Happiness/Happiness research/Happiness, The Universal Law of/Consciousness & Free Will
تحول در فلسفه شرقى:
از جمادی مردم و نامی شدم
وز نما مردم به حیوان برزدم
مردم از حیوانی و آدم شدم
پس چه ترسم کی ز مردن کم شدم
حملهٔ دیگر بمیرم از بشر
تا بر آرم از ملایک پر و سر
وز ملک هم بایدم جستن ز جو
کل شیء هالک الا وجهه
بار دیگر از ملک قربان شوم
آنچ اندر وهم ناید آن شوم
Elementary particles are at the non-zero lower bound of consciousness (primitive existence). However, there is no upper bound for consciousness.
I think because I exist.
روزها فکر من این است و همه شب سخنم که چرا غافل از احوال دل خویشتنم
از کجا آمده ام آمدنم بهر چه بود به کجا میروم آخر ننمایی وطنم
مانده ام سخت عجب کز چه سبب ساخت مرا یا چه بوده است مراد وی از این ساختنم
آنچه از عالم عِلوی است من آن می گویم رخت خود باز بر آنم که همانجا فکنم
مرغ باغ ملکوتم نِیم از عالم خاک چند روزی قفسی ساخته اند از بدنم
کیست آن گوش که او می شنود آوازم یا کدام است سخن می کند اندر دهنم
کیست در دیده که از دیده برون می نگرد یا چه جان است نگویی که منش پیرهنم
تا به تحقیق مرا منزل و ره ننمایی یک دم آرام نگیرم نفسی دم نزنم
می وصلم بچشان تا در زندان ابد به یکی عربده مستانه به هم درشکنم
من به خود نامدم اینجا که به خود باز روم آنکه آورد مرا باز برد تا وطنم
تو مپندار که من شعر به خود می گویم تا که هشیارم و بیدار یکی دم نزنم
Is existence LAWFULL or PURPOSEFUL ?
ANY agent is aware of the environment it is in, even if it does not know the LAW. It obeys the LAW and the boundary conditions. It seems that consciousness is the essence of the Universe. When a neutron is confined in a stable nucleus, it respects the "box". When it is free, it decays into proton, electron, and an electron neutrino, in an exact fashion, still obeying the governing LAW in every respect (conservations of energy, momentum, angular momentum, lepton number, etc. ). The conservation laws are the constraints the process needs to respect to be able to exist. There is no free will at this stage. It is just the LAW to obey. Considering the history of any agent, every phenomenon that follows is Lawful. It is not purposeful. In other words, consciousness or awareness is the manifestation of the LAW. The more agent deviates from the LAW, the more it fatally suffers. This fact applies microscopically as well as macroscopically. This is true in a nucleus as well as in the complex system of any community. The only way we should expect a different outcome is to intrupt the course of a process, that is, to start with a different initial condition. There is a free will to decide to change the course of a process. Here is stage that purpose can play a role. Even after we willfully and purposefully change the initial conditions, what follows must respect the LAW precisely. So the choice of initial conditions are critical.
New Hooshang Haghbin
We are all perfect players of our roles in life but the roles we are supposed to play are wrong.
An old thought experiment may soon be realised
We believe philosophy is love of the wisdom in the existence. Hence, what follows is a philosophical discussion with the emphasis on the eastern philosophy outside the Abrahamic religions. We try to find the truth about the existence as a whole in which human, animal, and plant are only parts of the whole. We believe, human does not own the existence. We discuss parts of the existence within the whole.
Another concept that we use here is THE LAW. Law in economics leads to equality; in judicial process leads to justice; while in beauty leads to harmony; yet in government it leads to trust. In thermodynamics, Law that governs randomness leads to entropy. So, THE LAW has different meaning in different context. We hope the ideas presented here are studied carefully by critics and corrected. We believe any kind of brain washing, either done by individuals or state sponsored institutions can and should be considered as crime and prosecuted in the proper national or international court of law.
