural inequalities, barriers to treatment, protective factors, communication differences across cultures, etc.
b. At least one that is specific to these issues in the local community

2. Required trainings continuous throughout program

a. Cultural competency (systemic barriers & cultural protective factors), inclusivity, bias, microaggressions, history of race in America, how to address racialized national events with clients
b. Some of these topics could be covered during diversity proseminar

3.Infusion Model

a. Incorporate general anti-racist readings into curriculum of core courses
b. Incorporate material relating racial and ethnic mental health disparities, cultural competency, inclusivity, bias, access, and barriers to treatment into the syllabi of all clinical- and research-related courses
c. Encourage conversations about diversity and privilege within all classes
1. This should be written into the syllabus. Readings from diverse researchers, discussion of how diversity impacts each area of study
a. Perhaps work to include in accreditation requirements?
1. Example: NJ public schools must teach about the Holocaust each year K-12. We should have something similar about Black history and diversity in clinical psychology- it should be included in X number of classes, annually, for all students
d. UNC Diversity Training Committee
1. Example of diversity training incorporated throughout all years in the program (also a diversifying clinical psychology weekend and success recruiting diverse students)

Recruitment Goals[edit | edit source]

1. Plan for diversity panels at interview weekend

a. Could be added during a meal if there are time constraints
b. No faculty present at this to increase opennesses and comfort of prospective students

2. Introduce webinars/calls hosted by students or faculty regarding admission to programs for students from underrepresented groups

3. Increase funding for application- and interview-associated costs for diverse students (e.g., underrepresented in sciences, low SES backgrounds)

4. Examine data from various application stages of demographics of applicants, interviewees, accepted students, etc.

5. Identify people from diversity-related societies who are participating the application cycle

6. Reassess GRE and general entrance requirements

7. Actively recruit faculty

a. Underrepresented people in positions of power
b. Hire faculty whose research focuses on minority populations
c. How do other programs recruit diverse faculty?
d. Collaborate with people we might want to hire
e. What has gotten in the way of these faculty members accepting our offers?
f. Allocate extra funding/stipend for underrepresented individuals
g. Increase diversity recruitment weekends
1. Usually all costs for individuals are covered by the program
2. Can use UNC’s Diversifying Psychology weekend model

Research Goals[edit | edit source]

1. Incentivize diversity research within the department through grant funding

2. Specific awards for diversity-related research at graduate student research days

3. Build working relationships within the community to enhance recruitment of more diverse populations

4. Encourage use of participatory action research, which brings community leaders in to help develop research protocols that better understand the barriers/effects of the community on mental health

5. Examine alternative treatment modalities which offer comparable effectiveness but greater cultural sensitivity

6. Conference travel/awards for diversity-related student research

7. Use available research to adapt evidence-based protocols

Resource/Outreach Goals[edit | edit source]

1. Increase accessibility of anti-racist resources and resources on mental health disparities in minority populations

a. Make the resources on this document easily accessible to those in the program (e.g., added section to website)

2. Increase collaboration between the psychology department and the school of social work (along with other local groups that examine these disparities on a local level)

a.This includes active awareness of the work coming out of these programs and thinking critically about them as they relate to changes we can make to support our client populations

3. Build relationships with community groups to connect students/new faculty with other POC/minority/marginalized groups upon arrival

4. Engage with community organizations to improve mental health literacy

5. Offer to provide services or get involved with local neighborhoods/schools (those in low SES communities, those with large minority populations, or those that experience other barriers to receiving mental health care and/or resources)

6. Use research relating to psychological well-being in response to chronic stressors to fight against policies that are disproportionately affecting the mental health of Black individuals and other POC

a. Making this research more widespread can help de-stigmatize utilization of mental health services in these communities

7. Make psychological knowledge accessible via free platforms

a.See HGAPS for example of a group doing this via Wikipedia

Goals for Speakers[edit | edit source]

  1. Bring in speakers to talk about (mental) health disparities in our local communities and ways to conduct outreach to increase access to mental health resources
    1. Could occur during orientation
    2. Or once a year at the beginning of the year
    3. Speaker could be current faculty member(s) who gather the data
    4. Require that everyone (including all faculty members) attend this talk

Training/Workshop Goals[edit | edit source]

