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Mutations are changes in DNA that affect the order of nitrogen bases.
Mutagens are factors in the environment that causes mutations.

Changes in chromosome structure[edit | edit source]

Chromosome mutations are changes in genetic material that involve entire chromosomes or pieces of them.

  • Deletion occurs when one or more genes may be lost entirely during division if crossover during meiosis is unequal.
  • Duplication results when the unequal crossover causes a duplication in some of the genes.
  • Translocation occurs when a piece of chromosome attaches to a chromosome in a different pair.
  • Inversion occurs when a piece of a chromosome breaks free and reattaches itself in a reverse order.