When an Agent, with no specific physical property, is trapped in an environment, it will respond in a certain fashion dictated by the constraints of the environment. Consider, for example, a particle in a box of length L, discussed in any elementary modern physics book. The agent must be absent on the edges of the box, ( its wave function vanishes at the locations of the edges), but is otherwise free in the box. It can also pick any of the allowed discrete energies determined by the parameter of the constraint, namely, L. The environment dictates the behavior of the particle. The dimension of the box can only specify the location and energy of the particle. It is somewhere in the box of side L, with some specific energy depending on L. The governing equation that is a common knowledge in modern science is called the Schrödinger equation. In other words, there is a governing law ( say, the Shrodinger equation ) and some boundary conditions ( say, do not be on the boundaries ) dictated by the environment. If the particle is willing to exist, it must obey the law and adjust to the constraint of the environment. According to Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle, finiteness of space-time leads to the energy-momentum of the agent. In other words, space-time causes the existence and the energy-momentum of the agent. It is commonly believed, in the scientific community, that the space-time itself is dynamic ( see Einstein’s General relativity and Loop quantum gravity ). Spacetime is not the stage for the agent to exist and behave in. It is also believed that the agent has a physical property, its mass, because it exists in the so-called Higgs field. It is reasonable to believe that there is only one kind of Agent as the building block of everything and one kind of Field with many different components. Different superpositions of these components leads to the existence of different agents. Also, different superpositions of these components leads to different physical properties of an agent. In other words, in the absence of the Field nothing exists. Different elementary particles with different physical properties are the same unique Agent in different superpositions of the Field components ( which form a complete set ). In other words, matter is excited states of the field which is present everywhere. The ground state of the Universe is the unique field. Spontaneous Fluctuations of the ground state is permitted by uncertainty principle. What is the Agent? What is the Field? What is the governing Law? Answers to these questions lead to the Theory of Everything! To start, it is logical to propose that the dynamical Space-Time is the source of everything. The law governing the dynamic of Space-Time is the governing LAW ( Einstein Equation is an approximation to the LAW; a quantum mechanical version of the equation, if developed, in Quantum gravity is a better approximation ). In short, the Universe Behaves by a LAW. Any thing which does not follow the Law is forced to be non-existent. Everything that happens in the Universe, means the LAW is obeyed, hence is just. There is no injustice. Lack of justice means not obeying the LAW which means non-existence. A beautiful artwork may break into pieces if dropped in Gravity. This event may be unfortunate, but it is lawful and just. The agent is aware of the environment it is in, even if it does not know the LAW. It obeys the LAW and the boundary conditions. It seems that consciousness is the essence of the Universe. When a neutron is confined in a stable nucleus, it respects the “box”. When it is free, it decays into proton, electron, and an electron anti-neutrino, in an exact fashion, still obeying the governing LAW in every respect (conservations of energy, momentum, angular momentum, lepton number, etc. ). The conservation laws are the constraints the process needs to respect to be able to exist. There is no free will at this stage. It is just the LAW to obey. Considering the history of any agent, every phenomenon that follows is Lawful. It is not purposeful. In other words, consciousness or awareness is the manifestation of the LAW. The more the agent deviates from the LAW, the more it fatally suffers. This fact applies microscopically as well as macroscopically. This is true in a nucleus as well as in the complex system of any community. The only way we should expect a different outcome is to intrupt the course of a process, that is, to start with a different initial condition. There is a free will to decide to change the course of a process. Here is stage that purpose can play a role. Even after we willfully and purposefully change the initial conditions, what follows must respect the LAW precisely. So the choice of initial conditions is critical. Consciousness is required when we have a CHANGE in the environment. Environment is represented by potential V(q) in, for example, particle in a box. A measure of consciousness is the change in the potential. A logical physical quantity quantifying consciousness is force. The larger the force, the consciousness is required the more. In the case of free particle in a box, boundaries are the only place the particle feels the change in the environment, hence the force at the boundary. Normal places in the box do not need awareness, hence no force. This conclusion applies equally well to the complex systems such as human beings. We do not use awareness for everyday habits. But we focus when we feel a change in the environment Consider another example. An individual notices an obstacle in two different circumstances 1) when he is walking. 2) when he is deriving. The process of