  1. Bring in diverse leaders for workshops who can discuss treatment implementation strategies for conducting therapy with minority groups, continue conversations about diverse populations, and discuss their own research
  2. Fund students/faculty to attend workshops related to diversity/inclusion/disparities work
  3. Utilize webinars offered by organizations such as ABCT to supplement (not substitute) departmental cultural competency efforts
    1. ABCT currently offers a recorded webinar entitled “Multicultural Competency in CBT”
    2. If the department could help assist in our accessing this material, that would ensure our training is less cost-restrictive
  4. Pending availability of departmental resources, require faculty and graduate student attendance at 1 training/workshop/webinar per year that specifically addresses some cultural competency-related issue in a clinical setting

Program Assessment[edit | edit source]

Tools to Improve Programs[edit | edit source]

Researchers to Follow[edit | edit source]

Work on mental health disparities, minority [mental] health:

  • Margarita Alegría, PhD: is the chief of the disparities research unit at MGH, and is a professor of psychiatry at Harvard Medical School. Her research focuses on the improvement of healthcare service deliver for racially and ethnically diverse populations. Website.
  • Riana Anderson, PhD: research on mental and physical health of Black youth, parenting programs centering on race-related stress; University of Michigan School of Public Health, Health Behavior and Health Education. Twitter: @rianaelyse
  • Arthur “Trey” Andrews III, PhD: is an Assistant Professor at University of Nebraska - Lincoln in the department of psychology. His research focuses on mental health disparities and service utilization among Latinx (particularly immigrant and Spanish-speaking) populations. Website.
  • Deirdre Anglin, PhD: integrates multicultural psychology with public health in her research on the social determinants of racial health disparities especially as they pertain to psychosis; Assistant Professor at City University of New York (CUNY) in the Clinical Psychology program. Twitter: @DeidreAnglin
  • Anu Asnaani, PhD: is an Assistant Professor at the University of Utah. Her research focuses on understanding mechanisms of fear based disorders, improving treatment outcomes for diverse communities (including international populations), and leveraging the technology for research and clinical purposes. Website.
  • Sharetta Butler-Barnes, PhD: how racism and using strength-based cultural assets impact on health and educational outcomes of Black American families. Wash U Brown School of Social Work. Twitter: @stbbarnes
  • Leopoldo J. Cabassa, PhD: research on physical and mental health disparities among minorities (racial/ethnic) with serious mental illness (e.g., schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depression). Wash U Brown School of Social Work. Twitter: @LCabassa
  • William Elliot III, PhD: work revolves around challenging individual beliefs and cultural values involved in educational justice - college funding, student debt, inequality, systemic patterns of poverty. Michigan School of Social work.
  • Darell Hudson, PhD: research on racial/ethnic health disparities and influence of social determinants of health (e.g., SES and social context). Wash U Brown School of Social Work. Twitter: @DrDHud
  • Noelle Hurd, PhD: is an associate professor of Psychology at the University of Virginia.She researchers adolescent development among marginalized youth using a resilience framework. Website.
  • Shabnam Javdani, PhD: clinical/community psychologist. Research goal is to understand and reduce the development of inequality-related mental health and legal problems and study community and institutional responses to these complex challenges. Website
  • Husain Lateef, PhD: research on the role of African-centered approaches in improving outcomes for African American youth of youth prevention programs. Wash U Brown School of Social Work.
  • Vickie Mays, PhD: research on mental and physical health disparities in ethnic minority groups; the role of percieved and actual discrimination on health outcomes; access to and quality of mental health servies for racial, ethnic, and sexual minorities; also involved in policy work on factors surrounding HIV/AIDS in racial and ethic minorities.
  • Isha Metzger, PhD: is an assistant professor at the University of Georgia. Her research focuses on reducing mental health disparities for underserved, minority populations (particularly black youth). Website. Twitter: @drishametzger
  • Juliette McClendon, PhD: research on racial/ethnic health disparities with an emphasis on stress-related mechanisms that contribute to these disparities; examines impact of discriminatory stress on health of people of marginalized groups. Twitter: @DrJulietteM
  • Ethan Mereish, PhD: His research focuses on understanding the effects of social, psychological, and cultural determinants of health for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals and racial/ethnic minorities as well as factors that promote their resilience. Website
  • Von Nebbitt, PhD: research on urban African American children and youth, primarily focused on increasing empirical and theoretical knowledge of the effects of living in urban public housing on minority adolescents’ health and well-being. Wash U Brown School of Social Work.
  • Enrique Neblett, PhD: Research on racism related stress, Black/African American mental health, health disparities and health equity. Twitter: @DrNeblett
  • Helen Neville, PhD: is a professor of Educational Psychology and African American studies at UIUC. She researches Black racial ideology, color blind racial ideology, and racial trauma. Website. Twitter: @helenneville12
  • Jason Purnell, PhD: research on the impact of sociocultural and socioeconomic factors on mobilizing community action to address the social determinants of health. Twitter: @jqjp1
  • Temiola Salami, PhD: is an assistant professor at Sam Houston State University. Her research focuses on reducing mental health disparities for marginalized, high-risk and underserved populations such as racially/ethnically diverse populations and immigrant populations. Lab Website
  • Erlanger (Earl) Turner, PhD: research and
 clinical interests include access to behavioral health services, cultural competency, behavioral parent training, mental health disparities, and race-related stress; Graduate School of Education and Psychology, Pepperdine University. Website. Twitter: @DrEarlTurner
  • Derald Wing Sue, PhD: research focuses on multicultural counseling and psychotherapy, as well as the psychology of racism and antiracism; Teachers College, Columbia University. Twitter: @deraldwingsue
  • Rheeda Walker, PhD: Suicide Science and African American mental health; impact of cultural barriers on mental health initiatives, correlates of suicide as they pertain to the development of culturally relevant models of mental health and wellbeing Twitter: @rheedawalkerphd
  • Daphne C. Watkins, PhD: work about the social determinants of health that explain within group differences among black men; evidence-based strategies to improve the health (physical and mental) of black men; increasing knowledge about the intersection of culture, ethnicity, age, and gender. @DrDaphneWatkins
  • David Williams, MPH, PhD: research on the ways in which race, stress, racism, health behavior, and religious involvement affect health. Developed the Everyday Discrimination Scale which is one of the most widely used tools in studies on health discrimination. His 2017 TED MED Talk: “How Racism Makes Us Sick”
  • Monica T. Williams, PhD: is an associate professor of Clinical Psychology at the University of Ottawa, where she serves as the Canada Research Chair in Mental Health Disparities. She’s an expert in OCD, PTSD, CBT, and the role of culture and race on mental illness. Website. Twitter: @DrMonnica
  • LaRicka Wingate, PhD: Oklahoma State University, studies racial/ethnic minorities and suicide, specific focus on protective factors, positive psychology. Website.
  • Gail E. Wyatt, PhD: UCLA, studies consensual and abusive sexual relationships, the effects these experiences have on psychological well-being, and cultural context of risks for sexually-transmitted diseases, with extensive NIH funding for decades of work. Website.
  • APA Work Group on Race Related Parental Stress

