General Biology/Animal Development

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  • A Body-Building Plan
  • model organism;
  • embryonic development;

Fertilization and cleavage initiate embryonic development[edit]

Fertilization[edit]

  • fertilization;
  • acrosomal reaction; acrosome; acrosomal process;
  • fast block to polyspermy;
  • cortical reaction;
  • slow block to polyspermy;
  • formation of the fertilization envelope;
  • egg activation;
  • fertilization in mammals;
  • zona pellucida;

Cleavage[edit]

  • cleavage; blastomeres; blastula; blastocoel;
  • cleavage pattern in frogs;
  • yolk; vegetal pole; animal pole;
  • cleavage furrow;
  • cleavage patterns in other animals;
  • holoblastic;
  • meroblastic;
  • regulation of cleavage;

Morphogenesis in animals involves specific changes in cell shape, position, and survival[edit]

  • morphogenesis; gastrulation; organogenesis;

Gastrulation[edit]

  • gastrula; germ layers; ectoderm; endoderm; mesoderm;
  • gastrulation in sea urchins;
  • archenteron; blastopore;
  • gastrulation in frogs;
  • gastrulation in chicks;
  • epiblast; hypoblast; primitive streak;
  • gastrulation in humans;
  • Developmental Adaptations of Amniotes
  • amniotes; embryo;

Organogenesis[edit]

  • neurulation;
  • notochord; neural plate; induction;
  • neural tube; spina bifida;
  • cell migration in organogenesis;
  • neural crest; somites;
  • organogenesis in chicks and insects;

Mechanisms of Morphogenesis[edit]

  • cytoskeleton;
  • convergent extension;
  • cell adhesion molecules; extracellular matrix (ECM);
  • programmed cell death; apoptosis;

Cytoplasmic determinants and inductive signals contribute to cell fate specification[edit]

  • determination; differentiation;
  • developmental biology;

Fate Mapping[edit]

  • fate maps;
  • axis formation;
  • position of the anterior-posterior axis;
  • cortical rotation;
  • restricting developmental potential;
  • totipotency;

Cell Fate Determination and Pattern Formation by Inductive Signals[edit]

  • “organizer” of Spemann and Mangold;
  • formation of the vertebrate limb; pattern formation; positional information;
  • apical ectodermal ridge (AER);
  • zone of polarizing activity (ZPA);

Cilia and Cell Fate[edit]

  • tationary primary cilia, or monocilia;


Reference[edit]

  • Jane B. Reece et al.(2014), Campbell Biology Tenth Edition, Chapter 47. Animal Development