***This page is flagged for merging with the /Instruments/Mood_Disorders_Questionnaire page, and then deletion.
Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ)[edit | edit source]
This page goes into detail about how to score and interpret the MDQ. It is a companion page to the general description on Wikipedia.
The Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ) is a brief screen to improve detection of bipolar disorders. It generally shows good sensitivity to bipolar I, but has a harder time detecting the other types of bipolar disorders. It is not designed to measure current symptom severity or treatment response. It is one of the most translated and studied screening tools for bipolar disorders. Its brevity and simple reading level add to its popularity, along with it being free, fast to take and score.
Versions[edit | edit source]
- What are the versions of this test that exists, if any? For each section, there should be a description of the test.
- If there are multiple versions, why was the most recent one created? (Usually DSM update or norm update, among other reasons)
- What is its intended population, number of questions and acronyms?
Norms and Reliability[edit | edit source]
Norms[edit | edit source]
The MDQ was originally developed and validated in a large sample in the United States. Later studies used large clinical samples, online surveys distributed by advocacy groups, and other convenience samples. There are no carefully designed and stratified samples intended to be representative of a general population. Thus the MDQ fits as having "adequate" normative data based on the large number of convenience samples. Several meta-analyses have summarized the performance of the MDQ scores across the range of published languages, clinical settings, and administration formats.
Reliability[edit | edit source]
Reliability refers to whether the scores are reproducible. Unless otherwise specified, the reliability scores and values come from studies done with a United States population sample.
|Criterion||Rating (adequate, good, excellent, too good*)||Explanation with references|
|Norms||Adequate||Multiple convenience samples and research studies, including both clinical and nonclinical samples|
|Internal consistency||Good?||Cronbach's alpha usually reported based on the symptom items (not the "episodic" or impairment items. These|
|Inter-rater reliability||Not applicable||Designed originally as a self-report scale; parent and youth report correlate about the same as cross-informant scores correlate in general|
|Test-retest reliability (stability||Good||r = .73 over 15 weeks. Evaluated in initial studies, with data also show high stability in clinical trials|
|Repeatability||Not published||No published studies formally checking repeatability|
Validity describes the evidence that an assessment tool measures what it was supposed to measure. There are many different ways of checking validity. For screening measures such as the CAGE, diagnostic accuracy and discriminative validity are probably the most useful ways of looking at validity.
Validity[edit | edit source]
Validity describes the evidence that an assessment tool measures what it was supposed to measure. There are many different ways of checking validity. For screening measures, diagnostic accuracy and discriminative validity are probably the most useful ways of looking at validity. Unless otherwise specified, the validity scores and values come from studies done with a United States population sample. A rubric for describing validity of assessment scores in the context of EBA is here.
|Criterion||Rating (adequate, good, excellent, too good*)||Explanation with references|
|Content validity||Excellent||Covers both DSM diagnostic symptoms and a range of associated features|
|Construct validity (e.g., predictive, concurrent, convergent, and discriminant validity)||Excellent||Shows convergent validity with other symptom scales, longitudinal prediction of development of mood disorders, criterion validity via metabolic markers and associations with family history of mood disorder. Factor structure complicated; the inclusion of “biphasic” or “mixed” mood items creates a lot of cross-loading|
|Discriminative validity||Excellent||Multiple studies show that GBI scores discriminate cases with unipolar and bipolar mood disorders from other clinical disorders effect sizes are among the largest of existing scales|
|Validity generalization||Good||Used both as self-report and caregiver report; used in college student as well as outpatient and inpatient clinical samples; translated into multiple languages with good reliability|
|Treatment sensitivity||Good||Multiple studies show sensitivity to treatment effects comparable to using interviews by trained raters, including placebo-controlled, masked assignment trials Short forms appear to retain sensitivity to treatment effects while substantially reducing burden|
|Clinical utility||Good||Free (public domain), strong psychometrics, extensive research base. Biggest concerns are length and reading level. Short forms have less research, but are appealing based on reduced burden and promising data|
Development and history[edit | edit source]
- Why was this instrument developed? Why was there a need to do so? What need did it meet?
- What was the theoretical background behind this assessment? (e.g. addresses importance of 'negative cognitions', such as intrusions, inaccurate, sustained thoughts)
- How was the scale developed? What was the theoretical background behind it?
- How are these questions reflected in applications to theories, such as cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT)?
- If there were previous versions, when were they published?
- Discuss the theoretical ideas behind the changes
Impact[edit | edit source]
- What was the impact of this assessment? How did it affect assessment in psychiatry, psychology and health care professionals?
- What can the assessment be used for in clinical settings? Can it be used to measure symptoms longitudinally? Developmentally?
Use in other populations[edit | edit source]
- How widely has it been used? Has it been translated into different languages? Which languages?
Research[edit | edit source]
- Any recent research done that is pertinent?
Limitations[edit | edit source]
- If self report, what are usual limitations of self-report?
- State the status of this assessment (is it copyrighted? If free, link to it).
See also[edit | edit source]
Here, it would be good to link to any related articles on Wikipedia. As we create more assessment pages, this should grow.
[edit | edit source]
Example page[edit | edit source]
References[edit | edit source]
- Achenbach, TM; McConaughy, SH; Howell, CT (March 1987). "Child/adolescent behavioral and emotional problems: implications of cross-informant correlations for situational specificity.". Psychological Bulletin 101 (2): 213–32. PMID 3562706.