Education Resources[edit | edit source]

Books and Manuals[edit | edit source]

Clinical Work[edit | edit source]

1. Walker, R., & Akbar, N. I. (2020). The Unapologetic Guide to Black Mental Health: Navigate an Unequal System, Learn Tools for Emotional Wellness, and Get the Help You Deserve. New Harbinger Publications.

2. Counseling the Culturally Diverse: Theory and Practice, 8th ed

3. Handbook of racial-cultural psychology and counseling

a.Volume 1: Theory and research
1.Carter, R. T. (2004). Handbook of racial-cultural psychology and counseling, Vol 1: Theory and research. John Wiley & Sons Inc.
b. Volume 2: Training and practice
1Carter, R. T. (2004). Handbook of Racial-Cultural Psychology and Counseling, Volume 2: Training and Practice. John Wiley & Sons.

4. The influence of race and racial identity in psychotherapy: Toward a racially inclusive model

a. Carter, R. T. (1995). The influence of race and racial identity in psychotherapy: Toward a racially inclusive model (Vol. 183). John Wiley & Sons.

5. Confronting Racism: Integrating mental health research into legal strategies and reforms

a. Carter, R. T., & Scheuermann, T. D. (2019). Confronting Racism: Integrating Mental Health Research Into Legal Strategies and Reforms. Routledge.

6. Guide to Psychological Assessment with African Americans

a. Benuto, L. & Leany, B. (2015). Guide to psychological assessment with African Americans. New York: Springer.