seeing the obstacle involves the light rays coming from the obstacle hiting his eyes. The only difference in light detections is that light is Duppler shifted more when he is deriving. But the individual needs more awareness in the second case. He is used to easy and simple small Duppler shifts encountered in his everyday walk and does not need full attention. But when deriving, he is used to notice the danger involved in the large Duppler shifts in the process of seeing an obstacles. In this example Duppler shift is a measure of consciousness. What does happen to the cells in his retina? Or even better, what does happen to the individual building blocks of retina when he detects more Duppler shift? Consider a more sophisticated example. Dad observes his daughter in two different moods, sad or happy. What is the difference in the light detections of the two emotional events? Now what does happen in his retina? We need to include emotions in physics! Are light rays coming from different moods have different QUALITIES? This is absent in our physics and physicists. In this project, we are hoping to include these QUALITIES in physics. We have modified classical mechanics to quantum mechanics, for example, quantitatively but not “qualitatively”. Can we please modify classical mechanics of dead systems to classical mechanics of live systems, before we look for “the theory of everything!” in the dead systems? Ok. If physicists insist to define a Die Broglie wave length, a quantity, in terms of Plank’s constant and momentum, let’s define a Die Broglie quality as well, not in terms of two other quantities but in terms of two qualities. Maybe, we have to define quantified qualities corresponding to ALL of the present physical quantities. If they insist to postulate the Heisenberg uncertainty relations between any two conjugate pair of present physical quantities, fine! But let’s define the same for the relevant pair of qualities. After all, to measure a QUANTITY in a system, we must have an observer to interact with it, force the wave function to collapse. What I am asking is to include the observer as part of the system. If we need an ensemble of observers, so be it. We have all the time on the time continuum! when an electron comes out of an ionized atom, it has an energy of order ev. It has been trapped in an atomic size box. When a nucleus decays an electron, on the other hand, the electron has an energy of order of MeV. It has been trapped in a nuclear size box. (Uncertainty principle does not permit electron in the nucleus of the present known size).So far so good. But, did these two electrons suffer the same in different prisons? Consider another electron being accelerated to MeV range through a long period of time also. If you extend your same humanitarian feelings towards human beings, animals, and plants to these electrons too, you would say, the electron that freed from nucleus has suffered the most. We should be able to tell by looking at it MORE CLOSELY. We already dared to define quantum numbers like strangeness, charm, beauty, …. We called them INTRINSIC. Why do we not assign real charm, beauty, shame, …, quantum numbers to elementary particles? Or consider the intrinsic quantities as QUALITIES. Design new logical conservation laws. Including these quantum numbers in the formulations, should logically lead to collective consciousness. The level of consciousness for different species is, of course, different. Let revisit the daughter above. She feels sad/happy even if her dad does not observe her sadness/happiness. What is the difference of the the two realities, namely, observing and not observing the sadness/happiness of your daughter? She is sad/happy in either case. With exchange of quality light rays, back and forth, the daughter finds some comfort/joy (allowed by the quality uncertainty principle).
The unique microscopic agent discussed above, being the building block of everything, has been researched extensively through out the history. We will start from a system of many indistinguishable, non-interacting agents and extend the analysis to a complex system of many, interacting agents. This is the primary goal of this project. We welcome any help along the way from you the readers. In this blog we will make a number of simplifying assumptions as we progress. Consider a cell of radius R trapped in a spherical box. The spherically symmetric potential it experiences is represented by V(r). Hamiltonian operator is H(r,p)=Kinetic energy operator + V(r), Where p is its momentum vector. This leads to the well known Schrodinger equation which was studied in details. If V(r)=0 for all r, then the solutions are complete set of Spherical Bessel functions and spherical Harmonics ψ(kr)=A(klm) j(kr,l) Y(l,m); sum over repeated indices k,l,m, If V(r)=a constant for 0<r<R and 0 otherwise, then the radial solutions are Bessel functions for inside R and Hankel functions outside R. When matched at r=R, energy becomes quantized for confined states E<V. If V=0 inside and infinite outside R, ( impenetrable wall at R ) then wave function vanishes outside. But the wave functions inside is still Spherical Bessel functions. Matching leads to the (k)th zero of these functions, u(k,l), hence again quantization of energy. (Energy is proportional to square of u(k,l) and inversely proportional to square of R). For l=0, we have an expression for energy in closed form. If the binding force is isotropic harmonic oscillator (i.e. frequency is the same in all 3 directions), energy is quantized but only depends on the fundamental frequency of the oscillator. Wave functions are generalized Laguerre polynomials. The governing LAW is the same Schrodinger equation in all cases, but the behavior of the the cell depends on the constraint parameters of its environment. Matching the wave functions at the boundaries dictates the choices of the cell how to behave. In these cases, boundary is manifested itself in the shapes and values of the potentials that the cell experiences. Matching process is, in fact, forcing the cell to behave according to the constraints of its environment. See: https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Particle_in_a_spherically_symmetric_potential. Another effect of environment that demands adjustment of behavior is the symmetries. Examples of Noether’s theorem: if the Law governing a process is invariant under space (or time) translation, then linear momentum (or energy) is conserved. If the space is isotropic, angular momentum needs to be conserved in any process. The constraints of conservations imposed on the processes are properties of environment, not the processes’ or agents’. Agent does not need to posses any symmetry to be required to obey conservation constraints Noether’s Theorem: any symmetry property leads to a conservation constraint. For details see: https://www.google.com/search?q=noether’s+theorem&ie=UTF-8&oe=UTF-8&hl=en-us&client=safari.