- Depue, Richard A.; Slater, Judith F.; Wolfstetter-Kausch, Heidi; Klein, Daniel; Goplerud, Eric; Farr, David (1981). "A behavioral paradigm for identifying persons at risk for bipolar depressive disorder: A conceptual framework and five validation studies.". Journal of Abnormal Psychology 90 (5): 381–437. doi:10.1037/0021-843X.90.5.381.
- Klein, DN; Dickstein, S; Taylor, EB; Harding, K (February 1989). "Identifying chronic affective disorders in outpatients: validation of the General Behavior Inventory.". Journal of consulting and clinical psychology 57 (1): 106–11. PMID 2925959.
- Mesman, Esther; Nolen, Willem A.; Reichart, Catrien G.; Wals, Marjolein; Hillegers, Manon H.J. (May 2013). "The Dutch Bipolar Offspring Study: 12-Year Follow-Up". American Journal of Psychiatry 170 (5): 542–549. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.2012.12030401.
- Reichart, CG; van der Ende, J; Wals, M; Hillegers, MH; Nolen, WA; Ormel, J; Verhulst, FC (December 2005). "The use of the GBI as predictor of bipolar disorder in a population of adolescent offspring of parents with a bipolar disorder.". Journal of affective disorders 89 (1-3): 147–55. PMID 16260043.
- Depue, RA; Kleiman, RM; Davis, P; Hutchinson, M; Krauss, SP (February 1985). "The behavioral high-risk paradigm and bipolar affective disorder, VIII: Serum free cortisol in nonpatient cyclothymic subjects selected by the General Behavior Inventory.". The American journal of psychiatry 142 (2): 175–81. PMID 3970242.
- Klein, DN; Depue, RA (August 1984). "Continued impairment in persons at risk for bipolar affective disorder: results of a 19-month follow-up study.". Journal of abnormal psychology 93 (3): 345–7. PMID 6470321.
- Pendergast, Laura L.; Youngstrom, Eric A.; Brown, Christopher; Jensen, Dane; Abramson, Lyn Y.; Alloy, Lauren B. (2015). "Structural invariance of General Behavior Inventory (GBI) scores in Black and White young adults.". Psychological Assessment 27 (1): 21–30. doi:10.1037/pas0000020.
- Danielson, CK; Youngstrom, EA; Findling, RL; Calabrese, JR (February 2003). "Discriminative validity of the general behavior inventory using youth report.". Journal of abnormal child psychology 31 (1): 29–39. PMID 12597697.
- Findling, RL; Youngstrom, EA; Danielson, CK; DelPorto-Bedoya, D; Papish-David, R; Townsend, L; Calabrese, JR (February 2002). "Clinical decision-making using the General Behavior Inventory in juvenile bipolarity.". Bipolar disorders 4 (1): 34–42. PMID 12047493.
- Youngstrom, Eric A.; Genzlinger, Jacquelynne E.; Egerton, Gregory A.; Van Meter, Anna R. (2015). "Multivariate meta-analysis of the discriminative validity of caregiver, youth, and teacher rating scales for pediatric bipolar disorder: Mother knows best about mania.". Archives of Scientific Psychology 3 (1): 112–137. doi:10.1037/arc0000024.
- Alloy, LB; Abramson, LY; Hogan, ME; Whitehouse, WG; Rose, DT; Robinson, MS; Kim, RS; Lapkin, JB (August 2000). "The Temple-Wisconsin Cognitive Vulnerability to Depression Project: lifetime history of axis I psychopathology in individuals at high and low cognitive risk for depression.". Journal of abnormal psychology 109 (3): 403–18. PMID 11016110.
- Klein, Daniel N.; Dickstein, Susan; Taylor, Ellen B.; Harding, Kathryn (1989). "Identifying chronic affective disorders in outpatients: Validation of the General Behavior Inventory.". Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 57 (1): 106–111. doi:10.1037/0022-006X.57.1.106.
- Youngstrom, EA; Findling, RL; Danielson, CK; Calabrese, JR (June 2001). "Discriminative validity of parent report of hypomanic and depressive symptoms on the General Behavior Inventory.". Psychological assessment 13 (2): 267–76. PMID 11433802.
- Findling, RL; Youngstrom, EA; McNamara, NK; Stansbrey, RJ; Wynbrandt, JL; Adegbite, C; Rowles, BM; Demeter, CA et al. (January 2012). "Double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled long-term maintenance study of aripiprazole in children with bipolar disorder.". The Journal of clinical psychiatry 73 (1): 57–63. PMID 22152402.
- Youngstrom, E; Zhao, J; Mankoski, R; Forbes, RA; Marcus, RM; Carson, W; McQuade, R; Findling, RL (March 2013). "Clinical significance of treatment effects with aripiprazole versus placebo in a study of manic or mixed episodes associated with pediatric bipolar I disorder.". Journal of child and adolescent psychopharmacology 23 (2): 72–9. PMID 23480324.
- Ong, ML; Youngstrom, EA; Chua, JJ; Halverson, TF; Horwitz, SM; Storfer-Isser, A; Frazier, TW; Fristad, MA et al. (1 July 2016). "Comparing the CASI-4R and the PGBI-10 M for Differentiating Bipolar Spectrum Disorders from Other Outpatient Diagnoses in Youth.". Journal of abnormal child psychology. PMID 27364346.