7. Handbook of Mental Health in African American Youth

a. Noble, A., Mateen, C. & Singh, N. (2016). Handbook of mental health in African American youth. Cham: Springer Science + Business Media.

8. Multicultural Counseling Competencies: Individual and Organizational Development (Multicultural Aspects of Counseling And Psychotherapy)

a. Sue, D. (1998). Multicultural counseling competencies : individual and organizational development. Thousand Oaks, Calif: Sage.

9. Connecting Across Cultures: The Helper's Toolkit 10. The Protest Psychosis: How Schizophrenia Became a Black Disease

10. The Protest Psychosis: How Schizophrenia Became a Black Disease

a. Metzl, J. M. (2014). The protest psychosis: How schizophrenia became a black disease. Boston, Mass: Beacon Press.

11. Eliminating Race-Based Mental Health Disparities: Promoting Equity and Culturally Responsive Care across Settings

12. Mental Health among African Americans: Innovations in Research and Practice

13. APA Publications

a. Dialogues on Difference: Studies of diversity in the therapeutic relationship
1. Muran, J. (2007). Dialogues on difference: Studies of diversity in the therapeutic relationship. American Psychological Association.
b. APA Handbook of Intercultural Communication
1. Matsumoto, D. E. (2010). APA handbook of intercultural communication. Walter de Gruyter & Co.
c. American Psychiatric Association Best Practices on Working with African American/Black Patients
d. Culturally Responsive Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy: Assessment, Practice, and Supervision
e. Addressing Cultural Complexities in Practice: Assessment, Diagnosis, and Therapy

Mental Health Training Programs and Research Labs[edit | edit source]

1. Pinder-Amaker S., Leary K. (2019) Changing Institutional Values and Diversifying the Behavioral Health Workforce. In: Medlock M., Shtasel D., Trinh NH., Williams D. (eds) Racism and Psychiatry. Current Clinical Psychiatry. Humana Press, Cham

2. Studying ethnic minority and economically disadvantaged populations

a. Knight, G. P., Roosa, M. W., & Umaña-Taylor, A. J. (2009). Studying ethnic minority and economically disadvantaged populations: Methodological challenges and best practices. American Psychological Association.

Trainings, Workshops, Videos, and Toolkit[edit | edit source]

  1. APAGS Multicultural Training Database
  2. Resources for diverse students and their mentors
  3. Diversity and health equity education
  4. Improving Cultural Competency for Behavioral Health Professionals (US Department of Health and Human Services, Think Cultural Health free online training)
  5. Inclusive Therapists Online Training: Tending to Racial Trauma During Crisis
  6. Our Struggles are Intertwined: Intersections of Mental Health & Oppression - online course
  7. BC Racial Trauma Toolkit
  8. Training Guides
    1. Implicit Bias Training facilitator guide
    2. Race Matters: How to Talk Effectively Abo ut Race
    3. A Guide to Discussing Identity, Power and Privilege (with activities)
  9. Children
    1. EmbraceRace
    2. APA RESilience - Uplifting Youth through Healthy Communication about Race
  10. Psychological treatment of ethnic minority populations
    1. Brochure developed in response to concerns regarding cultural appropriateness
  11. Stress & Trauma Toolkit
  12. Cultural Competency trainings by:
    1. Dr. Monnica Williams
    2. Dr. Chad T. Wetterneck
  13. Talking About Race - National Museum of African American History and Culture
  14. Race - APA
  15. Implicit Bias and Microaggressions: the Macro Impact of Small Acts - Dr. Derald Wing Sue
  16. Acknowledging and Managing Implicit Bias - Dr. Bryan Marks
  17. Hidden Influencers: Tackling the social and behavioral determinants of health
  18. Social and Behavioral Determinants of Toxic Stress

Empirical Articles[edit | edit source]

Mental Health Disparities[edit | edit source]

  1. Eyongherok, A. I. (2019). Mental Health Disparities Among Minority Populations. Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies.[1]
  2. Noonan, A.S., Velasco-Mondragon, H.E. & Wagner, F.A. (2016). Improving the health of African Americans in the USA: an overdue opportunity for social justice. Public Health Rev 37. [2]

Racism, Mental Health, and Racial Trauma[edit | edit source]