When an agent is not localized, it is represented by a plane wave. It’s energy, e and momentum, k satisfy, e=k =M, It’s wave function is Exp(kx-et)i. When it is localized in a finite spacetime, it is a wave packet; a superposition of plane waves of different energies and momenta with specific amplitude for each component. Then it’s average energy, E and average momentum, P satisfy, E^2=P^2+m^2=M^2, Where m is the mass due to localization and M its total mass. When we talk about a particle of mass m in a box, we really mean a wave packet in a box. Interactions of an agent with its environment is represented by a potential (or a constraint) V(q), where q, the generalized coordinates, are the degrees of freedom for the agent( say position, time, momentum, …). The agent is quantified by a Lagrangian L(q) or a Hamiltonian H(q). The evolution (or behavior) of the agent in its environment is governed by a Law (say differential equations, like Shrodinger equations, Dirac equations, Klein Gordon equations, Maxwell equations, …). The solutions to the governing equations leads to the probability of finding the agent in a specific state. Depending on the symmetries of the Lagrangian for example, or the constraints imposed by the potential ( say boundary conditions) leads to the specific choices the agent can have. In other words, the agent is aware of its environment and adjust its behavior according to the governing Law and the environmental constraints. This argument applies to a simple system like an elementary particle or a complex system. Therefore, awareness or consciousness is in the nature or universe itself and is not specific to plants or animals. The level of awareness is different for different systems. In the following projects, we try to elaborate on this conclusion. The Universe may be considered as an isolated system. As a thermodynamic system, it constitutes an energy reservoir at a few degrees Kelvin average temperature. It is evolving towards an equilibrium state. Possibly, its average temperature increases if the principle of entropy increase allows it. As a classic mechanical system, it can be considered as a collection of subsystems whose center of mass is moving with constant velocity V (due to isotropy, or lack of reasonable anisotropy, V=0). Classically, it exists “now”, existed in the “past”, and might exist in the “future”. Hence, classically, existence exists surely and only for a moment called “now”. As a quantum mechanical system, it is infinitely extended in space. Its Heisenberg uncertainty in space is infinitely large, hence uncertainty in its momentum and energy is infinitesimally small. Therefore, its uncertainty in time is infinitely large! Classically, it acts like a moving delta function ( a pinched Gaussian) in spacetime, considering the motion of its center of mass. But, Quantum mechanically, it is widely extended in space and time. For a macroscopic system, like universe, we expect to reach the same conclusion from both quantum and classical mechanics. Recall the cold, dark, bottomless Fermi sea resulted from covariant Dirac equation. This Sea is the most ordered, homogeneous, and isotropic configuration of a Universe at its ground state. This could be also considered as an isolated thermodynamic system at absolute zero degree Kelvin temperature with zero (or minimum) entropy. In thermodynamic philosophy, any real system can be found in infinitely close to this state. This state can be called Vacuum state which is not physically observable. According to Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle, though, spontaneous Quantum fluctuations is unavoidable. These fluctuations lead to creation of observable matter, whose absence (hole or void) in the Sea manifests the so called antimatter (lack of matter ). In the process of creation of matter, entropy, randomness, temperature, and observable energy increase. The Unobservable Vaccuum Universe evolves into an observable Universe. Evaporation of matter from the top of Fermi sea results in shallower Energy reservoir ( less energy available to tap into). The gap between the top of negative energy sea and bottom of positive energy states is 2M, where M is the mass of the building blocks of both Vaccuum and observable Universes. If this mass M is infinitely small, then, tapping into the Vaccuum energy reservoir is an easier task (smaller energy fluctuations is needed to lead to the observable Universe). Dirac equation provides the states that can, potentially, be occupied by the building blocks. In this model of the Universe, the building blocks are fermions satisfying Pauli Exclusion Principle. No two fermions can be in the exact same state. Therefore, the Vaccuum and the observable Universe must extend into all space and all other quantum degrees of freedom. It is reasonable to conjecture that the Vaccuum and the observable Universe has stationary center of momentum, due to lack of any preferred direction. Dirac equation, in fact, describes a universe of infinitely many identical interacting particles in which the very short range, pairwise, Pauli repulsion is replaced by anti-commutation