Health/Essays/Second hand smoking policies on college campuses

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Definition[edit]

Second hand smoke encompasses two types of smoking: mainstream and sidestream smoke. Mainstream smoking is the smoke exhaled by the smoker while sidestream smoke is the smoke from the end of a lit tobacco product. Nonsmokers are exposed to the dangerous chemicals, such as carcinogens like Radon, Benzene, and Nickel, without their consent.


History[edit]

As more research has been conducted, it is possible to determine that secondhand smoke have a negative impact on a nonsmoker. California drew national attention by becoming the first state to ban indoor smoking in workplaces including bars and restaurants.1 By 2009, 17 states have enacted 100% smoke free policies for all workplaces include bars and restaurants. Those states include: Arizona, Delaware, Hawaii, Illinois, Iowa, Maryland, Massachusetts, Minnesota, Nebraska, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Oregon, Rhode Island, Utah, Vermont, and Washington.2 Additionally, there are 437 municipalities with a local ordinance that requires bars and restaurants to be 100% smoke-free.2 Currently there are over 305 colleges and universities that have enacted 100% smoke-free policies on campus.3 Although accidents, suicides and homicides are among the leading causes of death among young adults, smoking kills more than alcohol, car accidents, suicides, AIDS, homicides, and illegal drugs combined.3 National-wide 71.8% of college students did not smoke in the past 30 days according to the Core Survey.4

Health Effects[edit]

Standford researchers have found that in order to avoid the negative effects of secondhand smoke, a nonsmoker must be 6 feet up-wind from the lit tobacco produce.5 The State of California has placed secondhand smoke on the most dangerous Class A carcinogen list.5 Furthermore there are more than 60 chemical compounds have been proven to be cancer-causing agents.5 The Surgeon General has stated that there is no risk-free level of exposure to second hand smoke.5 Secondhand smoke is not an incidental problem which only affects a few, select people. Secondhand smoke is the direct cause of more than 50,000 deaths among nonsmokers.6 3,000 nonsmokers will die because of lung cancer.6 The nonsmoking, asthmatic people will not only increase the number of attacks but also the severity of the attacks. These are all negative effects which the nonsmoker does not willing wish to participate in.


University and Colleges with 100% Smoke-Free Campuses by State7[edit]

Arkansas including 33 campuses

California Cuyamaca Community College Fresno Pacific University Grossmont Community College Mesa College Oxnard College Point Loma Nazarene University San Jose City College Santa Monica College Santa Rosa Junior College Simpson University Stanford University Medical School University of California - San Francisco University of California - Davis Medical School West Valley-Mission Community College District Woodland Community College

Connecticut Hartford Community College

Georgia Athens Technical College Darton College Gainesville College Georgia Highlands College Medical College of Georgia Southwest Georgia Technical College

Commonwealth of Guam University of Guam

Idaho Boise State University College of Southern Idaho Ricks College

Illinois Aurora University

Indiana Anderson University Associated Mennonite Biblical Seminary Bethel College Crossroads Bible College Goshen College Grace College Huntington University Indiana State University Indiana University System (9 campuses) Indiana Wesleyan University Ivy Tech State College System (23 campuses) Martin University Purdue University - North Central Purdue University - West Lafayette Taylor University Taylor University - Fort Wayne University of Indianapolis Valparaiso University

Iowa All Public and Private Colleges and Universities

Kansas Butler Community College - Andover

Kentucky Bellarmine University University of Kentucky Maine Kennebec Valley Community College

Maryland Columbia Union College Frederick Community College Garrett College Harford Community College Maryland Bible College and Seminary Montgomery College

Michigan Delta College Grand Rapids Community College Great Lakes Christian College Hope College Lansing Community College Saginaw Valley State University University of Michigan University of Michigan Medical School Washtenaw Community College

Minnesota Minnesota State University - Moorhead Minnesota West Community and Technical College Rasmussen College - Waite Park Ridgewater College University of Minnesota - Crookston University of Minnesota - Duluth Winona State University Missouri A.T. Still University of Health Sciences Kansas City University of Medicine and Biosciences Ozarks Technical Community College St. Charles Community College St. Louis Community College - Meramac St. Louis Community College - Wildwood University of Missouri - Columbia Washington University

Nebraska College of St. Mary's Mid-Plains Community College

New Jersey Bergen Community College Burlington County College County College of Morris Raritan Valley Community College