  1. French, B. H., … & Neville, H. A. (2020). Toward a psychological framework of radical healing in communities of color. The Counseling Psychologist, 48(1), 14-46. [3]
  2. Metzger, I. W., Anderson, R. E., Are, F., & Ritchwood, T. (2020). Healing interpersonal and racial trauma: Integrating racial socialization Into trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy for African American youth. Child Maltreatment.[4]
  3. Saleem, F. T., Anderson, R. E., & Williams M. (2020). Addressing the “myth” of racial trauma: Developmental and ecological considerations for youth of color. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 23, 1–14.[5]
  4. Nadal, K. L. Erazo, T. & King R. (2019). Challenging definitions of psychological trauma: Connecting racial microaggressions and traumatic stress. Journal for Social Action in Counseling and Psychology, 11(2), 2–16.[6]
  5. Carter, R. T., Johnson, V. E., Kirkinis, K., Roberson, K., Muchow, C., Galgay, C. (2019). A meta-analytic review of racial discrimination: Relationships to health and culture. Race and Social Problems, 11, 15-32.[7]
  6. Neblett , E. W.(2019). Racism and health: Challenges and future directions in behavioral and psychological research. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 25(1), 12–20.[8]
  7. 2019 American Psychologist, Special Issue: Racial Trauma: Theory, Research, and Healing
  8. Comas-Díaz, L. (2016). Racial trauma recovery: A race-informed therapeutic approach to racial wounds. In A. N. Alvarez, C. T. H. Liang, & H. A. Neville (Eds.), Cultural, racial, and ethnic psychology book series. The cost of racism for people of color: Contextualizing experiences of discrimination (p. 249–272). American Psychological Association.[9]
  9. Hope, E. C., Hoggard, L. S., & Thomas, A. (2015). Emerging into adulthood in the face of racial discrimination: Physiological, psychological, and sociopolitical consequences for African American youth. Translational Issues in Psychological Science, 1(4), 342.[10]
  10. Helms, J. E., Nicolas, G., & Green, C. E. (2012). Racism and ethnoviolence as trauma: Enhancing professional and research training. Traumatology, 18(1), 65–74.[11]
  11. Pieterse, A. L., Todd, N. R., Neville, H. A., & Carter, R. T. (2012). Perceived racism and mental health among Black American adults: A meta-analytic review. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 59(1), 1.[12]
  12. Carter, R. T. (2007). Racism and psychological and emotional injury: Recognizing and assessing race-based traumatic stress. The Counseling Psychologist, 35(1), 13–105.[13]
  13. Franklin, A. J., Boyd-Franklin, N., & Kelly, S. (2006). Racism and invisibility: Race-related stress, emotional abuse and psychological trauma for people of color. Journal of Emotional Abuse, 6(2–3), 9–30.[14]
  14. Bryant-Davis, T., & Ocampo, C. (2005). Racist Incident–Based Trauma. The Counseling Psychologist, 33(4), 479–500.[15]

Clinical Work and Research[edit | edit source]