relations of gamma matrices. It does not describe a single particle or particle-atiparticle pair, like electron-positron pair. It describes infinitely many electrons interacting pairwise by Pauli repulsion. Hole or moving backward in time interpretation is, in fact, just an interpretation. In fact, the Pauli repulsion is a delta function interaction. It is infinite repulsion when two particles occupy the same state. When two fermions are in the same spin state, spacial potential is very short ranged repulsive. When they are paired in opposite spin states, the pairs tend to bunch together like Cooper pairs, hence the spacial potential is attractive which leads to Bose condensation. Therefore, symmetric wave functions for bosons and anti symmetric wave function for fermions is the result of the type of potentials they experience. I would like to discuss a few ideas from the old Eastern Philosophy. With a little reflection, we can summarize: 1) Zurvan was the God of infinite space-time. He wished to have a child. After 1000 years of wishing, he doubts if it is possible. He created finite space-time out of infinite space-time. He begot two children of opposite characters, one from his wish and the other from his doubts. 2)World consisted of two domains, Darkness and Light, ( again two opposites), separated by a void. The people of darkness lived bellow the void and the people of light lived above the void. After some specific time, people of light were supposed to dominate the people of darkness. If we investigate a little deeper, filtering out the superstition, it is very comparable to Dirac Theory. Observable universe and domination of matter over antimatter (lack of matter) is the conclusion. The axiom is existence versus non-existence. The existence is manifestation of dynamic infinite space-time in finite space-time, and uncertainty principle. please see: https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zurvanism
From Zurvan, at every moment "Now", a pair of opposites are born, interacting with each other, " war". Vay , " the war field" is the medium of interaction of opposites. Let discuss a little history. Any identity has a history which is carried with it and is part of its identity, actually, its whole identity. The identity “exists” now, “existed” in the past and “evolves” into the future. Identity is timeless, in the sense that its past, now, and the future collectively define the same identity. I have my parents in me, my son is me in the future. I live partly as my grandfather, he is in me. We do not grow old and die. We just live, timelessly. My father did not have my life in him. But I do his. I am his future. Any identity is manifestation of its history. In this sense, every identity is unique. This applies to ANY identity. Electrons are not indistinguishable. We tell them apart by looking at their historical records. One is coming from an atom that was ionized. The other came from a neutron which decayed. I do not dare to say they are indistinguishable. When we remember something, we review the “past” that is in us. Dreaming is also part of this history. Yes, I have an “Adam and Eve” in me, and yes I carry their Sins! You need to take them to court for their sins not me! I might also have Cyrus the Great and his wife and their characters in me. Praise them for their characters not me. I only added seventy years to the endless history of my fathers, and he added to his. I am, partly, responsible for my “free” will (if any!) actions in only last seventy years. Again, whatever applies to me and my ancestry, applies equally well to an electron and its ancestry. If my decision making, my “free will”, is influenced by the constraints of my environment, there is, in fact, no free will. Under these circumstances, every event is justified. We are back to the starting point. If you are not happy with the outcomes, change the environment. Start with a fresh, well studied local boundary conditions, at least in the close vicinity of your immediate interests.
Let us start with a different issue. In ancient times, people were nomads, extending their living domains to large area. Their philosophical thoughts were in Cosmos. They worshipped sun, moon, …. They sacrificed to what they were scared of. Remember the uncertainty principle. They started to stay in smaller domain and cultivate to produce. This led to more energy. Cities were erected. Empires were built. We had the most advanced civilizations thousands years ago. Philosophically, we came down to earth instead of heavens. We earned more wisdom. We learned that existence is lawful (Please look up the concept of "Asha" introduced by Zoroaster). This trend did not progressed forward. Philosophers, religious leaders, magi, “wise men”, went backwards in time to nomadic philosophies. Existence is believed to be purposeful again. Civilizations started to degrade gradually. About 2000 years ago, empires started to weaken. About 1400 years ago, civilizations were destroyed by heavenly forces. Technologically, we progressed to present time, but morality has not changed much. Heavenly forces are still strong.