Health Education Development/Cooperative Learning Theory
This week look at cooperative learning theory, focusing on Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, but perhaps the more important tool is the Johari Window which can support you as you offer appropriate disclosures to and solicit adequate feedback from others. How can we use Cooperative Learning Theory to support our work in health education - which promotes health literacy? What would this be like if we think in terms of 'healthy learning', which is an emerging concept we will need to consider?
In your tutorial you will participate in and observe one more facilitated group activity. In following tutorials you will work in teams to prepare and facilitate a group activity of your own.
- Read the notes introducing this topic.
- Watch the videos in this topic's playlist Cooperative learning theory.
- Attend the lectorial (forthcoming 12 March 2014) or view the lectorial presentation or the notes.
- Before your tutorial get to know the Johari Window and Bloom's Taxonomy. Review Develop Communication Guidelines on page 27 of Cooperative Learning Group Activities
- Attend the tutorial and participate in the Develop Communication Guidelines on page 27 of Cooperative Learning Group Activities
- Review the Assessment and Feedback guide and review the Role Definitions (link forthcoming)
- Conclude forming your project team (<5 people) and together review the Cooperative Learning Contract. Your team contract should be completed before your team facilitates its second group activity.
- Delegate a Vulnerable Group to each team member, and collaborate with other teams in your workshop to gather information about each Vulnerable Group.
- Team to begin preparing to facilitate a group learning activity (assignment) selected from Cooperative Learning Group Activities. Be sure to include the Program Logic Narrative with the plan. This activity is to be delivered by your team in the tutorials. Please ensure your Plan and Logic addresses the issues of Vulnerable Groups and Principles of Cooperative Learning.
How can understanding Cooperative Learning Theory support HE Development Through Groups?
Be sure to keep up with your work each week. It is a lot like physical training. It is better to do a little bit each day with occasional breaks for rest. Trying to do everything all at once, and in a rush, will not leave sufficient time to wonder and suppose. While you watch a movie, television, or YouTube videos, think about what you are learning and how it might apply to your own personal life and the lives of those around you. They are your circles of influence and you, in turn, influence them. You can do good in the world. Over the years, I have spoken with many older people who survived the bombing blitzes in England during World War II. They had the most amazing stories to tell of how people would work together to keep up their morale. They had spent many nights as young people in the shelters with their neighbors. They typically grew close together emotionally and social, not just physically. Years later, they would remember those as the best years of their lives! Something was being taken away, there freedom and safety. But, something was given to them by their leaders: hope, courage and generosity. Even in anxiety producing situations which can, often, exacerbate depressive mood, it is possible to find joy and delight in the cooperation of others and in their genuine good will towards us. Something can open up deep inside of us that was closed off previously. You have been given tools to consider Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives. But, perhaps the more important tool is the Johari Window which can support you as you offer appropriate disclosures to and solicit adequate feedback from others. So, keep fighting fit with your friends and family! In a sense, that is the theme of this topic. How can we use Cooperative Learning Theory to support our work in health education which promotes health literacy? What would this be like if we think in terms of 'healthy learning', which is an emerging concept we will need to consider?
This week's topic will help ground you in a critical area of understanding the is the basis for our practice. Cooperative Learning has been around for a number of years. It has been particularly important in primary school work and, now, secondary school settings. Increasingly, it is making inroads into tertiary environments in general (Arendale 2004) and in as disparate fields as Engineering (Smith, Sheppard, Johnson & Johnson 2005) and Occupational Therapy (Nolinske & Milllis 1999). It is also being used in the workplace and workplace preparation programs (Australia) where it is often refered to as Team-based Learning (TBL) (Chad 2012). The ideas are based on a certain understanding of social psychology. Basically, we are all members of groups from our birth until our death. You cannot fully understand the person without knowing something about the relationships that they have with others in the groups to which they 'belong'. This is not to overlook the importance of the person as an individual. Yet, one of the important aspects of Cooperative Learning is to recognise Social Interdependence which is not the same thing as Social Dependence. This topic will help you prepare for both your critical essay assessment and will support your tutorial-based assessments. Be sure that you work through all of the learning outcome areas and consider how they support the enabling outcomes of your Subject Intended Learning Outcomes.
References and Resources
Arendale, D.R. (2004) Pathways of persistence: A review of postsecondary peer cooperative learning programs. In, Daranczky, I.M., Higbee, J.L. and Lundell, D.B. (Eds.) Best practices for access and retention in higher education. Minneapolis, MN: Center for Research on Developmental Education and Urban Literacy, General College, University of Minnesota, pp.27-40.
Chad, P. (2012) The use of Team-Based Learning as an approach to increased engagement and learning for marketing students: A case study. Journal of Marketing Education. 34(2):128-139.
Nolinske, T. and Millis, B. (1999) Cooperative learning as an approach to pedagogy. American Journal of Occupational Therapy. 53:31-40.
Smith, K.A., Sheppard, S.D., Johnson, D. and Johnson, R.T. (2005) Pedagogies of engagement: Classroom-based practices. Journal of Engineering Education. 94(1):87-101.
Upon completion of this topic, through your own investigations, group preparation, tutorial participation and lectorial explorations, you should be able to:
- Provide a basic description of the chief characteristics of Cooperative Learning Theory and outline the various activities associated with this approach to teaching and learning.
- Differentiate these characteristics from ‘traditional teaching and learning’ approaches and identify the basic requirements for using a cooperative or team-based approach to learning (CL or TBL).
- Evaluate the potential for enhancing group-based health literacy lessons in general and articulate potential use with specific health education theories and models (e.g., Health Belief Model, Theory of Reasoned Action, Stages of Change and Health Action Model).
- List the different barriers that might hinder the use of Cooperative Learning in terms of various groups (class, ethnicity, gender) and propose potential ways for dealing with these barriers which allow for the widest distribution of control over factors that influences our lives.