  1. FitzGerald, C., & Hurst, S. (2017). Implicit bias in healthcare professionals: A systematic review. BMC Medical Ethics, 18(1), 19.
  2. Malott, K. M., & Schaefle, S. (2015). Addressing clients’ experiences of racism: A model for clinical practice. Journal of Counseling & Development, 93, 361-369.
  3. Owen, J., Tao, K. W., Imel, Z. E., Wampold, B. E., & Rodolfa, E. (2014). Addressing racial and ethnic microaggressions in therapy. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 45(4), 283-290.
  4. Chapman, L. K., DeLapp, R. C. T., & Williams, M. T. (2013). Cognitive-behavioral treatment of social anxiety among ethnic minority patients, part 1: Understanding differences. Directions in Psychiatry, 33(3), 151-157.
  5. Chapman, L. K., DeLapp, R. C. T., & Williams, M. T. (2013). Cognitive-behavioral treatment of social anxiety among ethnic minority patients, part 2: Bridging the gap in treatment. Directions in Psychiatry, 33(3), 163-171.
  6. Neville, H. A., Awad, G. H., Brooks, J.E., Flores, M. P., & Bluemel, J. (2013). Color-blind racial ideology: Theory, training, and measurement implications in psychology. American Psychologist, 68(6), 455.
  7. Sue, D. W., Nadal, K. L., Capodilupo, C. M., Lin, A. I., Torino, G. C., & Rivera, D. P. (2008). Racial microaggressions against Black Americans: Implications for counseling. Journal of Counseling & Development, 86(3), 330–338.
  8. Sue, D. W., Capodilupo, C. M., Torino, G. C., Bucceri, J. M., Holder, A. M. B., Nadal, K. L., & Esquilin, M. (2007). Racial microaggressions in everyday life: Implications for clinical practice. American Psychologist, 62(4), 271–286.[16]
  9. Whaley, A. L., & Davis, K. E. (2007). Cultural competence and evidence-based practice in mental health services: A complementary perspective. American Psychologist, 62(6), 563.
  10. Whaley, A. L. (2001). Cultural mistrust: An important psychological construct for diagnosis and treatment of African Americans. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 32(6), 555-562.[17]
  11. Richardson, T. Q., & Molinaro, K. L. (1996). White counselor self‐awareness: A prerequisite for developing multicultural competence. Journal of Counseling & Development, 74(3), 238-242.
  12. Williams, M. T., Tellawi, G., Wetterneck, C. T., & Chapman, L. K. (2013). Recruitment of ethnoracial minorities for mental health research. The Behavior Therapist, 36(6), 151-156.
  13. Williams, M. T., Chapman, L. K., Wong, J., & Turkheimer, E. (2012). The role of ethnic identity in symptoms of anxiety and depression in African Americans. Psychiatry Research, 199, 31-36.
  14. Additional select readings on treatment adaptations for specific adult minority groups can be found here

Marginalized Groups and Doctoral Programs[edit | edit source]

  1. Hofstra, B. et al.. (2020). The diversity–innovation paradox in science. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 117(17), 9284-9291.
  2. Ahmad, A. S., Sabat, I., Trump, R., & King, E. (2019). Evidence-Based Strategies for Improving Diversity and Inclusion in Undergraduate Research Labs. Frontiers in psychology, 10, 1305.
  3. Perez, R. J. et al.. (2019). Graduate students’ agency and resistance after oppressive experiences. Studies in Graduate and Postdoctoral Education, 11(1), 57-71.
  4. Slay, K. E., Reyes, K. A., & Posselt, J. R. (2019). Bait and switch: Representation, climate, and tensions of diversity work in graduate education. The Review of Higher Education, 42(5), 255-286.
  5. Jones, H. A., Perrin, P. B., Heller, M. B., Hailu, S., & Barnett, C. (2018). Black psychology graduate students’ lives matter: Using informal mentoring to create an inclusive climate amidst national race-related events. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 49(1), 75.
  6. Griffin, K. A., & Muñiz, M. (2015). Rethinking the structure of student recruitment and efforts to increase racial and ethnic diversity in doctoral education. International Journal of Doctoral Studies, 10, 199-216
  7. Truong, K., & Museus, S. (2012). Responding to racism and racial trauma in doctoral study: An inventory for coping and mediating relationships. Harvard Educational Review, 82(2), 226-254.
  8. Gildersleeve, R. E., Croom, N. N., & Vasquez, P. L. (2011). “Am I going crazy?!”: A critical race analysis of doctoral education. Equity & Excellence in Education, 44(1), 93-114.
  9. Patton, L. D. (2009). My sister's keeper: A qualitative examination of mentoring experiences among African American women in graduate and professional schools. The Journal of Higher Education, 80(5), 510-537.
  10. Muñoz-Dunbar, R., & Stanton, A. L. (1999). Ethnic diversity in clinical psychology: Recruitment and admission practices among doctoral programs. Teaching of Psychology, 26(4), 259–263. https://doi.org/10.1207/S15328023TOP260403
  11. Effects of Race, Gender, Perceived Similarity, and Contact on Mentor Relationships (1997)
    • Ensher, E. A. & Murphy, S. E. (1997). Effects of race, gender, perceived similarity, and contact on mentor relationships. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 50, 460-481.

General Anti-Racism Education[edit | edit source]

1. Black Mental Health Resources

2. Not Exclusively Race-Related Equity Resources

3. For more general Anti-Racism Resources: (Link to HGAPS Anti-Racism Wiki Page)

Page Information[edit | edit source]

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References[edit | edit source]

Click here for references
  1. Eyongherok, Arrey Irenee, "Mental Health Disparities Among Minority Populations" (2019). Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies. 7639.
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