New York Cazenovia College D'Youville College Maria College Rockland Community College State University of New York - Buffalo SUNY - Upstate Medical University Wells College North Carolina Asheville-Buncombe Technical Community College Barber-Scotia College Bennett College Blue Ridge Community College Cape Fear Community College Central Carolina Community College Cleveland Community College College of The Albemarle Craven Community College Gardner-Webb University Greensboro College Guilford Technical Community College Haywood Community College High Point University Louisburg College Montreat College Peace College Richmond Community College Roanoke-Chowan Community College Stanly Community College Vance-Granville Community College Wayne Community College Wake Technical Community College Wingate University Winston-Salem State University

North Dakota Bismarck State College Jamestown College Minot State University University of North Dakota Valley City State University

Ohio Hocking College Malone College Miami University Mount Vernon Nazarene University Notre Dame College of Ohio Ohio Christian University University of Toledo - Health Science Campus Oklahoma Oklahoma Christian University Oklahoma City University Oklahoma State University - Tulsa Southern Oklahoma Technology Center University of Central Oklahoma

Oregon Mt. Hood Community College National College of Natural Medicine Oregon Coast Community College Oregon College of Oriental Medicine Oregon Health & Science University Portland Community College Western States Chiropractic College

Pennsylvania Montgomery County Community College Pennsylvania State System of Higher Education Reading Area Community College

South Carolina Lander University University of South Carolina - Upstate 7 campuses

South Dakota Oglala Lakota College

Tennessee Austin Peay State University East Tennessee State University Vanderbilt University Medical Center

Texas Alamo Community College District 7 campuses Midwestern State University Northwest Vista College San Jacinto College - South Campus Tarrant County College University of Texas Health Science Center - San Antonio

Utah Brigham Young University Washington Clark College

West Virginia West Virginia School of Osteopathic Medicine

Wisconsin Alverno College Chippewa Valley Technical College Medical College of Wisconsin Nicolet Area Technical College University of Wisconsin - Baraboo/County University of Wisconsin - Plattville Western Technical College

Colleges and Universities with Smoke-Free Policies expect minor exemptions for remote areas7[edit]

California Cabrillo College De Anza College Foothill College Golden West College Los Medanos College Mission College Monterey Peninsula College Moorpark College Ohlone College San Francisco State University San Joaquin Delta College Santa Ana College Santiago Canyon College Skyline College University of San Francisco West Valley-Mission Community College District

Colorado Naropa University University of Denver

Florida University of South Florida Georgia North Georgia College and State University

Indiana Ancilla College Ball State University Earlham College Holy Cross College Purdue University - Calumet Saint Mary-of-the-Woods College Tri-State University University of Notre Dame Vincennes University Maine University of Maine - Machias

Michigan Calvin College

Mississippi University of Mississippi

Missouri State Fair Community College

New Jersey Ocean County College

North Carolina Appalachian State University Belmont Abbey College Campbell University Catawba College Chowan University Elon University Pitt Community College Surry County Community College Western Piedmont Community College Wilkes Community College

Ohio Youngstown State University

Oklahoma Oklahoma State University - Stillwater

Pennsylvania Penn State University- Lehigh Valley

Texas Bucks County Community College Alvin Community College

See also[edit]

References[edit]

1. Tobacco Free CA. Retrieved September 20, 2009 from: http://www.tobaccofreeca.com/secondhand_smoke.html

2. American Nonsmokers’ Rights Foundtion. (2009). Overview List- How Many Smoke Free Laws? Retrieved September 20, 2009 from http://www.no-smoke.org/pdf/mediaordlist.pdf

3. American Cancer Society. (n.d). Cigarette Smoking. Retrieved September 20, 2009 from: http://www.cancer.org/docroot/PED/content/PED_10_2X_Cigarette_Smoking.asp?sitearea=PED

4. Center for Disease Control and Prevention (n.d). Factsheet: Adults Cigarette Smoking Retrived September 20, 2009 from: www.cdc.gov/tobacco/data_statistics/Factsheets/adult_cig_smoking.htm

5. CA. Gen Laws. Ch 1 § 3 (2008). http://info.sen.ca.gov/pub/07-08/bill/sen/sb_1551-1600/sb_1598_bill_20080506_amended_sen_v97.pdf

6. American Lung Association. (n.d). Secondhand Smoke Fact Sheet. Retrieved on September 20, 2009 from http://www.lungusa.org/site/pp.asp?c=dvLUK9O0E&b=35422

7. American Non-smokers’ Right Foundation. (2009). U.S.Colleges and Universities with Smoke-Free Policies. Retrieved on September 20, 2009 from http://www.no-smoke.org/pdf/smokefreecollegesuniversities.pdf