Ethical medical research/In papyro, in silico, in situ, and in vitro guide

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Jmol screenshot 2hvy.jpg

This is a resource for non-animal medical testing. Pertaining to this are in papyro, in silico, in situ, and in vitro studies. An explanation of the tools and resources in virtual testing will be shown.


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External multimedia: Computer aided drug design





Electronic hardware specific[edit]

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Research chemicals, petri dishes, test tubes and other lab equipment can be bought online. Organ-on-a-chip is in plans to be manufactured by Sony with the co-development by Harvard's Wyss Institute to be accessible to the marketplace.[6] Several organ type organ-on-a-chips are in development. Currently cell cultures in petri dishes or test tubes are used, which has some limitations.


Microdosing uses less than a salt grain size of a chemical to be tested.


  1. OptFlux: an open-source software platform for in silico metabolic engineering, BMC Systems Biology, 2010, doi:10.1186/1752-0509-4-45, PMC 2864236CS1 maint: PMC format (link)
  2. Biology enters 'The Matrix' through new computer language, Harvard Medical School; Eurek Alert!, 2008
  3. "What scientists can see in your pee", PLOS One, September 5, 2013, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0073076 More than one of |work= and |journal= specified (help)
  4. FAF-Drugs: free ADME/tox filtering of compound collections, Nucleic Acids Research, July 14, 2006, doi:10.1093/nar/gkl065, PMC 1538885CS1 maint: PMC format (link)
  5. "Database of disease genes shows potential drug therapies", Nature Methods, Medical Xpress, October 13, 2013, doi:10.1038/nmeth.2689 More than one of |work= and |journal= specified (help)
  6. Harvard’s Wyss Institute teams with Sony to advance organs-on-chips, Boston Business Journal, 2013